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Louisiana History Journal



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CABEZA DE VACA, Alvar Núñez, soldier, explorer. Born, Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, ca. 1490; son of Francisco de Vera and Teresa Cabeza de Vaca. Served in military campaigns in Italy, Spain, and Navarre, 1511-1526. As treasurer and alguacil mayor, 1527 joined expedition of Panfilo Narvaez, who had been granted right to colonize Florida. Expedition landed in western Florida, north of St. Petersburg, 1528; separated from ships; suffered series of misfortunes: storms, Indian attacks, and illness. Built barges in which survivors sailed along Gulf Coast, including Louisiana, encountered the mouth of the Mississippi River. Shipwrecked on island off coast of Texas; captured by Indians. Cabeza de Vaca eventually escaped and made his way through Texas and Mexico, arriving in Mexico City, 1536. Returned to Spain, 1537. Commanded colony of Rio de la Plata in South America, 1542-1544; arrested and shipped back to Spain. Imprisoned 1551-1556. Died, Spain, 1557. P.B. Sources: Morris Bishop, The Odyssey of Cabeza de Vaca (1933; reprint ed., 1971); Cleve Hallenback, Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca: The Journey and Route of the First European to Cross the Continent of North America (1939; reprint ed., 1971); Eduardo Cárdenas, ed., 20,000 Biografías Breves (1963).

CABLE, George Washington
, author. Born, New Orleans, October 12, 1844; son of George Washington Cable and Rebecca Boardman. Left school at age 14 to support family after death of father. Civil War service in Mississippi. After war became columnist and reporter for New Orleans Picayune, but a bookkeeper by profession. Married (1) Louise Bartlett, 1869. Seven children. Married (2) Eva Stephenson of Lexington, Ky., 1906. Married (3) Mrs. Hanna Cowing, December 16, 1922. Gradually moved from bookkeeping to writing. Principal works: Old Creole Days (1879), The Grandissimes (1880), Madame Delphine (1881), Dr. Servier (1884), The Silent South (1885), Bonaventure (1888), The Negro Question (1890), John March, Southerner (1895), The Cavalier (1901), Bylow Hill (1902), Kincaid's Battery (1908), Gideon's Band (1914), and Lovers of Louisiana (1918). Participated in a joint reading tour with Mark Twain, 1884-1885. Removed to Northhampton, Mass., 1885, remaining there most of his life. Cable's books and stories were particularly appreciated in the North where his depictions of New Orleans and Louisiana plantation country were regarded as superior regional literature, but his fellow New Orleanians, especially the Creoles, fiercely criticized him for his depiction of Southern attitudes and practices, including the treatment of blacks in the post-Reconstruction era. Described by one New Orleanian as a "'strict Presbyterian … and did not favor drinking, card-playing or the stage.' Later in life his moral strictness … relaxed sufficiently to allow him to go to the theater and to consent to the dramatization of his novel, The Cavelier." Not until the twentieth century was he appreciated by his fellow New Orleanians, receiving an ovation after a speech before the Louisiana Historical Society in 1915. Died, St. Petersburg, Fla., January 31, 1925. L.I.W. Sources: Lucy Leffingwell Cable Bikle, George W. Cable: His Life and Letters (1928); Charles P. Butcher, George W. Cable … (1959); Griffith T. Pugh, George Washington Cable, a Biographical and Critical Study (1947); Louis D. Rubin, Jr., George W. Cable: the Life and Times of a Southern Heretic (1969); Arlin Turner, George W. Cable, A Biography (1956); New Orleans Times-Picayune, February 1, 1925.

CABRINI, Mother Frances Xavier
, religious. Born, St. Angelo, Lodigiano, Italy, July 15, 1850; daughter of Stella Oldini and Agostino Cabrini. Education: taught by older sister until age 13; sent to Convent of the Sacred Heart at Arluno; pursued a normal school course; received a normal school certificate from the magisterial institute at Lodi. Career: ministered to poor and sick of her parish, 1868-1872; taught public school for two years; took charge of orphans' home in Cocogno, 1874; founded the Institute of the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, 1880. Immigrated to the United States, 1889; began work among Italian immigrants in New York City; founded Columbus Hospital, 1891. Removed to New Orleans, 1892; bought a tenement house on St. Philip Street which she turned into a convent with a chapel, a day school, and an orphanage; sisters acted as midwives, spoke to seamen and dock workers about the sacraments, and accompanied the bishop on visits to the poor on plantations upriver. To conduct their work, she and her sisters begged for alms on the streets of New Orleans. Left New Orleans but returned in 1905 to enlarge the St. Philip Street house; another orphanage was built on donated land near Bayou St. John on Esplanade Avenue; the St. Philip Street building was turned into a school; in 1928 it became the Cabrini Day Nursery, one of the city's first day-care centers, which it remains to the present. Became a naturalized American citizen in 1900. Died, Chicago, Ill., December 22, 1917. In 1933 her body was removed from its first tomb at West Park, N.Y., and placed under the main altar of the chapel at Mother Cabrini High School, New York City. She was beatified by the Roman Catholic church in November 1938 and canonized in 1946, the first American to be so honored. J.B.C. Sources: Mary Gehman and Nancy Ries, Women & New Orleans (New Orleans, 1985); The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York, 1936), XXVII.

CADE, Charles Taylor, businessman, politician. Born, Lafayette Parish, La., September 24, 1849; son of Robert Cade and Martha Marsh. Scout during Civil War. Education: Spring Hill College, Mobile, Ala.; University of the South, Sewanee, Tenn. Married Elizabeth Ker, daughter of David Ker and Sarah Brownson. Children: two daughters; one son, Charles Taylor Cade, Jr. Captain of cavalry company, Iberia Guards, local militia unit, after Civil War. A "redeemer" in post-Reconstruction politics. Served on Iberia Parish Police Jury; sheriff, Iberia Parish, 1892-1900. Strong voice in South Louisiana Democratic politics. Removed to High Island, Tex.; rancher, hotel owner. Died, Mineral Wells, Tex., March 6, 1912; interred New Iberia, La. G.R.C. Sources: Glenn R. Conrad, New Iberia: Essays on the Town and Its People (1986); New Iberia Enterprise, March 12, 1912.

CADE, John Brother, academic, author. Born, Dansburg, Ga., October 19, 1894; son of William Richard and Sarah Frances (Bradford) Cade. Education: local schools; Atlanta Univiversity, A. B., 1921; University of Chicago, A. M., 1928. Military service: volunteer in the Seventeenth Provisional Training Camp at Des Moines, Iowa, June 1917, commissioned second lieutenant, assigned for duty to Camp Dodge, Iowa, with Company F, 366th Infantry; served overseas from June 15, 1918, to February 22, 1919, being honorably discharged March 31, 1919. After World War I, resumed teaching; instructor, Paine College (Georgia), 1922-1929; registrar, Southern University, 1930-1931; registrar, Prairie View College (Texas), 1931-1938; returned to Southern University where he served in various posts, 1938-1961, including dean of Liberal Arts, dean of the College. After retirement, he remained as acting director of Archives until 1968. Married Jessie Mae Maben, June 4, 1924. Children: Jessie Lola (b. 1924), John Brother, Jr. (b. 1932). Authored: Twenty-Two Months with Uncle Sam (1929); By Their Fruits (1962); Holsey: The Incomparable (1964); A Man Christened Josiah Clark (1966), and numerous articles. Member, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, and Post 502 of the American Legion. Died, Jackson, La., January 31, 1970; interred Southern Memorial Gardens, Baton Rouge. C.V. Sources: Thomas Yenser, ed., Who's Who in Colored America, 6th ed. (1941-1944); Baton Rouge Sunday Advocate, February 1, 1970; Southern University Archives; John B. Cade, Jr. (telephone interview, September 6, 1982, Baton Rouge).

CADILLAC, Antoine Laumet
, dit Antoine de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac, governor. Born, Laumets, Gascony, France, March 5, 1658; son of Jean Laumet, a minor magistrate. Went to Acadia; June 25, 1687, married Marie-Thérèse Guyon, claiming in marriage certificate to be son of Jean de la Mothe, seigneur de Cadillac, de Lassaye and de Semontel, and Jeanne de Malentauz. Lived in Acadia until 1691. Went to Quebec, was commissioned in the troops of the marine by Governor-general Louis de Buade, comte de Frontenac. Named governor of Michilimackinac, 1694; founded Detroit, 1701. At odds with Jesuits and Governor Philippe de Rigaud, marquis de Vaudreuil; recalled to France, 1710. Named governor of Louisiana, May 5, 1710. Convinced Antoine Crozat (q.v.), wealthy financier, to accept proprietary control of the colony. February 6, 1713, sailed for Louisiana aboard the Baron de la Fauche with his wife and family, Commissaire-ordonnateur Jean-Baptiste du Bois Duclos (q.v.), and twelve marriageable girls. Quarrelled with Duclos on board, and feuded with him throughout their tenure. Unimpressed with Louisiana, declared the colony "not worth a straw." Appalled at the colony's flouting of civil and religious authority, tried in vain to curb colonial "immorality." Faced bitter opposition of Ordonnateur Duclos and former governor Jean-Baptiste LeMoyne de Bienville (q.v.) who criticized Cadillac's handling of Indian affairs. On order of the minister, investigated Bienville, accused of embezzlement, no conclusive results. Sent Louis Juchereau de St.-Denis (q.v.) to trade with Mexico. Explored Upper Louisiana (Illinois country) in search of mines and found a copper mine: wrote enthusiastic reports of potential mineral wealth. Recalled to France, March 3, 1716. Opposed John Law's mendacious propaganda and was consequently sent to the Bastille on September 27, 1717. Freed February 8, 1718, subsequently received back pay. Purchased governorship of Castel-Sarrasin (Tarn-et-Garonne). Died there, October 16, 1722. M.A. Sources: Bibliothèque Nationale, Fond fr., N.A. 9274/9279, 9299; B.N., Mss. Clairambault, 849,882; Marcel Giraud, Histoire de la Louisiane française, vol. II, Années de transition (1715-1717) (1958); Yves F. Zoltvany, "New France and the West, 1701-1713," Canadian Historical Review, XLVI (1965); "Antoine Laumet, Sieur de Cadillac," Dictionary of Canadian Biography, II (1969); Articles by Jean Delanglez, S. J., in Mid-America: "Cadillac's Early Years in America," XXVI (1944); "Antoine Laumet alias Cadillac," XXVII (1945); "The Genesis and Building of Detroit," XXX (1948); "Cadillac at Detroit," XXX (1948); "Cadillac, Proprietor of Detroit," XXXII (1950); "Cadillac's Last Years," XXXIII (1951).

CAFFERY, Donelson [II]
, attorney, planter, U. S. senator. Born Franklin, La., September 10, 1835; son of Donelson Caffery [I] and Lydia Murphy. Educated locally and in Maryland; studied law at University of Louisiana (now Tulane University). In Civil War, fought at Battle of Shiloh, first lieutenant, C.S.A., 1862-1865. Admitted to Louisiana bar, 1866. Delegate to state constitutional convention, 1879 (successfully opposed repudiation of Louisiana's bonded indebtedness from Reconstruction era); elected as Anti-Lottery Democrat to state senate, 1892; appointed by Gov. Murphy J. Foster (q.v.) to complete unexpired term of deceaed U. S. Senator R. L. Gibson (1893-1895 [q.v.]); elected by legislature in 1894 to subsequent term, 1895-1901. Did not seek re-election; returned to private law practice, sugar planting, 1901-1906. Caffery was an unswervingly loyal Cleveland Democrat in the U. S. Senate, opposing free silver, protective tariffs, war with Spain, Hawaiian annexation and acquisition of the Philippines. His stands on money and the tariff questions terminated Caffery's political future; Louisiana Democrats regarded him as a renegade and outcast after 1896, a view which Caffery himself intensified by supporting the gubernatorial candidacy of his son, Donelson [III], on a Populist-Republican ticket in 1900. On the other hand, Caffery retained wide respect personally for his courage and outspokenness. Married Bethia Richardson, daughter of Bethia Frances Liddell and Francis D. Richardson (q.v.) of St. Mary Parish. Children: Donelson, Jr., Earl, Frank, Edward (q.v.), Charles, John (q.v.), Liddell, Gertrude, and Bethia. Member: Presbyterian church. Died, New Orleans, La., December 30, 1906; interred Franklin Cemetery, Franklin, La. M.T.C. Sources: L. R. Caffery, "The Political Career of Senator Donelson Caffery" (M.A. thesis, Louisiana State University, 1935); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, December 31, 1906.

CAFFERY, Edward
, diplomat. Born, Haifleigh Plantation, St. Mary Parish, La., February 14, 1889; son of Donelson Caffery (q.v.) and Bethia Richardson. Education: schools at Washington, D. C., New Orleans, Covington, La.; Princeton University; University of Virginia. Married Daphne Winchester Gillis of New Orleans. Children: Susan W., Nanette C., Chloe F., Lila. World War I service: held rank of lieutenant. Diplomatic service: citizenship and notarial officer, U. S. embassy, Bucharest, Rumania, 1922-1923; director, Budapest, Hungary, consulate, 1924; transferred to Havana, Cuba, 1925; director, Havana consulate, 1925; director, U. S. consulate, San José, Costa Rica, 1928-1931; consul general, U. S. consulate, Niagara Falls, Canada, 1931-1940. World War II service: major, U. S. Army Intelligence Service. Died, Nashville, Tenn., August 16, 1982; interred Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans. C.A.B. Sources: The Nashville Tennessean, August 17, 1982; New Orleans Times-Picayune, August 17, 1982.

CAFFERY, Jefferson
, diplomat. Born, Lafayette, La., December 1, 1886; son of Charles Duval Caffery and Mary Catherine Parkerson. Education: private school; Southwestern Louisiana Industrial Institute (now the University of Southwestern Louisiana); Tulane University, B. A., 1906. Admitted to the Louisiana bar, 1909. Entered the diplomatic service of the United States with appointment as second secretary of legation at Caracas, Venezuela, 1911. Served forty-four years as a professional diplomat under eight presidents, from Taft to Eisenhower. Married Gertrude McCarthy of Evansville, Ind., 1937, in Rio de Janeiro. No children. Awarded the Foreign Service Cup, 1971, by his fellow Foreign Service officers. Held several honorary degrees and numerous decorations including Notre Dame University's Laetare Medal, 1954. Received the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor from the president of France, 1949, and the Order of the Cordon of the Republic from the president of Egypt, 1955. Retired in 1955 to reside with Mrs. Caffery in Rome, Italy, where he acted as honorary private chamberlain to three popes. Returned to Lafayette, 1973, shortly before Mrs. Caffery's death. Died, Lafayette, April 13, 1974; interred St. John's Cemetery. P.F.D. Sources: Robert Foster Corrigan, "An Appreciation of a Diplomat," Foreign Service Journal, XLIV, No. 11 (November, 1967); Philip F. Dur, "Jefferson Caffery of Louisiana: Highlights of His Career," Part I: 1911-1933, Louisiana History, XV (1974); Philip F. Dur, "Jefferson Caffery of Louisiana: Highlights of His Career," Part II: 1933-1944, Louisiana History, XV (1974); Philip F. Dur, "Jefferson Caffery in Iran," Foreign Service Journal, LVI, No. 11 (December, 1980); Philip F. Dur, Jefferson Caffery of Louisiana: Ambassador of Revolutions (1982); Steven P. Sapp, "Jefferson Caffery, Cold War Diplomat: American-French Relations, 1944-1949," Louisiana History, XXIII (1982); Philip F. Dur, "Conditions for Recognition," Foreign Service Journal, LXII, No. 8 (Sep¬tember, 1985); Philip F. Dur, "Ambassador Caffery and the French Alliance," Louisiana History, XXVII (1986).

CAFFERY, John Murphy
, businessman, politician. Born, Bethia Plantation, near Franklin, La., September 14, 1877, fifth child of Senator Donelson Caffery (q.v.) and Bethia Richard¬son (1846-1917). Education: private schools in Franklin; Chamberlain-Hunt College in Port Gibson, Miss.; United States Naval Academy (class of 1901). Served in the Navy until 1907. Entered oil business in Jennings, La., after leaving service. Returned to Franklin in 1910 and became manager of Columbia Sugar Co. and later a vice president of the St. Mary Bank and Trust Co. Married Mary Temperence Frere, daughter of Alexander G. Frere, a former St. Mary Parish sheriff, and Lula (Clegg) Frere, in Franklin, October 26, 1901. Children: John Murphy, Jr. (b. 1910), Donelson Thomas (b. 1912), Mary (b. 1914), Clegg (b. 1915), and Lydia (b. 1925). Member of the state senate representing St. Mary and Vermilion parishes, 1928-1932. Also served on the St. Mary Parish Police Jury, the Democratic State Central Committee, and the board of commissioners of the Franklin Drainage District. Died, Franklin, January 31, 1958. D.M.K. Sources: Alcée Fortier, ed., Louisiana (1914), III; Edwin Adams Davis, The Story of Louisiana (1960), III.

CAGLE, Christian Keener "Red"
, athlete. Born, Merryville, La., May 1, 1904; son of T. J. Cagle. Education: Merryville High School; Southwestern Louisiana Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana), 1922-1925; U. S. Military Academy, 1926-1930. Football career: outstanding football player at Southwest Louisiana Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana) and West Point; named to two major All-American lists, 1927; concensus All-American, 1928-1929; winner of College Football Player of the Year Award (equivalent of modern-day Heisman Trophy); named by Sports Illustrated to its College Football Team of the 1920s; coach, Mississippi A & M College, 1930; professional football (mostly with the New York Giants), 6 years. Co-owner, Brooklyn Dodgers professional baseball team, 1933-1934. Married, August 25, 1928, Marian Mumford Haile, of New Roads, La. One son. Died, New York City, December 23, 1942; interred New Roads. A momument was erected to his memory, New Roads, December 23, 1957; Cagle later inducted into the USL Hall of Fame. C.A.B. Sources: Prides of Acadiana (1980); New Orleans Times-Picayune, October 1, 1961; New Orleans States-Item, November 14, 1974; Baton Rouge Morning Advocate, December 29, 1957; New York Times, Decem¬ber 24, 1942; records, registrar's office, University of Southwestern Louisiana.

CAILLOUET, Adrian Joseph
, attorney, jurist. Born, Thibodaux, La., February 19, 1883; son of Marie Adèle Lagarde and Judge Louis P. Caillouet (q.v.). Education: L. M. Hargis private school; Thibodaux College; St. Mary's College, Lebanon, Ky., graduated 1902; received honorary Master of Arts degree in 1921. Married: Effie Amelia Briggs, September 29, 1909. Children: L. Philip, Raymond A., Bernard J., and A. J., Jr. Read law in Thibodaux, 1908-1913; admitted to the bar, 1913; practiced law in Thibodaux until 1915; practiced law in Houma, 1915-1940. Appointed to the federal judgeship of the Eastern District, May 1, 1940, by Franklin D. Roosevelt on the recommendation of Senator Allen Ellender (q.v.); was an authority on the Napoleonic Code. Member: national, state, and local bar associations; Knight of St. Gregory, charter member, Thibodaux Knights of Columbus, organizer of Houma K of C council; Holy Name Society; a founder of the Houma Chamber of Commerce. A Roman Catholic and a Democrat. Died, New Orleans, December 19, 1946; interred St. Joseph Cemetery, Thibodaux. J.B.C. Sources: Judges of the United States (1978); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, December 20, 1946; Baton Rouge Morning Advocate, obituary, December 20, 1946.

CAILLOUET, Louis Abel
, clergyman. Born, Thibodaux, La., August 2, 1900; son of Judge Louis Philip Caillouet (q.v.) and Marie Adèle Lagarde. Education: Doucet School, Mt. Carmel Academy, and Thibodaux College, all in Thibodaux, 1908-1914; St. Joseph Seminary in St. Benedict, Louisiana, 1914-1919; St. Mary's Seminary in Baltimore, 1919-1921, B.A., 1920, M.A., 1921; Propaganda Fide University in Rome, 1921-1925; S.T.L., 1924. Ordained to the priesthood in Rome, March 7, 1925. Substitute vicar at St. John the Baptist Parish, Brusly, La., 1925; assistant at St. Joseph, Baton Rouge, 1925-1935; administrator of Our Lady of Perpetual Help, Kenner, 1935-1938; pastor of St. Eloi, Bayou du Large, 1938-1944, where he built chapel and established school for Chitimacha Indians; pastor of St. Joseph, Baton Rouge, 1944-1951; pastor of Our Lady of Rosary, New Orleans, 1951-1975. Consecrated titular bishop of Setea, October 28, 1947; auxiliary to Archbishops Joseph Rummel (q.v.), 1947-1964, John Cody, 1964-1965, and Philip Hannan, 1965-1984; vicar general, 1962-1976 and interim administrator, 1965, of Archdiocese of New Orleans. First episcopal moderator to national Apostleship of the Sea, 1951-1960. Participant in all four sessions of Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965, keeping detailed journal of the proceedings and people. Recipient of Star of the Sea Award, 1981. Rector of National Shrine of Our Lady of Prompt Succor and chaplain to Ursuline Academy and Convent in New Orleans, 1975-1984. Died, New Orleans, September 16, 1984; interred St. Joseph Cemetery, Thibodaux. E.C.W. Sources: Bishop L. Abel Caillouet Papers (including personal journals and taped/written recollections) in Archives of the Archdiocese of New Orleans; Clarion Herald, September 20, 27, 1984.

CAILLOUET, Louis Philip
, journalist, attorney, jurist, and Catholic lay leader. Born, Chackbay, La., October 28, 1853; son of Lucien Joseph Caillouet and Eveline Benoit Caillouet. Education: local schools of Thibodaux, Raceland and Catholic boarding schools along the Mississippi River; St. Vincent College, Cape Girardeau, Mo., graduated 1875. Returned to Thibodaux, employed by local newspaper, The Sentinel; later became paper's owner, editor and publisher. Read law and admitted to bar, elected district attorney of Lafourche-Assumption, 1888, and district judge, 1892; named to Circuit Court of Appeals, 1907. Represented Lafourche Parish in Louisiana's constitutional conventions, 1898 and 1921. Active in Knights of Columbus; elected state deputy, 1909-1911. Dubbed Knight of St. Gregory by Pope Pius XI, 1925. Married Marie Adèle Lagarde, Thibodaux, May 12, 1880. Children: Edwin, attorney; Adrian (q.v.), attorney and later federal judge; Lucien (q.v.), Catholic priest; Marie, secretary-housekeeper to brother Lucien; Alban, assistant secretary of Louisiana Tax Commission for many years; Philip, died as an infant; Adele and Irene, both active in church work and later in caring for parents; Heloise, Discalced Carmelite nun, Foundress and Prioress of Lafayette Carmel; Abel (q.v.), priest and later auxiliary bishop of New Orleans. Died July 27, 1935; interred Thibodaux. L.A.C.† Source: L. Abel Caillouet Family Papers.

CAILLOUET, Lucien Joseph
, clergyman. Born, Thibodaux, La., Decmber 29, 1894; eighth child of Judge Louis Philip Caillouet (q.v.) and Marie Adèle Lagarde. Education: Attended private school in Thibodaux; entered St. Joseph Seminary, St. Benedict, La., September 1907. The seminary buildings destroyed by fire two months later, he attended Holy Cross College, New Orleans, and the re-opened seminary in Carrollton (uptown New Orleans), returning to St. Benedict in September 1908. He matriculated at the American College, University of Louvain, Belgium, autumn, 1913. The outbreak of World War I forced him to continue his philosophical and theological studies at Fribourg, Switzerland. Returned to U. S. as deacon; ordained to priesthood July 25, 1918, in chapel of Academy of the Sacred Heart, New Orleans. First appointment to St. Louis Cathedral, July-December 1918; then to St. Joseph Church, Baton Rouge, January 1919 to August 1920. Initial pastorate at Sts. Peter and Paul Church, Lobdell; in 1928 the former Holy Family Mission of Port Allen became the church parish seat and he was named first pastor. On October 25, 1934, appointed pastor of St. Agnes, Baton Rouge, organizing there a parochial school. On June 1, 1938, transferred to St. Francis de Sales, Houma, embellished church interior and planned new elementary-secondary school. Became pastor of Our Lady of Lourdes Church, New Orleans, built a million-dollar school. Stayed at Lourdes from 1946 to 1968, the fiftieth anniversary of his ordination, when he retired from active ministry. Named vicar general, April 27, 1946; domestic prelate, September 3, 1943; and prothonotary apostolic, June 10, 1947. Last residence at the Chateau de Notre Dame. Died, October 7, 1980; interred priests' tomb, St. Joseph Cemetery, Thibodaux, La. H.C.B. Sources: Typescript by Bishop L. Abel Caillouet, D.D., Archives of the Archdiocese of New Orleans and of parishes served by subject.

CAIRE, Etienne Joseph, planter, retailer, pharmacist. Born, Edgard, La., September 17, 1869; son of Jean-Baptiste Caire and Félicie Burcard. Attended Jefferson College, Convent, La. Married Laura Hymel. Children: Etiennette Marie, Laurence, Eugénie, Thérèse, Sidney, James, Raymond, and Denis. A founder of the Bank of St. John. President and director, Bank of Donaldsonville; director, Hibernia National Bank; director, D. H. Holmes Co., Ltd. Founder, 1922, of the retreat program for laymen at Manresa, Convent, La. A Knight of Columbus; member, St. Vincent de Paul Society, Holy Name Society, a trustee of St. John the Baptist Catholic Church, Edgard. Dubbed Knight of St. Gregory, 1929, by Pope Pius XI. A past grand knight of Knights of Columbus. A Republican. Died, Edgard, La., July 16, 1955; interred St. John the Baptist Catholic Church Cemetery, Edgard. M.G.K. Source: Family papers.

CALDER, Lavinia
, educator. Born, Charlestown, Mass., November 17, 1805. About 1822, with sisters Anne, Amanda, and Theodosia joining her at later intervals, she became associated with James A. Ranaldson's (q.v.) Society Hill Seminary, West Feliciana Parish, La., teaching the Female Branch. From 1825 to 1834(?) the Misses Calder had their own lyceum at Society Hill before moving to Wilkinson County, Miss., where they established Mt. Hope Academy and were associated with the Wilkinson Female Academy. Lavinia married Levi Blount (1787-1850) ca. 1840. Died, Woodville, Miss., April 3, 1888; interred Grace Church Cemetery, St. Francisville, La. E.K.D. Sources: Louisiana Journal, October 4, 1828; Florida Gazette, June 27, 1829; Woodville Republican, December 21, 1832; West Feliciana Parish Records; parish register, Grace Episcopal Church, St. Francisville, La.; Dunbar Rowland, History of Mississip¬pi. . . , 2 vols. (1925), II.

CALDWELL, Beverly C., president of Louisiana Normal School. Born, Hopkinsville, Ky., July 12, 1856; son of Isaac H. Caldwell and Evaline Sharp. Education: public schools, Kentucky and Illinois; Southern Illinois Normal School. Married, July 22, 1886, Ida R. Underwood. One daughter: Elizabeth C. Teaching career: public schools, Hickman, Ky., 1877-1878; Glasgow, Mo.; Moline, Ill.; Louisiana Normal School (now Northwestern State University), 1894-1912; president, Louisiana Normal School, 1900-1912. Died, Jacksonville, Ill., January 2, 1941. C.A.B. Source: Opelousas Daily World, February 4, 1970.

CALDWELL, George A.
, contractor. Born, Abbeville, La., August 24, 1892; son of Charlie Caldwell and Camille LeBlanc. Married, December 11, 1948, Margaret Longmire of Baton Rouge. State superintendent of construction, mid-1930s: supervised construction of nine buildings on Louisiana State University campus, New Orleans Municipal Auditorium, Bolton High School of Alexandria, and the Ouachita Parish Courthouse. Sentenced, February 13, 1940, to four years in Atlanta Federal Penetentiary for tax evasion and kickbacks received on LSU buildings; paroled September 1941; pardoned by President Truman, 1948. General contractor: built twenty-six major buildings throughout the state, including six hospitals, East Baton Rouge Parish and Webster Parish courthouses; the Louisiana State Library; the Louisiana State University Library (Baton Rouge); the state highway department office building; five churches; two church youth centers; five schools; the Grambling University Science Building; and the dairy and physics buildings at LSU-Baton Rouge. Member: Catholic church. Died, Baton Rouge, March 12, 1966. C.A.B. Sources: Biographical data, vertical file, Louisiana State Library, Baton Rouge; Baton Rouge State-Times, March 12, 1966; New Orleans Times-Picayune, March 13, 1966.

CALDWELL, James Henry
, actor, theater manager, businessman. Born, Manchester, England, ca. 1793. First appeared as child actor at Manchester or Sheffield, England. Brought to Charleston, S. C., in October 1816 by Joseph George Hollman and gave first performance in November as Belcour in The West Indian. In December 1817, he began managerial career at Alexandria, Va. In 1818, built a theater at Petersburg, Va., and also presented a play at Richmond. Married, apparently last week of November, 1819, Maria Carter Wormeley, who had two sons—Carter and John—by a previous marriage. This new marriage resulted in two additional children—William Shakespeare and Sophia (Sophy) Caldwell. Caldwell toured with theatrical company and in fall of 1819 went to New Orleans. Built Camp Street Theater in New Orleans at cost of $70,000 and although it was still not finished, opened it on May 14, 1823. It was the first important structure in the new Second (American) Municipality; theater formally opened on January 1, 1824. Meanwhile, Caldwell continued to tour eastern theaters during summer until 1825 at which time he began tours of towns in the South and Southwest—called "Pioneer of Drama in the South." Brought competent actors and good plays to the region and became the most important theatrical person there. Built theaters in Cincinnati, Nashville, Mobile, and converted a salt house in St. Louis into a theater. Introduced gas lighting into American Theater in New Orleans and organized a company to supply gas lighting for the city; received charter on March 1, 1833. Began operations in 1834 but Caldwell sold his interest in 1835. Established similar companies in Cincinnati and Mobile and these were his principal sources of wealth in later years. Opened St. Charles Theater in New Orleans on November 12, 1835; was the most magnificent theater in the South and one of the largest in the country; burned in March, 1842. Caldwell retired from theatrical activity on January 14, 1843, and thereafter devoted his time to several official positions in New Orleans. Two sons born during this time as result of liaison with Margaret Abrams—James Henry Caldwell, Jr. (b. 1837) and Edward Holland Caldwell (b. 1844). Caldwell commissioned as captain in Louisiana Militia, Forty-second Regiment of First Brigade, December 7, 1842. He was a member of the Second Municipality Council for last ten years of its existence and then served as recorder. When New Orleans reverted to one complete city government, he was elected to board of aldermen and served as president of that body, 1855-1856. Served a term in Louisiana house of representatives, 1858-1860; in 1857, became principal stockholder in Bank of James Robb; had extensive real estate holdings in New Orleans and elsewhere. Meanwhile, in private life, divorced first wife Maria sometime before 1850. Married Josephine Rowe, daughter of George and Louisa Rowe on May 22, 1850. Son, Harry Stroud Caldwell, born to this union but died at age five. Josephine died on September 16, 1857. Caldwell left New Orleans between February and October, 1862; was living in Cincinnati as of October 6, 1862; by August 29, 1863, was in New York City. In feeble health for some time. Died, New York City, September 11, 1863. Services held on September 14, at St. Patrick's Cathedral. Caldwell then taken back to New Orleans. Services again held on October 11, 1863, at Dead Church on Rampart St. with burial in Fireman's Cemetery. K.H. Sources: Paul Smith Hostetler, "James H. Caldwell: Theatre Manager" (Ph. D. dissertation, LSU, 1964); Nellie Smither, A History of the English Theatre at New Orleans, 1806-1842 (1944); Lucile Gafford, "A History of the St. Charles Theater in New Orleans, 1835-43" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1930); New Orleans Daily Picayune, September 22, 1863; Noah H. Ludlow, Dramatic Life as I Found It … (n.d.); Solomon Franklin Smith, Theatrical Management in the West and South for Thirty Years.

CALDWELL, Samuel S.
, politician, oilman. Born, Mooringsport, La., November 4, 1892; son of Samuel A. Caldwell and Alice Jeter. Education: Mooringsport School; Louisiana Tech. Worked for nine years at Kansas City Southern in accounting and auditing departments. Worked seven years for Shell Petroleum, part of which time was spent as assistant superintendent of the land department. After leaving Shell he went on to become an independent oil operator. Served as Caddo Parish police juror. Mayor of Shreveport, 1934-1946. Campaigned unsuccessfully for governor against Jimmie Davis, 1944. Merged the city and parish boards of health into one unit. Oversaw the stocking of Cross Lake. Married Anna Pauline Owen of Monroe, La., 1914. One child: Betty Ann (b. 1923). Member, First Presbyterian Church, Masons. Died, August 14, 1953. P.L.M. Source: Lilla McLure and J. Ed Howe, History of Shreveport and Shreveport Builders (1937).

CALDWELL, Stephen Adolphus
, academic. Born, Bienville, La., March 1, 1889; son of J. D. Caldwell and Cordelia Whitney. Education: Louisiana State University, A. B., 1925; University of Texas, A. M., 1927, Ph. D., 1934. Married Grace Martin, June 1, 1929. Two children. Principal, Ringgold High School, 1911-1914; principal, Amite City High School, 1914-1915; superintendent, Morehouse Parish Schools, 1915-1922; associate professor, Louisiana Tech, 1922-1926; instructor, University of Texas, 1931-1934; dean, Northeast Junior College (now Northeast Louisiana University), Monroe, 1936-1937; assistant professor and professor, LSU, 1934-1944; dean, Junior Division, LSU, 1944-1956. Author: A Banking History of Louisiana (1935); Economic Development of the Shreveport Trade Area (1943). Contributed articles to law, business, and social science journals. Member and past president, Istrouma Area Council, Boy Scouts of America; member and past president, Baton Rouge Lions Club; district governor, Lions International. Died, Baton Rouge, April 16, 1956; interred Roselawn Memorial Park. G.R.C. Sources: Who Was Who in America, III, 1951-1960; Baton Rouge Morning Advocate, April 17, 1956.

CALHOUN, Meredith
, planter. Born, South Carolina, 1805. Removed to Rapides Parish, La., ca. 1830. Married Mary Smith, daughter of William Smith, a state senator. Children: William Smith, (b. 1835 or 1836) and Marie Marguerite Ada (b. ca. 1845). Purchased 14,000 acres of land from his father-in-law who had acquired it in 1836. Divided riverfront acreage into four plantations; planted 5,000 acres in cotton and sugarcane; had one of the largest sugar mills in the state; his estate was valued at over one million dollars in the 1860 census. "Calhoun's Landing," an important plantation shipping point, was the beginning of the present town of Colfax, La. Purchased a weekly newspaper, the Red River Democrat and renamed it the National Democrat; used newspaper to support the Douglas-Johnson political ticket in the political election of 1860. Reportedly died after 1866. Wife died June 11, 1871. Son Willie became a state senator and was responsible for Grant Parish being formed from Rapides. P.K.B. & J.B.C. Sources: Red River Republican, Red River Democrat, Shreveport Times; Rapides and Grant Parish courthouse records; United States Census Records; Mary Fletcher Harrison and Lavina McGuire McNeely, Grant Parish, Louisiana, A History (1969).

CALLENDER, Alvin Andrew
, World War I fighter pilot. Born, New Orleans, July 4, 1893; son of James Callender and Sarah Seago. Education: Boys High School; Tulane University. Military service: Louisiana National Guard, Washington Artillery, served on the Mexican border. Joined the Royal Flying Corps in Canada, 1917; received commission and became flight instructor; received final training at the Central Flying School in England. Piloted combat planes for the Royal Air Force, May-October 1918. Promoted to rank of captain, September 1918; commanded 'C' flight in No. 32 Squadron, Royal Air Force. Killed in action, October 30, 1918. New Orleans' first municipal airport was dedicated in 1926 and named Alvin Callender Field. The name was retained when the field was taken over by the U. S. Naval Air Force in the 1950s. J.B.C. Sources: Gordon W. Callender, Jr., and Gordon W. Callender, Sr., eds., War in an Open Cockpit: The Wartime Letters of Captain Alvin Andrew Callender, R. A. F. (1978).

CALLIOUX, André, cigar maker, soldier, hero of Port Hudson. Born, 1820. Raised regiment after Gen. Benjamin F. Butler (q.v.) arrived at New Orleans in 1862. He was born a free man of color and was quite wealthy. Callioux's "identity with his race could not be mistaken," for he proudly boasted that he was the blackest man in New Orleans. On May 27, 1863, the two black regiments of the Louisiana Native Guards were ordered to charge Port Hudson, an important Confederate stronghold. As Captain Callioux was leading his troops into battle his left arm was injured. Refusing to leave the field, he led his men forward with his arm dangling from his shoulder, in the face of intense fire power. Mortally wounded. Died, Port Hudson, May 27, 1863; given a hero's burial at New Orleans, July 1863. F.J. Sources: Joseph T. Wilson, The Black Phalanx: A History of the Negro Soldiers of the United States in the Wars of 1775-1812, 1861-65 (1888); Donald Everett, "Ben Butler and the Louisiana Native Guards, 1861-1862," Journal of Southern History, XXI (1955); Mary F. Berry, "Negro Troops in Blue and Gray: The Louisiana Native Guards, 1861-1863," Louisiana History, VIII (1967); Peter Ripley, "Black, Blue and Gray: Slaves and Freedmen in Civil War Louisiana (Ph. D. dissertation, Florida State University, 1973); Robert Ewell Greene, Black Defenders of America, 1775-1973: A Reference and Pictorial History (1974); James M. McPherson, The Negro's Civil War: How American Negroes Felt and Acted during the War for the Union (1965); Rayford W. Logan and Michael R. Winston, eds., Dictionary of American Negro Biography (1982).

CALONGNE, Adolphe Fauconne de, writer-journalist. Born, New Orleans, November 11, 1836; son of native of Jérémie, Haiti, who came to New Orleans in 1816. Worked as accountant and served as editorial secretary for Le Patriote. An active White Leaguer, participated in the riot of 1874. Published numerous poems and some essays in Le Courrier de la Louisiane, La Renaissance Louisianaise, L'Avenir de la Nouvelle Orléans, Le Dimanche, Le Patriote, L'Almanach de la Louisiane. Translated into English an opera Roland a Ronceveaux, libretto and music by A. Mermet (1869). Died, New Orleans, July 17, 1889. M.A. Sources: Edward Larocque Tinker, Les Ecrits de langue française en Louisiane au XIXe siècle (1932); Auguste Viatte, "Complément à la bibliographie de Edward Larocque Tinker," Revue de Louisiane, III (1974).

CALVE, Julie Rose
, soprano, prima donna at the Théâtre d'Orléans. Born, Rennes, France, May, 1815; daughter of J. H. Calvé. Training received in France; engaged by John Davis (q.v.) as prima donna for the Théâtre d'Orléans, New Orleans, season 1837-1838; debut November 21, 1837, as Rosine in Le Barbier de Seville (Rossini). Created leading soprano roles in the United States premieres of Le Postillion de Longjumeau (Adam); Le Domino Noir and Zanetta (Auber); Les Huguenots (Meyerbeer); and Anna Bolena, Don Pasquale, Lucia di Lammermoor and Les Martyrs (Donizetti), among others, during following nine seasons. Retired from stage after 1845-1846 season. Married, May 29, 1858, impresario Charles Boudousquié (q.v.) of New Orleans. Died, New Orleans, December 30, 1898. J.B.** Sources: New Orleans Daily Picayune, December 31, 1898; New Orleans Bee, January 1, 1899; Annunciation Church, New Orleans, Louisiana, Marriage Register I.

CAMBRE (KAMMER), Michel
, pioneer. Born, Breisgau, Diocese of Constance, 1731. Farmer; amassed largest privately owned plantation on the part of the German Coast later designated as St. John the Baptist Parish through purchase and through land grant from Governor Carondelet (q.v.) in 1796. Plantation located at present site of the community of Reserve. Married Catherine Jacob, daughter of Christian Jacob and Marguerite Mehl of Alsace. Listed in Spanish militia, 1770. Roman Catholic. Three sons: Michel, Etienne, and Georges. Progenitor of a large family, members of which took part in Gálvez Expedition, War of 1812, and War Between the States. Leader in social and business affairs in the area. Died, St. John Parish, 1810. G.C.T.† Source: Author's research.

CAMPBELL, George Barnes, journalist. Born, Raleigh, N. C., June 10, 1880; son of John M. Campbell and Mary Moore. Education: public schools, Newburn, Tenn.; attended Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn. Reporter for the Nashville American, 1902-1905; compositor, the New Orleans States later the New Orleans Item. Removed to Hammond, La., as compositor and editor of the Louisiana Sun, 1907-1917; assistant city editor, San Antonio Express, 1917-1919. In 1919 Campbell purchased weekly The Southern Vindicator in Hammond. He changed the format and the name of the weeklly paper to The Hammond Vindicator. Married (1) Laurice Brasseaux of St. Francisville, December 1, 1907. Children: Mary Zulma and Mildred Campbell Furbos. Married (2) Stella Bickham of Warnerton, the mother of his stepson James W. Warner. Best remembered for his column of local lore and notes called "The Stroller" which appeared for forty years chronicling life in Hammond. Member: Methodist church. Died, Hammond, February 27, 1967; interred Greenlawn Cemetery. C.H.N. Sources: Vickie Reynolds, "George Campbell: The Stroller, 1940-1967," Papers of the Southeast Louisiana Historical Association (1978); obituary, Hammond Vindicator, February 28, 1967; editorial, New Orleans Times-Picayune, February 28, 1967.

CAMPBELL, John, British army officer. Entered army, 1745 in Loudon's Highlanders; served at the British capture of Havana, 1762; Battle of Long Island, 1777; capture of Philadelphia; and on Staten Island, 1777-1778. Commander of British forces in West Florida with headquarters at Pensacola, November 1778-May 1781. His troops suffered defeats by forces of Bernardo de Gálvez at Manchac, Baton Rouge, Mobile, and Pensacola. Surrendered to Gálvez, May 9, 1781. Returned to England and retired from active duty in 1797. Died, 1806. L.T.C. Sources: J. Barton Starr, Tories, Dons, and Rebels: The American Revolution in West Florida (1976); J. Leitch Wright, Florida in the American Revolution (1975).

CAMPBELL, John Sherman
, educator, wildlife manager, conservationist. Born, Luna, Ouachita Parish, La., June 8, 1897; son of John Paul Campbell and Ella Naomi Jordan. Education: attended school at Luna before removing to Oak Grove, 1912; graduated from Oak Grove High School; attended Louisiana State Normal College (now Northwestern State University) at Natchitoches in the summer of 1921; teaching during the regular school year, he attended Louisiana Polytechnic Institute (now Louisiana Tech University) at Ruston during the summer sessions of 1922 through 1928 and during the regular year 1926-1927, receiving a B. A. degree in August 1928. Married Aline Gertrude Vernon, December 21, 1928, daughter of John Stephen Vernon and Irma Murphy of Bienville. Attended Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge during the summer sessions of 1931 through 1934, M. S., 1934. Thesis: "Birds of Bienville Parish." Taught or was principal in the following schools: New Hope-Douglas in Lincoln Parish, 1921-1924; Hughes Chapel in Morehouse Parish, 1924-1926; Eastland Grammer School in Lincoln Parish, 1927-1928; Hodge Grammar School, 1928-1929 and Ansley High School, 1929-1930, in Jackson Parish; Bienville High School, 1930-1935 and Gibsland High School, 1935-1938 in Bienville Parish. Removed to Baton Rouge in 1938. Career in wildlife management and conservation was with the Louisiana Wildlife and Fisheries Commission, 1939-1959; retired as chief of Fish and Game Division. Appointed by Gov. Jimmie H. Davis to the Louisiana Commission on the Aging on August 29, 1960. Attended the White House Conference on Aging in Washington, D. C., January 9-12, 1961. Member, Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity and Lions International. Member East Gate Lodge #452 F. & A. M., Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, 32nd Degree, 1946, Jerusalem Shrine Temple, 1946; honored in 1970 by the Grand Lodge of the State of Louisiana for being a Master Mason for 25 years or more. Charter member, 1953, of Goodwood Baptist Church, Baton Rouge. Chairman of the first Missions Committee. Elected deacon emeritus by Goodwood, 1966. Teacher of Adult Men's Sunday School Class for twenty years. Died, Baton Rouge, September 3, 1976. Buried in Liberty Hill Cemetery, Bienville Parish. In April 1977, The John S. Campbell Layman Lecture Series was established in his memory by the Mid-America Baptist Theological Seminary, Memphis, Tennessee. W.W.C. Source: William W. Colbert, Jr., Descendants of John Paul Campbell (1963).

CANAN, Denis Timothy, jurist. Born, near Crowley, La., November 28, 1884; son of Helen Gairnes and Denis T. Canan, Sr. Education: Miss Bina Reep's private school and Acadia College, Acadia Parish, La.; Jesuit High School, New Orleans; Tulane University law school, 1906-1909. Married: Erin Doré of Crowley, December 23, 1921. No children. Admitted to the bar, January 3, 1910; private practice, 1910-1912; elected Crowley city judge, 1912; remained in office for thirty-eight years, one of the longest tenures of any judge in the state; was a member of the State Board of Public Welfare, the State Central Democratic Executive Committee, and served on the governor's advisory board through six administrations. Member: state, district, and parish bar associations; a past president of the Acadia chapter of the Tulane Alumni Association; Knights of Columbus; and a charter member of the Crowley Lions Club. Died, November 5, 1950; interred Woodlawn Cemetery, Crowley. J.B.C. Sources: Crowley Weekly Acadian, obituary, November 9, 1950; Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols (1974-1984), 1885-1886 (Cecelia, La., 1978), p. 108.

CANBY, Edward Richard, soldier. Born, Boone County, Ky., November 9, 1817. Graduated from U. S. Military Academy, 1839; fought Florida Seminoles, staff officer in Mexican War, post and garrison duty at various locations prior to 1861. Military commander, Department of New Mexico, May 1861 to May 1862; staff duty in Eastern theater as brigadier general, May 1862 to May 1864; promoted to rank of major general, May 1864. Commander, Military District of West Mississippi (which included most of Louisiana), June 1864 to July 1865; military commander of Louisiana, July 1865 to May 1866. While commander of the Military District of West Mississippi, cooperated with Admiral David Farragut (q.v.) to secure the surrender of Mobile, Ala., on April 12, 1865. The following month, Canby received the capitulations of all Confederate forces in the Gulf area. As military commander of Louisiana, dealt diligently with the vexing problems of early Reconstruction, but lacked brilliance and charisma. After some months of tense relations with his immediate superior, Gen. Philip Sheridan (q.v.), was relieved of his post in Louisiana at his own request in May 1866. Reverted to brigadier general, 1866; assigned to duties in South and in Washington, D. C., 1866-1870; commander, Department of Columbia, 1870-1873; military commander, Division of the Pacific, 1873. Attacked and murdered by Modoc Indians in California, April 11, 1873. M.T.C. Sources: Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Blue: Lives of Union Commanders (1964); Joseph G. Dawson III, Army Generals and Reconstruction: Louisiana, 1862-1877 (1982); Max L. Heyman, Jr., Prudent Soldier: A Biography of Major General E. R. S. Canby … (1959).

CANONGE, Louis Placide
, editor, educator, playwright, politician. Born, New Orleans, June 29, 1822; son of Judge J. F. Canonge and Amelie Mercier. Education: College Louis-le-Grand, Paris, France. Returned to New Orleans, 1838. Married Héloïse Halphen, daughter of Michel Halphen. Children: Henri and L. Placide, Jr. Legal career: admitted to bar, 1843; later served as clerk of New Orleans criminal court. Journalistic career: contributor to New Orleans L'Abeille, 1838-1893; L'Impartial; Le Coup d'Oeil; Le Quatorze Septembre; La Presse; while in Paris, served as correspondent for New Orleans Delta. Founded and edited the following newspapers: La Lorgnette, L'Evantail, L'Entracte, L'Epoque, Revue Louisianaise, Courier de la Louisiane, Le Sud, Le Courier Française, the Southern Star, and the Propagateur Catholique. Literary career: author of following dramas: Le Maudit Passeport, Gaston de St. Elme, L'Ambassador d'Autriche, Un Grand d'Espagne, Histoire Sous Charles Quint, France et Espagne, Comte de Carmagnala; adapted Count of Monte Cristo for the stage. Author of comedy Qui Perde Gagne. Named an officer in the French Académie for work in the field of French letters, 1885. Director and manager of French operatic company, New Orleans, 1873-1878. Educator: superintendent of education, Orleans Parish; professor of French, University of Louisiana. Politically active: member, state house of representatives, 1850-1852, 1884-1888. Died, New Orleans, January 22, 1893; interred New Orleans. The orchestra of the French Opera House played his funeral march. C.A.B. Sources: John Smith Kendall, History of New Orleans (1922) II; New Orleans Times-Picayune, January 23, 1893; Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896, p. 163.

CANOVA, Dominique
, painter, teacher, lithographer, decorator. Born, Milan, Italy, ca. 1800; reportedly nephew of noted Italian sculptor and painter Antonio Canova. Married (1) Louise Storla of Milan, Italy. Married (2) Olympe Bougerelle, of Paris, France. Professor of drawing and painting, Convent, La., 1837-1839; portrait painter, drawing and painting teacher, lithographer, ornamental painter, and decorator, New Orleans, 1839-1868. Received local acclaim for ornamental paintings, murals, and frescoes in New Orleans buildings including: St. Louis Exchange Hotel, with A. Pinoli (1841); Our Lady of Victory Church, with Antonio Mondelli (1846); St. Alphonsus Church, with Perachi and Rossi (1866). Also credited with decorations in French Opera House, James Robb house, as well as other public and private commissions. Died, New Orleans, April 7, 1868. R.M. Sources: The Historic New Orleans Collection, Encyclopaedia of New Orleans Artists, 1718-1918 (1987); Delgado WPA, "Lives of N. O. Artists."

CANTRELLE, Jacques
, planter, administrator. Born, Picardy, France, 1697; son of Claude Cantrelle and Marguerite Turpin Cantrelle. Arrived in Louisiana May 20, 1720, on Profond. Married (1) Marie Francienne Minquetz, killed in Natchez Indian massacre 1729; no children. Married (2) Marie Marguerite Larmurian. Children: Marie-Marguerite (b. 1733), Marianne (b. 1734), Marie-Jeanne (b. 1736), Jean-Baptiste (b. 1744), Jacques (b. 1746-died young), Michel Bernard (bapt. 1750), Jacques II (b. 1752). Settled at the Arkansas Post (on the Missisisppi, 1722), then at Fort Rosalie (Natchez). In 1740 was in New Orleans serving as notary, an employee of the Superior Council. In 1766, Cantrelle signed a petition with other businessmen to protect business interests in Louisiana at New Orleans but also was in the process of moving to Cabanocey. There he developed an indigo plantation and was commander of the post during French regime. Helped to settle the Acadians, received the first Spanish officials, originated a landed dynasty, built a church and presided over the post. Since Cantrelle gave part of his original land grant for use as a church site, he was laid to rest beneath the altar of the first church (St. Jacques de Cabahannocer or Cantrelle Church). Died, January 8, 1778; parish named for the saint whose name he bore. P.D.B. Sources: Estelle M. Fortier Cochran, The Fortier Family and Allied Families (1963); Lillian C. Bourgeois, Cabanocey: The History and Folklore of St. James Parish (1957); Donald J. Hebert, comp., Southwest Louisiana Records and South Louisiana Records.

CAPDEVIELLE, Paul
, attorney, politician. Born, New Orleans, January 15, 1842; son of Virginia Bertrand and Augustin Capdevielle. Father was a New Orleans merchant who arrived from France in 1825; brother of Armand Capdevielle. Education: Jesuits' College, New Orleans, graduated 1861. During Civil War was a private in Boone's Louisiana Battery, 1862-1863, and a corporal in the Orleans Guard Artillery, 1863-1865. Worked as a clerk and attended law school at Tulane University from which he received a law degree in 1868. Member, state school board, 1877. Married Marie Emma Larue in 1878. Six children. Practiced law until 1892. President, Merchants' Insurance Company, 1892-1905; president pro-tem of levee board and drainage commission until 1899; mayor of New Orleans, 1900-1904; was for two decades president of the City Park Improvement Association; worked with French-American Charities and sailor's relief funds; received Cross of Legion of Honor from France and Cross of the Commander of the Order of St. Olaf from Sweden, both in 1902; appointed state auditor in 1904 and reelected in 1908 and 1912. Roman Catholic. Member, Knights of Columbus, Elks, Pickwick and Opera clubs. Died, August 13, 1922, at summer home in Bay St. Louis, Miss.; wife and one son preceded him in death; survived by three sons: Christian, Auguste, and Paul, Jr., and two daughters: Edith and Yvonne; interred St. Louis Cemetery II, New Orleans. A.W.B. Sources: Clement A. Evans, ed., Confederate Military History (1899), X; Alcée Fortier, Louisiana (1914), III; John S. Kendall, History of New Orleans (1922), II; Melvin B. Holli and Peter d'A. Jones, Biographical Dictionary of American Mayors, 1820-1980, Big City Mayors (1981); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, August 14, 1922.

CAPOTE, Truman
, author. Born, New Orleans, September 30, 1924; son of Nina Faulk and Julian A. Persons. Named Truman Streckfus (for father's employer) Persons. Parents divorced; his mother's remarriage to New York industrialist Joseph Garcia Capote brought about name change. Educated in Monroeville, Ala., where he lived with mother's cousins, and New York City. Lived briefly in a Royal Street apartment in New Orleans where he did some writing before producing his first novel, Other Voices, Other Rooms (1948). Visited New Orleans sporadically over the last two decades of his life to lecture or to be interviewed in his "hometown." The landscape in some of his writing is Southern, usually blending a composite of Louisiana and Alabama. Claimed to have established a new literary form with the publication of In Cold Blood (1965). Died, Los Angeles, August 25, 1984. J.B.C. Sources: Current Biography Yearbook, 1968 (1968); Mary Dell Fletcher, ed., A Century of the Short Story in Louisiana, 1880-1980 (1986); New Orleans Times-Picayune, August 26, 1984; June 12, 1988.

CARAZO, Castro, band director, composer. Born, San José, Costa Rica, June 18, 1895; son of chief justice of supreme court of Costa Rica. Studied at Costa Rica National School of Music and Royal Conservatory of Music, Barcelona, Spain. Toured with various musical organizations and artists in U. S. and Latin America before becoming music director of the Saenger Amusement Company, New Orleans. Returned to Costa Rica for one year as director of military music for the government, made honorary lieutenant colonel and decorated by president of Costa Rica. Returned to New Orleans as music director, Roosevelt Hotel, where he met Huey Long (q.v.), becoming closely associated with the Long political movement. Appointed Louisiana State University band director at Long's insistence in 1934, dismissed 1940. Increased size of band from about 70 pieces to 242, second largest in U. S. Long often appeared with drum majors leading band at performances. Composed all types of music, especially band music and songs. Compositions include Long campaign song, "Every Man a King" (words by Huey Long), "Louisiana, My Home Sweet Home," several LSU songs (some with words by Long) and the official U. S. National Guard March. His compositions are recorded on the Victor and Brunswick labels. Private music teacher in Baton Rouge during the later years of his life. Died, Baton Rouge, December 28, 1981. L.I.W. Sources: Louisiana Leader, December 1937; March 1937; New Orleans Times-Picayune, August 24, 1940; Baton Rouge Morning Advocate, April 6, 1935; January 22, 1978; The Register, September 1979; T. Harry Williams, Huey Long (1969).

CARDAILLAC, Alexandre A.
, politician. Born, Desparrez, Department of Hautes-Pyrennées, France, June 21, 1830. Married, September 21, 1854, Emilie Adelina Bourgeois, daughter of Valery Bourgeois and Rosalie Richard of Thibodaux, La. In two separate claims, his widow sought compensation from the French and American Claims Commission for payment of rent and repairs for a building used by Union troops; the claim was denied because her husband had become an American citizen on October 5, 1868. Mayor of Brashear City, April 1869 until his death. Died, Brashear City, October 19, 1869. L.K.L. Sources: Donald J. Hébert, comp., Southwest Louisiana Records, I; Morgan City Archives, Brashear, La. Council Proceedings, 1865-1876; Civil War Claims, Emilie A. Cardaillac v. United States, No. 231, and Alexandre Cardaillac v. United States, No. 427.

CARLIN, Joseph, soldier, pioneer. Born, probably Guiseppe Vincenzo Carlini, ca. 1730, in Genoa, Italy; son of Maria Gerbinatti and Joseph Carlini. Arrived in New Orleans as a French soldier between April 1758 and January 1759. Married Françoise Lange, ca. 1766. Children: Alexis, Celestin, Denis, Honoré, Eugène, and Dorothea. Listed among those in Gasmont's military company detached from New Orleans on January 1, 1759; under the command of Karl Friedrich D'Arensbourg (q.v.), December 9, 1759, going to Fort des Allemands on the German Coast; on the muster roll of troops at Fort de Chartres in Illinois, July 1762; on the general roll of Louisiana troops in military service on January 1, 1763; in militia company commanded by Jacques Villeré (q.v.), April 1766; this entry indicates he was married but had no children; a census of Villeré's company taken in June 1766 includes information of his ownership of property in the Second German Coast (St. John the Baptist Parish). Discharged from the French Army on August 8, 1769; bought additional property in the parish in October 1770; sold property and removed to the Attakapas District in late 1772 or during 1773. Acquired property on Bayou Teche and received a land grant in February 1774. Land granted near Lake Peigneur and included part of what is now Jefferson Island. Land was sold by his children on March 7, 1820. Died, December 30, 1809. J.B.C. Sources: Glenn R. Conrad, "Wilderness Paradise," Attakapas Gazette, XIV (1979); Walter Prichard, et al., eds., "Southern Louisiana and Southern Alabama in 1819: The Journal of James Leander Cathcart," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXVIII (1945).

CARMOUCHE, Emile Aloysius
, planter, politician. Born, Pointe Coupée Parish, La., January 5, 1837; son of Narcisse Carmouche. Education: Jesuit's College, Bardstown, Ky. Civil War service: private, Company F, Fourth Louisiana Infantry; appointed second lieutenant, May 19, 1862; resigned, June 5, 1863; first lieutenant, Company K, Second Louisiana Cavalry, 1864-1865; captain, independent company Louisiana scouts, 1865. Married Annie T. Jeter, April 28, 1864. Operated a plantation in St. Landry Parish after the war. Removed to Shreveport and became a contractor. Elected to state house of representatives, 1872. Died, Little Rock, Ark., July 3, 1885. A.W.B. Sources: Annie J. Carmouche Papers, Louisiana State University, Department of Archives and Manuscripts; Alcée Fortier, Louisiana (1914), III.

CARONDELET, Luis Francisco Héctor de Carondelet, XV baron de, governor of Louisiana and West Florida. Born, Cambrai, France, July 29, 1747; son of Jean Louis Carondelet and Marie Angélique Bernard de Rasoir. Entered Spanish military service in 1762; served in Caribbean theater during American Revolution; participated in Spanish siege of Pensacola, 1781. Became governor of San Salvador, Audiencia de Guatemala, March, 1789; appointed governor of Louisiana and West Florida, March 13, 1791; assumed duties in New Orleans, December 30, 1791. Carondelet governed Louisiana during the most turbulent years of the Spanish era. Included among many problems he faced were intrigues among the Southern Indians launched by William Augustus Bowles; expansionist pressures from sundry quarters in the United States; invasion threats to Louisiana and West Florida fomented by the French minister to the United States, Edmond Gênet; internal dissension inspired by the French Revolution; slave revolts; and threatened seaborne attacks from the French (1793-1794) and British (1796-1797). Carondelet worked diligently—if unrealistically—at forging a grand alliance of the Southern Indians as the primary defense of Louisiana and West Florida against U. S. encroachment, only to see his efforts dashed by Spanish acquiescence in U. S. territorial demands and navigation rights to the Mississippi in the Treaty of San Lorenzo, 1795. Urged without success making New Orleans a free port as a means of stimulating economic growth and was responsible for numerous public improvements in New Orleans. Withal, was esteemed by some contemporaries as an energetic and honest administrator. In 1796, reassigned to Viceroyalty of New Granada, eventually became president of the Audiencia of Quito. Left New Orleans in 1797. Married, October, 1777, in Barcelona, María de la Concepción Castaños y Aragorri, a native of La Coruña, daughter of Juan Felipe de Castaños, intendant of Portugalete, and María de Aragorri. Children: Luis Angel (b. 1787), María Felipa Cayetana (b. 1788). Died, Quito, December 10, 1807. T.D.W. Sources: Eric Beerman, "XV Baron de Carondelet, Governador de la Luisiana y la Florida (1791-1797)," Hidalguia, (1978); Charles Gayarré, History of Louisiana, vol. 3, The Spanish Domination, 4th ed. (1983); Abraham P. Nasatir, Spanish War Vessels on the Mississippi, 1792-1796 (1968); James Pitot, Observations on the Colony of Louisiana from 1796 to 1802 (1979); Arthur Preston Whitaker, The Spanish-American Frontier, 1783-1795 (1927); Mary A. M. O'Callaghan, "The Indian Policy of Carondelet in Spanish Louisiana, 1792-1797" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of California at Berkeley, 1942); Thomas Mark Fiehrer, "The Baron de Carondelet as Agent of Bourbon Reform: A Study of Spanish Colonial Administration in the Years of the French Revolution" (Ph. D. dissertation, Tulane University, 1977).

CARPENTER, William Marbury, botanist, physician. Born, Feliciana Parish, La., June 25, 1811; son of James Carpenter and Ann Marbury. Education: privately tutored; attended U. S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., but resigned because of ill health; studied medicine and practiced in Jackson, La., before joining faculty of College of Louisiana as professor of Botany and Geology. Published study of submerged forest he discovered near Port Hudson, 1838; professor of materia medica at University of Louisiana, 1842; dean of University of Louisiana, 1845; editor of New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal, 1846-1848. Died, New Orleans, October 1848. Botanical collections published posthumously by J. L. Riddell and Josiah Hale under title Catalogus Florae Loudovicianael; several plants named in his honor. E.K.D. Sources: West Feliciana Parish public records; Tulane Graduates Magazine, (January, 1914), copy in Louisiana Room, Middleton Library, Louisiana State University.

CARRESSE, Pierre
, merchant, major conspirator in the Revolt of 1768. A bachelor. Carresse operated a successful mercantile business at least until early 1769, when he suffered severe business setbacks. Together with Nicolas Chauvin de La Frénière (q.v.) he drew up a memorial containing a list of grievances against Governor Ulloa (q.v.) and, according to Martín Navarro (q.v.), influenced many to sign the petition. He was elected to the expanded Superior Council on October 29, 1768. Arrested August 19, 1769, he was charged with conspiracy against the legitimate Spanish government. At his trial several witnesses claimed to have seen him marching at the head of a group of Acadians entering the city of New Orleans to demonstrate against Ulloa. He also helped to finance the revolt. Although Carresse denied the legality of Ulloa's government at his trial, he was convicted and executed by firing squad, October 25, 1769. An audit of his estate following his death showed him more than the equivalent of $10,000 in debt. B.C. Sources: Vicente Rodriguez Casado, Primeros años de dominación española en la Luisiana (1942); Jacqueline Voorhies, Some Late Eighteenth Century Louisianians (1973); John Preston Moore, Revolt in Louisiana: The Spanish Occupation, 1766-1770 (1976); Margaret Fisher Dalrymple, ed., The Merchant of Manchac: The Letterbooks of John Fitzpatrick (1978).

CARROLL, John, actor, singer. Born Julian Lafaye, New Orleans, 1903. Rose to prominence during the 1940s. Made more than 167 motion pictures, among them Rose of the Rio Grande (1938); Susan and God (1940); Marx Brothers Go West (1941); Rio Rita (1942); Bedside Manner (1944); Hit Parade of 1951 (1951); The Farmer Takes a Wife (1953). Produced and acted in 18 movies, produced two others and wrote screenplays for some 20 pictures. Served briefly in 1965 as director of the Louisiana Tourist Development Commission. Wife Lucile, daughter, Julia. Died, Los Angeles, April 24, 1979. H.C. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, April 26, 1979; Baton Rouge Morning Advocate, July 23, 1965; December 9, 1965; Leslie Hallilwell, Halliwell's Filmgoer's Companion, 7th ed.

CARROLL, William, soldier, politician. Born on a farm near Pittsburgh, Pa., March 3, 1788; son of Thomas and Mary Montgomery Carroll. Education: meager. Married Cecelia Bradford, ca. 1813. Hardware merchant, captain and brigade inspector of Tennessee militia in February 1813; advanced to rank of colonel and inspector-general in September 1813; became major general in November 1814; raised a force of volunteers, transported them down the Cumberland, the Ohio, and the Mississippi, and arrived in time to give General Jackson (q.v.) invaluable aid in repulsing the British in the Battle of New Orleans. Governor of Tennessee, 1821-1827, 1829-1835. Died, March 22, 1844. The Carrollton section of New Orleans was named in his honor. J.B.C. Sources: Dictionary of American Biography, III, 529; John Smith Kendall, History of New Orleans (Chicago, 1922), II, 750.

CARSTENS, Ernest John
, businessman, civic leader. Born, New Orleans, 1843. Education: schools of New Orleans. Civil War: served in Company A, Crescent Regiment, Louisiana Volunteers. Fought at Shiloh. Married Amelia Kelty, 1874, St. Louis Cathedral, New Orleans. Removed to Shreveport and then to New Iberia, 1879. Children: Walter Fisher (q.v.), Ernest Peter, Amelia Pauline, Josephine Marie, Maud Martha, Florence Lucy, Charles John, and Milton Joseph. Established seed and garden supply store, New Iberia; operated this until age forced retirement. Played a prominent role in civic and business affairs. Member, New Iberia's first city council. Charter member and first commander of New Iberia chapter United Confederate Veterans; actively interested in veterans' affairs. A Catholic. Died, New Iberia, February 28, 1924; interred St. Peter's Cemetery. E.C.S. Sources: Family papers and newspaper clippings.

CARSTENS, Walter Fisher
, physician. Born, Shreveport, October 16, 1875; son of Ernest John Carstens (q.v.) and Amelia Kelty. Removed with family to New Iberia, La., 1879. Education: schools of New Iberia (with Porteus R. Burke and Eugene Guillot [q.v.], were first male graduates of Central High School, New Iberia, 1892), Tulane University, degree in medicine. One of four honor students awarded resident studentships at Touro Hospital, New Orleans. Married Mary M. Andronico, New Orleans, February 3, 1902. Children: Ernest John II, Walter Fisher, Jr., Thomas Byrne, Amelia Kelty and Mary Elizabeth. Among the last of the "Horse and Buggy Doctors," those who made house calls at all hours and were available seven days a week. Served as city and parish health officer. Worked tirelessly during flood of 1927. As a result of several cases of smallpox in New Iberia and Iberia Parish in late 1920s, worked with other doctors to immunize population. Personally vaccinated nearly 11,000 people. Active in civic affairs; member, Attakapas Medical Society and state medical society. A Catholic. Died, New Iberia, February 19, 1933; interred St. Peter's Cemetery. E.C.S. Sources: Family records; New Orleans Times-Picayune; New Iberia Enterprise.

CARTER, Charles Congreve
, businessman, mayor of Hammond, La. Born, Amite, La., June 4, 1884; son of Thomas Lane Carter and Anna Hennen Jennings. Education: private and public schools of Tangipahoa and Orleans parishes; Tulane University and Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College which he left in 1904 to manage a farm owned by his late brother-in-law, W. E. Hall. Between 1906 and 1912 operated a drug business in Hammond. Married (1), June 6, 1904, Helen Gurley of New Orleans, daughter of J. Ward Gurley, New Orleans city attorney. Children: Helen (b. 1905), Edith Congreve (b. 1909), and Aurora Gurley (b. 1915). Married (2), November 11, 1921, Ruth Corbin of Hammond, daughter of A. D. and Kate Morrison Corbin. Child: Charles, Jr. (b. 1927). Active in Democratic party; mayor of Hammond, 1917-1933. Under his administration Hammond paved major streets, graveled minor roads, and improved the water works and fire department. A new brick city hall opened in 1923. Member Presbyterian church, Chamber of Commerce, Woodmen of the World. Died, Hammond, September 21, 1951; interred Grace Memorial Episcopal Cemetery. C.H.N. Sources: Obituary, Hammond Vindicator, September 21, 1951; Henry E. Chambers, A History of Louisiana … (1925).

CARTER, George W.
, minister, politician, diplomat. Born, Virginia, ca. 1826. Educated in Va. Colonel of cavalry regiment, Confederate Army. Married three times; first wife from Loudon County, Va., divorced; second wife a Louisiana widow with three children, divorced; married third wife ca. 1895, Virginia Stralhalm of Lynchburg, Va. Methodist minister in Virginia and Louisiana; lawyer; president of girls' school; pursued literary work in Washington, D. C., in his later years. Politician in Cameron Parish, La., a temperance advocate and allegedly a brilliant pulpit orator. Secretary to Lieutenant Governor Pinchback (q.v.); Cameron Parish judge, 1870; Louisiana legislature, 1871-1872, served as speaker, 1871-1872; minister resident, Venezuela from June 30, 1881, to May 16, 1882. Leader of anti-Warmoth faction; leader of Custom House faction; used speakership to force Chattanooga Railroad to retain his legal services for $10,000 per year. Died, May 11, 1901, Washington, D. C. T.D.S. Sources: Alcée Fortier, Louisiana (1914), I; Joe Gray Taylor, Louisiana Reconstructed (1974); obituary, New Orleans Times-Democrat, May 12, 1901; U. S. Department of State, United States Chiefs of Mission, 1778-1973 (1973).

CARTER, Jeff Elgin, minister, businessman. Born near Homer, Claiborne Parish, La., January 5, 1911. Son of John Henry Carter and Addie Carter. Education: local schools: Cherokee, Mt. Obie C.M.E. Church, Arcadia, La. Pastor: Homer #2, Bastrop, and Epps Churches of God in Christ. Owner: Carter's Cleaners, 1950-1960s. Married, January 15, 1945, Willie B. Ridley, of Homer, daughter of Jim Ridley and Minnie Ridley. Children: Doris Dorcas; Jeff Elgin, Jr.; Willie Ruth; and Joseph Lester. Active in Churches of God in Christ (secretary, Monroe District; pastor, Western Louisiana Jurisdiction). Died, October, 1970; interred Sheppard Heights Street Cemetery, Minden, La. D.D.C. Sources: obituary, November 3, 1970; family records.

CARTER, Jonathan H.
, sailor, gunboat builder, planter. Born, North Carolina, (date and location unknown). Appointed to the United States Naval Academy and was a member of the first graduating class in 1846. Resigned as lieutenant from the United States Navy, April 25, 1861. Entered the Confederate States Navy, April 27, 1861, and was shortly thereafter, at New Orleans, assigned to convert a sidewheel steamer, the Ed Howard, to a war vessel. Given command of the gunboat, renamed the Polk, Carter assisted in the evacuation of New Madrid, and saw action at Tiptonville before escaping seventy-five miles up the Yazoo River where the Polk was burned on June 26, 1862, to prevent capture. On October 3, 1862, Carter was ordered to contract for and supervise the building of one or more gunboats on Red River. Built the ironclad gunboat, the Missouri at Shreveport, which was launched April 14, 1863. Carter placed in command of the Missouri and of naval defenses of Western Louisiana on November 5, 1863. Low water in Red River prevented the Missouri from participating in the defense of Western Louisiana when Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks' (q.v.) army and Adm. W. D. Porter's (q.v.) fleet advanced on Shreveport in April, 1864. In March, 1865 Red River finally rose permitting Carter to take the Missouri downstream to Alexandria where the gunboat, officers, and crew were surrendered to the United States Navy, June 3, 1865. Carter remained in Louisiana following the end of the war and operated a cotton plantation in Bossier Parish from 1866 until approximately 1877 when financial reverses forced him to abandon the project. Married Henrietta G. Thompkins in Louisiana before 1872. Died, Shirley, Virginia, 1887. K.B.J. Sources: Register of Officers of the Confederate States Navy, 1861-1865; Register of the Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the Navy of the Confederate States to January 1, 1863 (Richmond, 1862), in War Department Archives,VIII, 288, National Archives; Letter of Richard L. Davis, Registrar, United States Naval Academy, November 19, 1985; Carter Correspondence Book, National Archives, Record Group 45; Henrietta G. Thompkins, wife v. J. H. Carter, husband, for separation of property, Docket No. 2574, District Court, Bossier Parish, Louisiana, 1872.

CARTER, William Hodding, Jr., editor, publisher, author. Born, Hammond, La., February 3, 1907; son of William Hodding, Sr., (q.v.) and Irma Dutartre. Education: Bowdoin College, A.A., 1927; student in journalism, Columbia, 1927-1928; Tulane University, 1928-1929; Harvard, 1939; M. A. (honorary), Harvard, 1947; Litt. D. (honorary), Bowdoin College, 1947; L. H. D. (honorary), Washington University, 1954; Protestant Episcopal Theological Seminary, 1965; H. H. D., Coe College, 1958; LL. D., Allegheny College. Married, October 14, 1931, Betty Werlein, of New Orleans. Children: William Hodding Carter III (b. 1936?), Philip Dutartre Carter (b. 1941?), Tommy Carter (b. 1946?). Career: Teaching fellow, Tulane University, 1928-1929; reporter, New Orleans Item-Tribune, 1929; night bureau manager, United Press, New Orleans, 1930; manager Associated Press Bureau, Jackson, Miss., 1931-1932; started Hammond Daily Courier, editor, publisher, 1932-1936; started Greenville, Miss., Delta Democrat-Times, 1939; newspaper editor New York PM, 1939; civilian aide to secretary of army, 1952-1960; writer in residence, Tulane University, 1962-1968. Member: Trustee of George Peabody College for Teachers, 1952-1965; board of overseers, Bowdoin College; National Citizens Council Better Schools; board of visitors, Tulane University, 1953-1962; Pulitzer Prize Advisory Board, 1951-1961; American Society of Newspaper Editors. Army service: joined National Guard, 1938; published Dixie, 31st Division paper, Camp Blanding, Fla., 1940; Army Bureau of Public Relations, Washington, D. C., 1940-1941; editor: Stars and Stripes, Yank, Middle East edits., Cairo, Egypt; retired as major, 1945; awarded War Department citation, 1946. Awards: Nieman fellowship for newspapermen, Harvard, 1939; Guggenheim fellowship, 1945; Pulitzer prize, 1946; Southern Literary Award, 1945; fellow, Sigma Delta Chi, 1954; William A. White Foundation national citation of journalistic merit, 1961; recipient, Bowdoin Prize, 1963; First Federal award, 1968; Journalism Alumni award, Columbia University, 1971. Published: The Winds of Fear (1945); Southern Legacy (1950); Robert E. Lee and the Road of Honor (1954); So Great a Good (1955); The Commander of World War II (1966); Their Words Were Bullets (1969). Died Greenville, Miss., April 4, 1972; interred Greenville Cemetery. M.L.K. Sources: Who's Who in the South and Southwest; Who Was Who in America (1973).

CARTER, William Hodding, Sr.
, businessman, politician, farmer. Born, Kentwood, Tangipahoa Parish, La., April 17, 1881; son of Thomas Lane Carter and Anna Hennen Jennings. Education: Sheffield (Ala.) High School; preparatory school, Lebanon, Tenn.; Rugby Academy; Tulane University. Leaving college he engaged in sugar brokerage in New Orleans one year, then became cashier, American Cotton Oil Company, Vidalia, La. After working for several concerns he removed to Hammond in 1905. Married (1) Irma Dutartre of Natchez, Miss., daughter of cotton planter John D. Dutartre and Corinne Henderson, in 1906. He worked for several farming associations and in 1924 became manager of the Farm Bureau in Hammond. Children: William Hodding, Jr. (q.v.), editor and author; John Boatner (b. 1908); and Corinne (b. 1910). Married (2) Lucille Ballenger. Carter served on the Tangipahoa Parish Police Jury, 1928-1934. Elected to Louisiana house of representatives as an anti-Long, 1940. For a number of years he served as postmaster at Hammond. Memberships: Presbyterian church, Chamber of Commerce; board of trustees for Hammond Junior College (later Southeastern Louisiana College) until removed by Gov. Huey Long (q.v.). Died, Hammond, August 3, 1955; interred Greenlawn Cemetery. C.H.N. Sources: Henry E. Chambers, A History of Louisiana (1925); Hodding Carter, "An Unforgettable Character," Reader's Digest, 1954; obituaries, New Orleans Times-Picayune, August 4, 1955; Ponchatoula Enterprise, August 5, 1955; Who Was Who in America (1973, V.

CARTWRIGHT, Samuel Adolphus
, physician. Born, Fairfax County, Va., November 3, 1793; son of John S. Cartwright. Education: apprentice to Dr. John Brewer, Fairfax County, Va., before 1812; apprentice to Dr. Benjamin Rush, Philadelphia, Pa., after 1812; University of Pennsylvania Medical School. Removed to New Orleans, 1858. Served at one time as surgeon under Gen. Andrew Jackson (q.v.); during Civil War as a Confederate Army physician he was given responsibility for improving sanitary conditions in the camps around Vicksburg and Port Hudson. Married, 1825, Mary Wren. At least one child. Contributed largely to medical literature, and won honors for his investigations of yellow fever, cholera infantum, and Asiatic cholera. Died, Jackson, Miss., May 2, 1863. M.S.L. Sources: Dictionary of American Medical Biography (1984), I; Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography (1891), I; Mary Louise Marshall, "Samuel A. Cartwright and States' Rights Medicine," New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal, XC (1940-1941).

CARVER, Ada Jack, author. Born, Natchitoches, La., April 7, 1890; daughter of Ada Whitfield Jack and Marshall Hampton Carver. Education: Judson School, Marion, Ala.; Louisiana State Normal School, graduated 1911. Married John Snell, April 1917. Her writing focuses on the people of the Cane River country, particularly the Creoles of Isle Brevelle. Characteristic of her work is a vivid sense of place, unusual characters, and the evocation of a unique culture. First story, "The Ring" (ca. 1908). Period of greatest activity occurred 1925-1928, published eight short stories and a play. "Redbone" received the O. Henry Prize and Harper's Prize, 1925; "Treeshy," the O. Henry Prize, 1926; "Maudie," the O'Brien Prize, 1926; and "The Singing Woman," the O. Henry Prize, 1927. The Cajun, a play, awarded the Bellasco Cup, 1926. Writing received national attention during this period, yet career ended abruptly, reasons for which are not known. A friend of Caroline Dormon (q.v.), also was acquainted with Cammie G. Henry (q.v.) and Lyle Saxon (q.v.) and was a visitor at Melrose Plantation. Died, Minden, La., December 1, 1972. S.R.H. Source: Mary Dell Fletcher, ed., The Collected Works of Ada Jack Carver (1980).

CARY, Sylvester Luther, merchant, farmer, railroad agent, immigration agent. Born, Boston, Erie County, N. Y., February 22, 1827; son of Van Rensselaer Cary and Sophia Streeters. Education: local schools. Married (1) Sally J. Medberry in 1849 (d. 1853). Two children died in infancy. Married (2) Clara J. Daniels, April 25, 1855. Children: Alice (b. 1856), Howard (b. 1860), James (b. 1862), Eddie (b. 1864), Curtis (b. 1867). Active in the Republican party. Agent for the Southern Pacific Railroad in Jennings in 1883; immigration agent for the same railroad with office in Manchester, Iowa; brought in more than 10,000 Iowans to the Jennings area; exhibited Louisiana products at the World's Exposition in Chicago 1893; called "father" of Jennings in 1905; "father" of the rice industry in Southwest Louisiana; president of the Iowa Colony; rice planter in Jennings area. Member: Congregational Church; Woodmen of the World. Cary Street in Jennings named for subject., Died, Jennings, January 21, 1915; interred Graceland Cemetery. D.J.M. Sources: Wiliam Henry Perrin, ed., Southwest Louisiana Biographical and Historical (1891; reprint ed., 1971); obituary, New Orleans Times-Democrat, January 22, 1915; Cary Scrapbook (Microfilm copy in Frazar Memorial Library, McNeese State University).

CASA CALVO, Sebastián Calvo de la Puerta y O'Farrill
, marqués de, acting governor of Spanish Louisiana. Born, Havana, ca. 1751, to a wealthy Cuban noble family. Educated in private schools until entering army at 13 as a cadet in the Company of Nobles. A purchased commission as a captain of cavalry volunteers in 1769 started his rise as an officer, achieving rank of lieutenant colonel in 1786, colonel in 1790, and brigadier in 1794. Military activity: was on Gen. Alejandro O'Reilly's (q.v.) expedition to New Orleans in 1769; the sieges of Mobile, 1780, and of Pensacola, 1781; the seizure of Providence, 1782; on board warships that successfully engaged the enemy; and in Saint-Domingue in 1794 against republican France. Received knighthood in the Order of Santiago and acquired his noble title in 1786. The death of Gov. Manuel Gayoso de Lemos (q.v.) in July 1799 resulted in Cuba's Captain General Someruelos sending Casa Calvo, then judge advocate in Havana, to Louisiana as ad interim governor where he served from September 18, 1799, to July 14, 1801. He later returned to New Orleans in May 1803 to assist Governor Salcedo (q.v.) in turning Louisiana over to France and he remained as commissioner of limits to determine the new boundary between Spanish Texas and the United States for over two years. Casa Calvo's interim governorship was prolonged when his successor delayed in arriving. Although Casa Calvo attempted to keep administration flowing smoothly, conflict in government existed with local officials such as Nicolas Maria Vidal, the ad interim civil governor, and the members of the cabildo. Military problems included British threats to invade from Canada each summer, a blockade of the Mississippi's mouth that impeded communications with Havana and trade in general, and William August Bowles' brief capture of Fort San Marcos de Apalache in 1800 and menace until 1802. Because of insufficient funds and the decline of the Fixed Louisiana Regiment, Casa Calvo was unable to prevent Americans from entering Louisiana at will. As commissioner of boundaries, Casa Calvo tried to prevent American encroachment on Spanish territory and became a thorn in the side of American Governor William C. C. Claiborne (q.v.), who ordered his departure in 1806. Traveled to Spain on leaving Louisiana. He sided with Joseph I, the intrusive French king on the Spanish throne in 1808, and became a lieutenant general in his army. Upon the defeat of the French, Casa Calvo left Spain in disgrace and ended his life in exile in Paris in May 1820. G.C.D. Sources: Arthur Preston Whitaker, The Mississippi Question, 1795-1803 (1934, reprint ed., 1962); Ronald R. Morazan, "Letters, Petitions, and Decrees of the Cabildo of New Orleans, 1800-1803" (Ph. D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1972).

CASPARI, Leopold, businessman, politician. Born, Lauterborg, France, July 28, 1830; son of David Caspari and Charlotte Baruch. Emigrated to U. S., 1849; settled as merchant in Cloutierville, La.; removed to Natchitoches, 1858. Civil War service: joined Pelican Rangers No. 1 as second lieutenant, promoted to rank of captain by war's end. Married Amanda Woods. Children: Richard, Samuel, Joseph, David, Emanuel, Charles, Gustave, Julia, and Dora. Elected Louisiana house of representatives, 1884; served in Louisiana senate, 1888-1914. Led campaign to have Natchitoches selected as site for Louisiana State Normal School (now Northwestern State University), 1885. President of Natchitoches and Red River Valley Railroad; president, People's Bank. Active in Confederate veterans' organization, Knights of Pythias, and B'nai B'rith. Died, Natchitoches, March 12, 1915; interred American Cemetery. C.W. Sources: Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Northwest Louisiana (1890); New Orleans Times-Picayune, March 12, 1915; author's research.

CASTELLANOS, Henry C., attorney, journalist. Born, New Orleans, December 12, 1827; son of Cadiz native, Juan José, who had immigrated in 1816 and of New Orleans-born Manuela Sanchez. Education: Georgetown College, District of Columbia, and St. Mary College, Baltimore, graduated in 1847. Returned to New Orleans where he read law in the office of Christian Roselius (q.v.) while studying law at the University of Louisiana (now Tulane University). Admitted to the Louisiana bar, 1848, practiced law for several years. Taught for a while in New Orleans public schools and contributed to several newspapers including L'Abeille, the Delta, and the Courrier. Removed to Franklin, La.; founded, 1857, the Attakapas Register. In 1858, returned to New Orleans and the practice of law. Served in the artillery during the Civil War. In 1877, defended scalawag ex-governor J. Madison Wells (q.v.) and Gen. Thomas Anderson (q.v.) accused, as members of the Board of Election Returns, of having given the 1876 Louisiana electoral votes to Rutherford B. Hayes. In 1892, began publication, in the Times-Democrat, of articles later collected under the titles New Orleans As It Was (1895). Active in Democratic party politics in the 1890s and the defense of the Louisiana Lottery. Died, New Orleans, August 7, 1896. M.A. Sources: Edwin L. Jewell, Jewell's Crescent City Illustrated (New Orleans, 1973); George F. Reinecke, "Introduction" to New Orleans As It Was, Episodes of Louisiana Life (1895; reprint ed., 1978).

CASTLEDEN, George Frederick
, painter, etcher. Born, Canterbury, England, December 4, 1861. Studied with Sir Thomas Sidney Cooper, Cooper Gallery, Canterbury, England. Removed to Canada, 1888, then to the United States, where he traveled as a scene painter, visiting New Orleans in 1911 and later moving to the city, ca. 1917. Known for paintings and illustrations of French Quarter courtyards. Exhibited in Canada, 1890s; Arts and Crafts Club, New Orleans, 1922, 1924, Palette and Pencil Club, New Orleans, 1926; New Orleans Art League, 1927, 1936. Awarded: Cooper Gallery, Canterbury, England, first prize for landscape painting; Territorial Exposition, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, first prize for landscape in oil, and for collections of oils and watercolors, 1896; Winnipeg, Canada, gold medal for etching, four first prizes and two second prizes, 1896; Exhibition of Canadian Artists, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, first prize. Died, Abingdon, Va., December, 1945; interred Harbledown, England. R.M. Sources: The Historic New Orleans Collection, Encyclopaedia of New Orleans Artists, 1718-1918 (1987); New Orleans Times-Picayune, October 29, 1922; New Orleans Morning Tribune, November 29, 1926.

CATE, Charles Emery
, businessman, developer. Born, New Hampshire, January 16, 1831. Removed to New Orleans, 1852. Married Mercy (Mertie) Ann Waterman of Massachusetts in 1858. Children: Thomas (b. 1859) and Lucy (b. 1863). Sometime between 1858 and 1861, Cate purchased land in Hammond, La., adjoining the railroad. Removed to the area during those years and began developing the region. Erected a sawmill, tannery and shoe factory. Planted a fruit orchard and constructed residences for workmen. Later built a brick factory and laid sidewalks and streets. The Union Army burned the shoe factory during the Civil War. After the war Cate continued his developmental activities. Donated land and money for the construction of Grace Memorial Episcopal Church; also donated land and money for several black churches and Greenville Park School; served on local, parish and state boards of education. Died, Hammond, La., October 8, 1916; interred Grace Memorial Episcopal Church Churchyard. Cate Square memorializes this man. D.J.† Sources: C. Howard Nichols, Tangipahoa Crossings: Excursions into Tangipahoa History (1979); Velmarae Dunn Papers, Southeastern Louisiana University Archives and Special Collections; C. Howard Nichols, "From Tank Square to Alley Square—Hammond Reclaims Her Past," Hammond Daily Star, May 1, 1983.

CATHCART, James L.
, seaman, diplomat, naval agent in Louisiana. Born, Ireland, June 1, 1767; son of Malcolm Hamilton Cathcart. Brought to the United States as a child by Capt. John Cathcart; in October 1779 was a midshipman in the United States Navy; captured by the British and held prisoner until escape in March 1782; served on a merchant vessel which was captured by an Algerine ship in July 1785; while a prisoner became a clerk in captor's marine service and helped to arrange a treaty in 1795 for the release of prisoners. Appointed United States consul at Tripoli, July 10, 1797. Married Jane Bancker Woodside of Philadelphia, Pa., June 5, 1798. Twelve children. Served as consul in Tunis, 1803, Madeira, 1807-1815, and Cádiz, 1815-1817. Commissioned November 4, 1818, as navy agent for the survey and protection of timber in Louisiana and the Alabama Territory suitable for naval purposes; conducted a six-week survey along Bayou Teche; kept a detailed journal and report of the survey, published in the Louisiana Historical Quarterly in 1945. Daughter, Mrs. Jane B. Newkirk, compiled and published in 1899 and 1901 the journal of the Algerine captivity and a volume of his official correspondence; was employed in the United States Treasury Department for the last twenty years of his life. Died, Washington, D. C., October 6, 1843. J.B.C. Sources: Walter Pritchard et al., eds., "Southern Louisiana and Southern Alabama in 1819: The Journal of James Leander Cathcart," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXVIII (1945); Allen Johnson, ed., Dictionary of American Biography (1929), III.

CAZEDESSUS, Eugene Romain
, banker, realtor, civic leader. Born, Baton Rouge, April 21, 1872; son of Romain Cazedessus, a native of France, and Annie Mary Ritsch. Education: Baton Rouge schools; Magruder's Collegiate Institute, Baton Rouge. Married, September 8, 1908, Elvira Erwin Craft. Children: Camille and Eugene, Jr. Began career as bookkeeper, Bank of Baton Rouge, 1892; cashier, 1910-1918; vice-president, 1918-1928; president, 1928-1933. Commissioner, public parks and streets, Baton Rouge. Member, constitutional convention, 1921. Member, board of supervisors, Louisiana State University. President, board of election supervisors, East Baton Rouge Parish. President or executive officer of several realty companies, including company that built Istrouma Hotel. Director, Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce. President, American Bankers' Association, 1921. Member, Elks Club; Knights of Columbus. Died, Baton Rouge, February 24, 1938; interred Roselawn Memorial Park. G.R.C. Sources: Who Was Who in America, 1897-1942; Baton Rouge Morning Advocate, February 25, 1938.

CEFALU, August Earle, businessman, politician. Born, Amite, La., August 18, 1910; son of C. Thomas Cefalu and Nellie Hellmers. Educated Amite High School and Soulé College, New Orleans. Associated with his father in the Thomas Cefalu Produce Company. Later became the owner of the company. From 1939 until death was partner of Johnson-Cefalu Buick in Amite. Land owner and developer. Served for twenty-one years as director and vice-chairman of the First Guaranty Bank. Active in Democratic party. Served one term on Amite city council and was elected mayor in 1951. Served twenty-one years. Attracted industry to the area, con¬structed a modern water system and built city parks. Loaned city $10,000 during first year as mayor to meet payroll. At retirement city had surplus of $500,000. Served as king of the Oyster Festival, 1980. Married Ruth Cameron Meyers in 1936. Four children: August Earle, Jr.; Mary Helen; Kathryn Ruth; Martha Lee. Died, April 23, 1981; interred Amite Cemetery. D.J.† Sources: Interview, August Earle Cefalu, Jr., and Mrs. Helen Brumfield (sister), Amite, Louisiana, May 18, 1983; Hammond Vindicator, April 30, 1981; Baton Rouge Morning Advocate, April 24, 1981.

CELESTIN, Oscar "Papa," musician. Born, Napoleonville, La., January 1, 1884. His early efforts were on guitar and mandolin. Worked for a few years as a cook on the Texas and Pacific Railroad before settling in St. Charles, La., and began playing trombone and trumpet in a local brass band. Removed to New Orleans, 1906 and joined the Indiana Brass Band on cornet. Also played with the Algiers Brass Band. Later worked with Jack Carey and the Olympia Band before leading his own band at Tuxedo Hall, New Orleans, from 1910 until it closed in 1913. Led his own band at Villa Cafe and then co-led a band with Ricard Alexis, later billed as the Original Tuxedo Brass Band. Around 1917 organized with William Ridgely the Original Tuxedo Orchestra, until they split up in 1925 with Celestin leading it himself. Recorded and toured the Gulf Coast states until the early 1930s. Celestin then left full time music but continued to lead his own band in New Orleans, including residency at the Pelican Roof in 1939. Worked in local shipyards during World War II until being seriously injured by a hit-and-run motorist in 1944. Began playing more regularly from 1946 and led at The Paddock in New Orleans. In May, 1953, went to Washington to play for President Eisenhower and appeared later that year in the film Cinerama Holiday. Died, New Orleans, December 15, 1954. C.S.B. Sources: John Chilton, Who's Who in Jazz … (1972); Al Rose and Edmond Souchon, New Orleans Jazz: A Family Album, 3rd ed. (1984).

CELLI, Romeo, sculptor, wooodcarver, painter, decorator. Born, Rome, Italy, November 20, 1877. Education: Colegio Rosi, L'Apollinare di Roma, Accademia di Belle Arti, Rome, Italy. Served in the Italian navy, ca. 1895-1904, left with rank of petty officer. Arrived at New Orleans, April, 1904. Married, Mamie Tedesco of New Orleans. Children: Dr. Ernest Celli, Mrs. E. J. Rolling. Noted for his carved plaques, particularly the portraits of Woodrow Wilson, Benito Mussolini, and New Orleans mayor Martin Behrman (q.v.); carved furniture; carved altar of St. Mary Assumption Church, New Orleans. Died, New Orleans, June 24, 1935. J.A.M. Source: The Historic New Orleans Collection, Encyclopaedia of New Orleans Artists, 1718-1918 (1987).

CENAS, Blaise
, first New Orleans postmaster, sheriff. Born, Marseilles, France. In 1802 or 1803, removed to Philadelphia and soon thereafter married Paulina Baker, daughter of Hilary Baker, the mayor of that city. Children: Hilary Breton Cenas (1805-1859); Dr. Augustus H. Cenas (b. 1807); Peter Cenas (1810-1845); and a daughter. Removed to New Orleans in late summer, 1804. Officially appointed postmaster on October 1, 1804, and held position until April 1, 1810. Responsible for establishing first workable postal system and post roads in New Orleans area. Served as sheriff in New Orleans until his death on March 25, 1812. K.H. Sources: Leonard V. Huber and Clarence A. Wagner, The Great Mail: A Postal History of New Orleans (1949); Moniteur de la Louisiane, March 28, 1812; Stanley Clisby Arthur and George Campbell Huchet de Kernion, Old Families of Louisiana (1931; reprint ed., 1971); Census of 1810.

CESSAC, Antoine
, merchant, cattleman, farmer. Born, Vermilion Parish, La., June 11, 1856; son of Pierre Cady Cessac (q.v.), of France, and Céleste Elmira Trahan of Opelousas. Transported sugar, lumber, cotton and cattle to the ports of Morgan City, New Orleans, Grand Isle, and Galveston, Tex. With brother Charles (q.v.) owned six sections of cattle raising land at Belle Isle, La. Married, 1906, Zulma Laplace, daughter of Henry Laplace and Amicha Dyson. They made their farm home on the banks of Petit Bayou des Cessac. Children: Céleste, Henry, Mabel, Amelia, Gertrude, Evelyn, Theresa, Charles Reed, and Antoine, Jr. Member: Catholic Church. Died, 1949; interred Esther Cemetery. R.M.L. Sources: Records kept by Zulma L. Cessac; Esther, La., Cemetery; Recounts of events by Antoine Cessac, Sr., to the family; Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); History of Vermilion Parish, Louisiana (1983).

CESSAC, Charles, businessman, farmer, rancher. Born, July 14, 1854; son of Pierre Cady Cessac (q.v.) of Bordeaux, France, and Céleste Trahan of Washington, La. Reared in Vermilion Parish, La., in the area known as Little Egypt. Education: private tutoring. With brothers, Pierre, Jr., and Antoine, engaged in the coastal trade in their sailing vessel, The Three Brothers. Transported cattle, cotton, sugar, flour, corn, furs, lumber, hogs, and supplies for people living along the coast and along the bayous. Married Amanda Smith of Prairie Gregg, Vermilion Parish, December 24, 1881. Children: Henry, Maude, Joséphine, August, Terrance, Amy, Adonia, Alphonse, Odalie, Octavie, Joseph, Mary Zoë (q.v.), Edmond, Julie, Alpha, Olivia, and Antoine (q.v.). Made his home at such coastal locations as Belle Isle, Chênière au Tigre, and Campbell's Ferry. Farmed, ranched, and trapped at each of these locations. Died, Campbell's Ferry, Vermilion Parish, February 18, 1921; interred St. James Cemetery, Esther, La. A.S.H. Sources: Records kept by Zoë Cessac Sagrera; St. James Cemetery, Esther, La.; Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984).

CESSAC, Mary Zoë
, pioneer. Born, January 8, 1894; daughter of Charles Cessac (q.v.) and Amanda Smith. Reared at Chênière au Tigre and Belle Isle in Vermilion Parish, La., on the Gulf Coast. More often engaged in the chores of her brothers in connection with cattle ranching than with the chores of her sisters around the house. Married Raphael Semmes Sagrera (q.v.), August 28, 1912. Children: Alice Amanda, Raphael Charles, Anthony Semmes, Mary Zoë, Mary Olga, and Lloyd George. With her husband, a farmer, rancher, and trapper, lived a pioneer's life at Chênière au Tigre. Assisted those in need whenever called upon: in addition to her duties as a wife and mother, often aided others as nurse, advisor, consoler. Rode herd whenever there was a lack of men to do so. During World War II, nursed and fed daily twenty to thirty Coast Guardsmen patrolling the Louisiana coast from the mouth of the Mississippi River to Sabine Pass. A Roman Catholic. Died, Bastrop, La., June 15, 1960; interred St. James Cemetery, Esther, La. A.S.H. Sources: Zoë Cessac Sagrera family letters; Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984).

CESSAC, Pierre Cady, businessman. Born, Bordeaux, France, ca. 1805. Served in the French Navy. Arrived in Louisiana, ca. 1840, aboard his own schooner. Engaged in the coastal trade between New Orleans and Galveston, Tex., frequently travelling inland to South Louisiana towns situated on the region's many bayous. Married Céleste Elmira Trahan of Washington, La., September 24, 1858. Children: Adolph; Pierre, Jr.; Charles (q.v.); Antoine (q.v.); and Joséphine. Operated a sawmill on the Mermentau River and a store and bakery on the Vermilion River at the juncture of Petit Bayou des Cessac. He and family remained in area despite the cholera epidemic of 1847, the great hurricane of 1856, and the yellow-fever epidemic of 1867. Died, October 5, 1870; interred St. James Cemetery, Esther, La. A.S.H. Sources: Interviews with Antoine Cessar, Sr.; records kept by Zoë Cessac Sagrera; St. James Cemetery, Esther, La.; Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); genealogy records by Elta M. Petry; articles by Ray Lacour and Amanda S. Hanks in Vermilion Parish History, Louisiana.

CHACHERE, Louis Veilland
, politician. Born, St. Landry Parish, La., March 26, 1824; son of Veilland Chachere and Marie Héloïse Lavergne. Married, April 30, 1845, Emma Boutté, daughter of Adélard Boutté and Alexandrine Richard. Sheriff, St. Landry Parish, 1856-1858. Civil War record: sergeant, Company H, Seventh Louisiana Cavalry; paroled at Washington, La., June 16, 1865. Clerk of court, St. Landry Parish, 1866. Died, Opelousas, June 8, 1867; interred Opelousas. J.L.F. Sources: Opelousas Daily World, November 3, 1955; Chachere family papers.

CHAILLE, Stanford Emerson
, physician, research scientist, academic, medical administrator. Born, Natchez, Miss., July 9, 1830; son of William Hamilton Chaillé and Mary Eunice Priscilla Stanford. Education: private tutors until mother's death in 1844; then Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., 1844-1847; and Harvard College, 1847-1851; University of Louisiana, M. D., 1853; resident student at Charity Hospital, 1852-1853. Resident physician, United States Marine Hospital, 1853-1854. Resident physician of the Circus (Rampart) Street Infirmary, 1854-1860. Married, February 23, 1857, to Laura E. Mountfort (d. 1858). One daughter. Demonstrator of anatomy, University of Louisiana from March 20, 1858, to March 29, 1860. Study in Paris with Claude Bernard, April 1860 to October 1861. With outbreak of Civil War returned to New Orleans as an ardent secessionist. Enlisted as a private, New Orleans Light Horse, 1861. From February 17, 1862, to May 1, 1862, acting surgeon general of Louisiana. From May 12, 1862, to July 24, 1863, surgeon and medical inspector, Army of the Tennessee, on staff of Gen. Braxton Bragg (q.v.). July 1863 to January 1864 surgeon in charge of Fair Ground No. 2 Hospital in Atlanta. Beginning in January 1864 he supervised construction and operation as surgeon-in-charge, Ocmulgee Hospital, Macon, Ga. Later captured and paroled. Lecturer in obstetrics, University of Louisiana (now Tulane University), until returned to Paris, 1866-1867; thereafter professor of Physiology and Pathological Anatomy, March 29, 1867, to 1908; additional position of professor of Hygiene after April 2, 1891; and dean of the medical faculty, June 1, 1885, until retirement at a public jubilee on May 20, 1908. Editor, New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal, November 1857 to January 1868. President, Havana Yellow Fever Commission of the National Board of Health, 1881-1882; member, National Board of Health, 1885-1893. Member, Committee on the Organization of the International Medical Congress, Washington, D. C., in 1887. Friend and physician to Jefferson Davis (q.v.), including his final illness, 1889. His research, writing, and teaching ranged widely on the important topics of his age. He published more than 150 articles on vital statistics, public hygiene, medical jurispridence, medical ethics, yellow fever, intimidation of voters in Reconstruction Louisiana, alcoholism, medical education, and biography. He was one of the authors of the new constitutions and by-laws for the Orleans Parish Medical Society (May 6, 1878) and the Louisiana State Medical Society (April 9, 1879). Died, New Orleans, May 27, 1911; interred Washington Cemetery. J.P.M. Sources: Notebooks, journals and reprints at the Rudolph Matas Medical Library, Tulane University Medical Center; Special Collections, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library, Tulane University; Louisiana Collection, Department of Archives, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge; George Denegre, NOMSJ, LXV (1912); Isidore Cohn, NOMSJ, XCI (1939); Dictionary of American Biography (1928); American Men and Women of Science, editions 1-2; obituary, New Orleans Times-Picayune, May 28, 1911; John Duffy, The Rudolph Matas History of Medicine in Louisiana (1962); John Duffy, The Tulane University Medical Center (1984); Kenneth Ray Whitehead, "A Biography of Stanford Emerson Chaillé, 1830-1876" (M.A. thesis, Louisiana State University, 1961).

CHALKLEY, Henry George (Harry)
, businessman, cattleman, leader in the rice and soybean industry, Boy Scout and civic leader. Son of Harry George Chalkley and Mary Bradley. Education: local schools, U. S. Naval Academy. Served in the U. S. Navy, 1919-1924, and in naval reserve to 1941. Called to active duty, 1941, and served in Orange, Tex., as supervisor of shipbuilding. Separated from service in 1956 with the rank of captain. Married, November 27, 1927, O'Dell Moran, of Baltimore, Md., daughter of Dr. Henry A. Moran. No children. Democratic party. President, Sweet Lake Land & Oil Co., president, North American Land Co., Inc.; H. G. Chalkley & Sons, Inc.; Calcasieu Real Estate & Oil Co.; American Rice Growers Cooperative Association; Fairchild Oil Co. Chairman, board of directors, Rice Council for Market Development; Lake Charles Memorial Hospital; Lake Charles Harbor and Terminal District. Member, Burton Coliseum Advisory Committee; director and deputy chairman, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta; member of the Advisory Committee to the Secretary of Agriculture; president, Lake Charles Chamber of Commerce, 1945-1947; president, Boy Scouts, Seventh Congressional District; Lake Charles Community Chest; board of directors, Boys' Village; Lake Charles Rotary Club. Received the Civic Service Award of the Greater Lake Charles Chamber of Commerce, 1977. Member: Episcopal church. Died, Williamsburg, Va., May 3, 1979; interred Lake Charles, Prien Memorial Park. D.J.M. Source: Lake Charles American Press, February 25, 1978; obituary May 7, 1979.

CHALLONER, William Lindsay
, ship captain, artist, marine painter. Born, Bedminster, England, 1852; son of Thomas Skillern Challoner and Melina H. Banks. Education: York Naval Academy; second mate, awarded by the Lords of Common Privy Council for Trade, London, England, 1879. Married, 1880, Mary Cadigan, of Queenstown (Cobh), Ireland. Children: Mary, Thomas, Neville Butler, Helen, Mildred, William Lindsay, Jr. Commanded fruit trade ships out of New York City, New Orleans, 1882-1897, and San Francisco. Listed in 1887 New Orleans city directory as artist; granted U. S. citizenship, San Francisco, 1887. Commanded S. S. Joseph Ateli, Jr., 1897; first mate on transports in Caribbean for U.S.A. during Spanish-American War, 1898; received Masters License of Oceans, Seas, and Gulf, New Orleans, 1899. Painted ships and marine scapes in oils and watercolors. Exhibited at Grunewald's Music Store, New Orleans, 1887; Twenty-third Exhibition of the Mechanics' Institute, San Francisco, 1888. Died, Baltimore, Md., October 19, 1901. R.M. Sources: The Historic New Orleans Collection, Encyclopaedia of New Orleans Artists, 1719-1918 (1987); information from Rosemary Challoner Wilkinson, March 27, 1984.

CHAMBERS, Henry E., educator, historian. Born, New Orleans, March 28, 1860, son of Joseph Chambers and Maria Charles. Education: public and private schools, New Orleans; Tulane University; Johns Hopkins University, Ph. D. Married Ellen White Taylor of Crystal Springs, Miss., 1883. Children: John Taylor and Henry Edward, Jr. Teacher in rural schools of Arkansas, superintendent of Beaumont, Tex., schools; principal and teacher, New Orleans public schools; assistant professor of Science, Tulane University; principal and teacher, Monroe public schools, 1877-1901. Editor of Progressive Teacher; founder and editor, 1893-1894 Louisiana School Review. Head of Louisiana State Chautauqua; member State Teachers' Institute, and National Education Association. Founded Chambers Agency, Inc. (1905-1912); with LaVallière Company, 1914 until death. Author of Constitutional History of Hawaii (1896), West Florida (1898), Mississippi Valley Beginnings (1922), History of Louisiana, State and People (1925), and a history of the United States which was set in Braille. Member: New Orleans Chess Club, University Club, Louisiana Historical Society, Mississippi Valley Historical Association, and American Historical Association Died of stroke, New Orleans, March 8, 1929. G.R.C. Sources: Who Was Who in America, 1897-1942; New Orleans Times-Picayune, March 9, 1929.

CHAMBERS, Josiah
, planter, soldier. Born, Rapides Parish, La., August 9, 1820. Privately educated; attended Kenyon College, Ohio. Married Frances Ann Williams, 1841. Planted cotton and sugarcane on Bayou Robert lands. Served with Graham's Volunteers in Mexican War, 1845-1846. Vestryman of St. James Episcopal Church, Alexandria, La., 1847. Served as a Whig party delegate to state convention, January, 1861; first lieutenant in Captain Benjamin's cavalry company in Civil War. Died, 1917; interred Mount Olivet Cemetery, Pineville, La. P.K.B. Sources: George P. Whittington, Rapides Parish Louisiana, A History (n.d.); Louisiana State University Archives; Red River Whig.

CHAMPAGNE, Jean-George
, businessman, farmer, politician. Born, Breaux Bridge, La., June 16, 1877; son of Leo Pierre Champagne (b. 1838) and Arthemise Rees (b. 1853). Education: local schools. Married (1) Laurence St. Germain (1885-1909) of Breaux Bridge on October 2, 1905; daughter of Raymond St. Germain (b. 1851) and Marie Corine Ledoux. One child: Marie Mercedes (b. 1907). Married (2) Cecilia Dora Fabacher (1894-1937) of New Orleans, La., January 12, 1916; daughter of Joseph Henry Fabacher (b. 1858) and Dora Ginkel (b. 1850). Children: Marie Cecilia (1916-1970), Jean-George, Jr. (b. 1918), Leo Pierre ([II] b. 1921), and Joseph Henry (b. 1925). Active in the development of farming as a viable industry throughout Southwest Louisiana, principally in St. Martin and St. Landry parishes. Active in the organization of the Breaux Bridge Sugar Cooperative and served as president. Served as mayor of Breaux Bridge, 1919-1921. Champagne Boulevard, Breaux Bridge memorializes him. Served several terms on the Atchafalaya Basin Levee Board. A lifelong member of St. Bernard Catholic Church, Breaux Bridge. Died, December 25, 1954, Lafayette, La.; interred St. Bernard Catholic Church Cemetery, Breaux Bridge. L.P.C. Source: Author's research.

CHAMPOMIER, Pierre Antoine
, sugar-trade journalist. Born, France, ca. 1794. Author of a series of statistical reports on South Louisiana sugar parishes entitled Statement of Sugar Made in Louisiana. Resided in New Orleans, 1834-1867, where he was a merchant and produce broker. Traveled rivers and bayous obtaining information directly from sugar planters; his "annuals" are an invaluable record and a directory of the twenty-three sugar parishes before the Civil War; also gave listings of sugar planters in the southeastern counties of Texas; his trade reports provided insight into the direction of the sugar industry. Returned to France after the Civil War and died there. J.B.C. Sources: Roland R. Stansbury, comp., Statement of Sugar Made in Louisiana … , by P. A. Champomier (reprint ed., 1987); New Orleans Times-Democrat, May 8, 1910.

CHAPELLE, Placide Louis, clergyman, diplomat, prelate. Born, Runes, Lozère, France, August 28, 1842; son of Jean-Baptiste and Marie-Antoinette (de Viala) Chapelle. Educated, local schools; College of Enghien, Belgium; St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, entering at age 17. After earning doctorate in theology, taught at St. Charles College from 1862 until priestly ordination, June 28, 1865, in Baltimore. Following five years of missionary work in Maryland, became assistant at St. John's Church, Baltimore, later becoming its pastor. Secretary to the Tenth Provincial Council of Baltimore, 1869; theologian to Archbishop Martin J. Spalding, of Baltimore, at First Vatican Council, 1869-1870; notary at Third Plenary Council of Baltimore, 1884. By 1882, pastor of St. Matthew's Church, Washington, D. C., becoming a friend of ambassadors, foreign diplomatic corps members, statesmen, and United States officials, including Presidents Chester Arthur, Benjamin Harrison, and Grover Cleveland. Accomplished linguist, spoke French, English, Spanish and Italian, with reading knowledge of classical languages. On November 1, 1891, Chapelle was consecrated titular Bishop of Arabissus and coadjutor to Archbishop Jean-Baptiste Salpointe of Santa Fe with the right of succession. It is said that New Orleans would have been his preference since he had visited at times the Crescent City and made numerous friends there in the company of James Cardinal Gibbons. Chapelle's chance to return to New Orleans came upon the death in mid-1897 of Archbishop Francis Janssens (q.v.) whom he succeeded six months later. Within a year, became apostolic delegate to Cuba and Puerto Rico and, a year after that, September 1899, papal envoy extraordinary to the Philippine Islands, where he spent two years in delicate negotiations, including ownership of friars' lands. After receiving in Rome the title of assistant at the pontifical throne in recognition of his diplomatic services, proceeded to Paris to attend peace conference following end of the Spanish-American War. Duties for the Holy See caused long absences from New Orleans and dissatisfaction among some of its clergy. A more serious cause for clerical criticism was the archbishop's determination to wipe out the diocesan debt extending back to the tenure of Archbishop Napoléon J. Perché, (q.v.) by imposing 12% tax on parish revenues. However, at Midnight Mass at the Cathedral in 1904 he announced that the debt of 24 years had finally been fully paid. Early in 1905, he planned a confirmation tour from Bayou Lafourche to the Sabine River, with 49 churches included in the itinerary. In July, 1905, New Orleans had its last epidemic of yellow fever and the archbishop hastened, in early August, from Lake Charles to be with his New Orleans flock. Within a week of his arrival, he died, August 9. Due to quarantine, he was interred with minimal solemnity in St. Louis Cathedral, August 11. Chapelle Street in the Lakeview section of New Orleans and Chapelle High School, Metairie, named for subject. H.C.B. Sources: Helen, Estelle, and Imogene Philibert, St. Matthew's of Washington, 1840-1940; Joseph Bernard Code, Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964); Roger Baudier, The Catholic Church in Louisiana; "Archdiocese of New Orleans Centennial Supplement," Catholic Action of the South, XVIII, No. 44 (October 5, 1950).

CHAPITAL, Arthur Joseph
, labor and civil-rights leader. Born, New Orleans, September 13, 1901, son of Gustave Chapital and Marie Bousquet. Religion: United Church of Christ. Education: public elementary schools of New Orleans and Straight College (now Dillard University). Employee of U. S. Post Office, 1925-1962, including postal supervisor at Camp Leroy Johnson at time of retirement. Secretary and president, New Orleans branch, National Alliance of Postal and Federal Employees (N.A.P.F.E.); president, District 4, N.A.P.F.E. (Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi); national vice-president, N.A.P.F.E. for four years and a member of the national executive committee for ten years. NAACP life member; president, New Orleans Branch NAACP, 1952-1962, executive secretary, 1964-1968; urban program director, 1968-1970; vice-president and treasurer, Louisiana State Conference, NAACP. While serving as branch president or executive secretary New Orleans Branch enrolled 5,000 or more members; guided the branch through beginning of desegregation of schools, public transit, public parks, playground, hotels, lunch counters and taxi cabs; conducted voter registration drives to increase Negro registration and voter participation. Successor as branch president was Ernest N. Morial, first black mayor of New Orleans. Thirty-third Degree Mason of the Grand Consistory of Louisiana Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry. Married, 1920, Alma Glapion of New Orleans, daughter of Octave Glapion and Mathilda Herrin. Seven children. Died, New Orleans, April 23, 1972; interred St. Louis Cemetery III. R.C. Sources: NAACP Papers, Amistad Research Center, New Orleans; New Orleans Branch NAACP Papers, Archives, Earl K. Long Library, University of New Orleans.

CHAPPUIS, Philip J., attorney, mayor of Crowley, La. Born near Thibodaux, La., September 26, 1865; son of Joséphine Toups and Jules Chappuis. Education: local public and private schools; graduated, Thibodaux College, 1883; read law privately. Married Eulalie Marie Bourgeois, daughter of Joséphine LeFort and L. Norbert Bourgeois, in Thibodaux, May 19, 1891. Children: Claude Louis (b. 1892), Guy Joseph (b. 1895), and Aline Marie (Mrs. A. C. Maraist, b. 1903). Career: taught in Lafourche Parish Public Schools, 1883. Employed as clerk/bookkeeper in Rayne, La., by uncle, Anselm S. Chappuis, 1883-1885. Returned to Thibodaux and read law in the office of Louis P. Caillouet (q.v.), 1885-1887; admitted to Louisiana bar, July 9, 1887. Removed to Rayne and practiced law, 1887-1889. Removed to Crowley, seat of the newly created parish of Acadia, 1889; appeared before the United States Supreme Court, ca. 1895, and was admitted to practice before that body; was active in his profession for fifty-five years. Mayor of Crowley, 1894-1898, and 1902-1906. Director, First Naitonal Bank of Crowley and Bank of Acadia; stockholder in local irrigation company; officer of newspaper corporation which published the Rice Belt News; co-founder of a hospital located in south Crowley. Member: Roman Catholic church, Knights of Columbus, Elks, The Progressive Union, parish, state, and national bar associations; a Democrat except for a brief flirtation with the Republican party in early 1900s; vice-president of Thibodaux College Alumni Association. Celebrated fifty years of practice with friends and fellow lawyers, September 13, 1937, when he was honored as dean of Acadia Parish attorneys. Died, Crowley, December 19, 1942; interred Woodlawn Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: Interview with Philip J. Chappuis, II, Crowley, La., October 3, 1987; Chappuis family papers; Christine Simon, term paper in author's possession; Mary Alice Fontenot, Acadia Parish, Louisiana: A History to 1920 (1979); Dorothy McNeely, History of Crowley (1987); Crowley Acadian Signal, December 24, 1942.

CHARLES, Joséphine, religious co-founder, and superior general of the Sisters of the Holy Family. Born, New Orleans, 1812; daughter of a German named Haus and a black woman; in 1843, joined Henriette Delille (q.v.) and Juliette Gaudin (q.v.) to found a religious community of Negro nuns; the community came to be known as the Sisters of the Holy Family; the sisters were dedicated to the care of needy members of their race by the establishment of schools, orphan asylums, and homes for the sick and aged; was superior general of the order, 1867-1882, although she became totally blind in 1880. Died, May 20, 1885. J.B.C. Sources: Mary Francis Borgia Hart, Violets in the King's Garden, A History of the Sisters of the Holy Family of New Orleans (1976); Audrey Marie Detiege, Henriette Delille, Free Woman of Color, Foundress of the Sisters of the Holy Family (1976).

CHARLES, Robert, black nationalist. Born, 1865 or 1866, near Pine Bluff on Bayou Pierre, Copiah County, Miss.; son of Jasper and Miriah Charles. Education: census of 1880 lists him as age 14 and literate. Career: worked on land his family farmed as sharecroppers; laborer for a waterworks company in Vicksburg, 1887; section hand for railroad company, 1888-1892; involved in a gunfight with railroad flagmen on May 23, 1892; went back to Copiah County and assumed the name, Curtis Robertson; appeared in court in 1894 for selling whiskey in a dry county; was released and left for New Orleans. Worked as a manual laborer at various jobs; joined the International Migration Society in May 1896; its purpose was to transport American Negroes back to Africa; made one payment on a voyage to Liberia; resumed his given name; distributed migration literature in New Orleans and Mississippi, 1896-1900. While waiting for a girlfriend on night of July 23, 1900, was ordered by two policemen to leave the racially mixed neighborhood; both he and an officer were wounded in an exchange of gunfire; excaped and hid out on Saratoga Street; during the ensuing four-day manhunt race riots erupted in the city; each of New Orleans' four major newspapers contributed to some extent to the violence; at least fifty people, mostly black, were severely beaten, fifteen were shot, and eleven were killed; the mob was composed mostly of laboring-class young white men; from his hiding place he killed seven people (four of whom were policemen), wounded eight (three policemen), and slightly wounded twelve civilians. Was shot and killed by a medical student who had volunteered to enter the house. Died, of multiple gunshot wounds, July 27, 1900; that night, Lafon School, a Negro school, was burned by a mob. At the morgue his body was viewed by hundreds of curious New Orleanians. Interred Holt's Cemetery, the local potters field. J.B.C. Sources: William Ivy Hair, Carnival of Fury, Robert Charles and the New Orleans Race Riots of 1900 (1976); David C. Roller and Robert W. Twyman, eds., The Encyclopedia of Southern History (1979); New Orleans Daily Picayune, July 24-29, 1900.

CHARLEVILLE, Joseph Alonzo, merchant, planter, politician. Born on father's Little River plantation, April 20, 1842; son of Jean-Baptiste Chauvin Charleville and Marie Aurore Rachal. Education: received secondary education in St. Louis, Mo.; enrolled January 2, 1860, as one of fifty-nine students in the first class of Louisiana State Seminary of Learning and Military Academy at Alexandria (now Louisiana State University) under the presidency of Capt. William Tecumseh Sherman (q.v.). Enlisted May 17, 1861, at New Orleans as a private in Company D, Third Louisiana Infantry; promoted to rank of sergeant; wounded Battle ot Iuka; saw action in defense of Vicksburg against Sherman's advance, 1863; captured at Vicksburg, and paroled on condition that he not take up arms again; re-enrolled March 29, 1864, at Natchitoches in defense against the Federal invasion of Red River; paroled June 8, 1865. Was a delegate to Louisiana state convention of 1872 which sought to heal the breach between various political factions in postwar Louisiana; served a number of years as notary public and justice of the peace at Cloutierville. Married (1) Salome A. Newton (daughter of Abijah Newton), January 10, 1867. No children. Married (2) Christine Henriette "Harriet" Bertrand (b. 1853, Couches-les-Mines, Department of Saone-et-Loire, France), daughter of Charles Claude Bertrand (q.v.) of France and Marie Florentine Rachal of Cloutierville, September 23, 1873. Nine children: Frederick Armstrong (b. 1875); Marie Eloise (b. 1877); Joseph Alonzo, Jr. (b. 1879); Marie Anna (b. December 31, 1880); Bertrand "Bat" (b. 1883); Anna (b. 1884); Katherine "Kate" Aurore (b. 1888); Dora Minerva "Minnie" (b. November 3, 1890); Lucious (b. December 19, 1896). Died, Cloutierville, December 27, 1899; interred parish cemetery of St. Jean-Baptiste in that village. E.S.M. Sources: Elizabeth Shown Mills, Chauvin dit Charleville (1976); Registrations of Births, 1853, Office of the Mayor, Couches-les-Mines; Ecclesiastical Registers, St. John the Baptist Catholic Church, Cloutierville, La.

CHARLEVOIX, Pierre-François-Xavier de
, explorer, writer. Born, St. Quentin, France, October 29, 1682; son of François de Charlevoix and Antoinette Forestier. Education: College Louis-le-Grand, Paris, 1701-1704; Jesuit seminaries. Ordained to the diaconate, 1704. Went to New France, 1705, as professor of rhetoric in the Jesuit College at Quebec. Returned to France in 1709. Ordained to priesthood, 1712. Taught literature and composition at Jesuit College of Orléans, 1713-1714. Engaged in studies at Rouen, 1714-1715. Professor of Philosophy, Jesuit College of Orléans, 1715-1717. Dean of boarding students, Jesuit College of La Flèche, 1718. Assigned by order to Paris in 1718. Sent by regent of France to North America, 1720, to establish the boundaries of Acadia and to find a new route to the Sea of the West (Pacific Ocean). Travelled along the St. Lawrence, Great Lakes, Illinois, and Mississippi, arriving at New Orleans in 1722. Member, editorial staff of Jesuit periodical Mémoires pour l'histoire des sciences et des beaux arts, 1733-ca. 1753. Jesuit agent for mission in North America, 1742-1749. Published: Histoire de l'établissement du christianisme au Japon (1715); Vie de la Mère Marie de l'Incarnation (1724); Histoire de l'Isle Espagnole ou S. Domingue (1730); Histoire du Japon (1736); Histoire et description générale de la Nouvelle France avec le journal historique d'un voyage fait par l'ordre du roi dans l'Amérique septentrionale (1744); Histoire du Paraguay (1756). His Histoire et description générale remains one of the most important reference works for the French experience in North America, including Louisiana. Died, La Flèche, France, February 1, 1761. C.A.B. Sources: Charles E. O'Neill, ed., Charlevoix's Louisiana: Selections from the History and Journal (1977); Claude de Bonnault, "Charlevoix," in M. Prévost and Roman D'Amat, eds., Dictionnaire de biographie française, (1956), VIII; Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896.

CHASE, Philander
, first Episcopal bishop of Ohio, and founder of Kenyon College. Born, Cornish, N. H., December 14, 1775; son of Dudley Chase and Allace Corbett. Education: local schools; Dartmouth College, graduated 1795. Converted from Congregational to Episcopal church, ca. 1794. Served as public school teacher, Albany, N. Y., while studying for the ministry. Ordained: deacon, June 19, 1798, and priest, November 10, 1799, by Bishop Samuel Provost of New York. Served as teacher and missionary in northern and western New York state before accepting pastorates at Poughkeepsie and Fishkill, N. Y. Accepted call to newly organized church, afterwards Christ Church, in New Orleans; rector, 1805-1811. Celebrated first Episcopal service in Louisiana, November 17, 1805, New Orleans. While in Louisiana, Chase taught school. Returned to New England, 1811, because of chronic financial difficulties of his congregation. Rector, Christ Church, Hartford, 1811-1817. Migrated to Ohio early in 1817. Organized the first convention of the Episcopal Church in Ohio in Columbus, January 8, 1818. Elected bishop of Ohio, Worthington, June 3, 1818; consecrated February 11, 1819, St. James's Church, Philadelphia, by Bishop William White. President, Cincinnati College, 1821-1822. Founded Gambier Theological Seminary and Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, 1824, and served as first president. Resigned as bishop of Ohio, 1831, after protracted disputes with the clergy and the faculty of Kenyon College. Moved to Michigan, served as a missionary. Elected bishop of Illinois, 1835. Founded Jubilee College at Robin's Nest, Peoria County, Ill., 1838; cornerstone laid April 3, 1839. Travelled to England in 1838 to raise money for the college and throughout the South in the winter of 1839-1840, visiting New Orleans, where on January 15, 1840, he presided over the second convention of the Diocese of Louisiana. Became presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church in 1843. Published several works including his autobiography (1848). Married (1), 1796, to Mary Fay, daughter of Daniel and Mary Fay of Hardwick, Mass. Children: George and Philander. Married (2) Sophia May Ingraham, daughter of Duncan and Susannah Ingraham of Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Two children: one son and a daughter. Died, Jubilee College, Ill., September 20, 1852, after being thrown from his carriage. P.C.L. Sources: Philander Chase, Bishop Chase's Reminiscences; The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, VII; Hodding Carter and Betty Werlein Carter, So Great a Good: A History of the Episcopal Church in Louisiana and of Christ Church Cathedral, 1805-1955 (1955); Georgiana Fairbanks Taylor, "The Early History of the Episcopal Church in New Orleans, 1805-1840," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXII (1939); Robert C. Witcher, "The Episcopal Church in Louisiana, 1805-1861" (Ph. D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1969); K. J. Gallagher, "Philander Chase," Dictionary of American Biography, IV.

CHASE, William Henry
, military engineer, businessman, promoter. Born, Massa¬chusetts, 1798. Education: West Point, class of 1814. First lieutenant assigned to New Orleans District, 1814, to supervise building of forts along the Gulf Coast. Forts built upon the concepts of French military engineer Sébastien Vauban (1632-1707). Under the direct command of Brig. Gen. Simon Bernard (1779-1839). Louisiana fortifications to be built were Livingston, Jackson, Macomb, Pike, and Proctor (Beauregard). Alabama forts to be constructed were Gaines and Morgan, while Florida defenses were Pickens, McRae, Barrancas. Promoted development of Florida railroads, real estate, banking, business, and manufacturing while in Pensacola. Retired from the army in 1856 as major to continue Pensacola business activities. During Civil War was first colonel, then major general of Florida troops. He directed attacks upon Fort Pickens which he had earlier built. Shortly afterward was placed on inactive list. Died, Pensacola, Fla., February 8, 1870. B.G. Sources: Ernest Dibble, Antebellum Pensacola and the Military Presence (1974), Vol. III; Frederick Robertson, Soldiers of Florida (reprint; 1983); Francis B. Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army (1965), I.

CHASSAIGNAC, Eugène, composer, music critic. Born, Nantes, France, 1820. Studied music in Paris with Ludovic Halévy. Came to New Orleans and wrote theatre and music columns for Le Moniteur du Sud, La Chronique, Le Meschacébé, and Le Louisianais. In 1850 removed to Pointe Coupée Parish, La., where he married Elvire Porche. In 1852, taught at the Collège de la Mobile. In 1857 taught music history in New Orleans. Opened a music store, Elie et Chassaignac; quarreled with his associate Elie in 1859 and would have fought a duel had the police not intervened. Grand commander of the Scottish Rite Lodge, tried in 1867 to have men of color admitted as members. Created in May 1869 the Bulletin de la Maconnerie louisianaise. Composed many songs, some for which he provided the words, and others to poems by his friends such as Placide Canonge (q.v.) and Auguste de Chatillon (q.v.). A few songs published in La Violette (1849); others published in Boston, Paris, and New Orleans, between 1850 and 1872. Most of his manuscripts were destroyed in a fire at Morgan City where his wife had removed after his death. One comic opera, La Nuit aux echelles, performed in 1850 at the Théâtre de St. Martinville. Died, New Orleans, January 25, 1878. M.A. Sources: Edward Larocque Tinker, Les Ecrits de langue française en Louisiane au XIXe siècle (1932); Auguste Viatte, "Complément à la bibliographie d'Edward Larocque Tinker," Revue de Louisiane, III (1974); Louis Panzeri, Louisiana Composers (1972).

CHATEAUGUE (CHATEAUGUAY), Antoine Le Moyne de, sailor and soldier. Born, 1683, youngest son of Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil and Catherine Tierry (Primot)t. Went to France at age 15. Named midshipman (garde-marine) at Rochefort, France, February 22, 1699. In 1700, accompanied his brother Iberville (q.v.) on his second voyage to Louisiana where he would remain twenty-seven years. Commissioned ensign and named captain, February 1, 1703. Went to Fance, 1703, to raise a regiment, returned 1704 on the Pelican. Given command of La Précieuse which sank in a storm, December 24, 1705. Made frequent trips to Veracruz to get supplies. Accused of financial dishonesty along with his brother Bienville (q.v.), 1706; investigated by ordonnateur Martin Diron d'Artaguiette (q.v.); retained his rank and position. In 1708, negotiated a peace between Chickasaw and Choctaw. In 1716, brought from Saint-Domingue Louisiana's first rice seed. Commandant at Mobile. Named commander of the Louisiana troops, December 13, 1717, and second lieutenant du roy, April 13, 1718, a position which gave him a seat on the Superior Council. Commissioned director general of the colony in case of Bienville's absence, April 25, 1718. During Franco-Spanish war, took Bay St. Joseph where he built a fort which he abandoned two months later. August 9, 1719, surrendered Pensacola to a superior Spanish force; imprisoned in Havana until July 1720. Awarded the Cross of the Military Order of St. Louis, 1721. Commandant ad interim in Bienville's absence, April 1, 1724. Named lieutenant du roy, August 9, 1726. Recalled by the Company of the Indies, 1727. After leaving Louisiana, appointed to several important positions: lieutenant du roy at Fort Saint Pierre in Martinique, January 11, 1727; governor of Cayenne, July 1, 1737; governor of Isle Royale, January 1, 1745. Died, Rochefort, France, March 21, 1747. M.A. Sources: Alphabet Laffilard, 1627-1780; Dunbar Rowland and Albert G. Sanders, Mississippi Provincial Archives, 1701-1729 (1939); 1704-1743 (1932); Marcel Giraud, Histoire de la Louisiane française, vol. I, Le Règne de Louis XIV, 1698-1715 (1953); vol. II, Années de Transition, 1715-1717 (1958); vol. III, L'Epoque de John Law, 1717-1720 (1966); vol. IV, La Louisiane après le système de Law, 1721-1723; Jay Higginbotham, Old Mobile: Fort Louis de la Louisiane, 1702-1711 (1977).

CHATILLON, Auguste de, poet, sculptor, painter. Born, Paris, France, 1813. Active in the Jeunes-France movement. Friend of Victor Hugo and Théophile Gautier. Painted portraits of Hugo and his family. Arrived in New Orleans on January 13, 1845. Painted numerous portraits and published in New Orleans newspapers poems later collected in Les Poésies d'Auguste de Châtillon (1866). In 1848, with Develle, a scenery painter for the French Opera, painted a monumental battle scene: General Zachary Taylor at the Battle of Reseca de las Palmas. Travelled through the South and to New York exhibiting the painting, the whereabouts of which is today unknown. Returned to Paris in 1851. Painted portraits of the French royal family now in the Versailles museum. His portraits of M. and Mme. Bayon are in the Louisiana State Museum. Died, Paris, 1881. M.A. Sources: E. Bénézit, Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des peintres, sculpteurs, dessinateurs et graveurs … II (1976); "Souvenir de séjour aux Etats-Unis d'un artiste français (1845-1851)," in Mémoires d'Auguste de Châtillon présentés par Horace de Châtillon, typescript in Louisiana State University Archives.

CHAUVIN DE BEAULIEU, Louis, voyageur, concessionaire. Baptized, February 17, 1678; ninth child of Pierre Chauvin and Marthe Autreuil of the parish of Ville Marie, Montreal, Canada. Arrived in Detroit, June 14, 1706, continuing downriver to Gulf Coast. Adopted Beaulieu as surname. Accompanied Louis Juchereau de St-Denis (q.v.) in 1716 on overland commercial trip with 60,000 livres of merchandise to be sold in Texas region. Returned to Mobile in 1717; later Beaulieu's widow was compensated for his share of expedition losses. Joined brother Joseph Chauvin Deléry (q.v.) on Chapitoulas Coast in 1719. Enlarged holdings when he bought with his brother Nicolas Chauvin de La Frénière (q.v.) the tract briefly owned by Attorney General Chartier de Baulne on the edge of Bienville lands, on Bayou Metairie in 1724. Possibly the first inhabitant or property owner in what is now "Old Metairie". In that year, Louis harvested 600 measures of rice, 15 to 20 measures of beans, 300 of potatoes and 200 of indigo, besides having his share of lumber felled, treated, and sold with his two brothers Joseph and Nicolas for 12,000 livres. Chauvin de Beaulieu married in his forties Charlotte Orbanne Duval; record is missing. Died on or about January 30, 1729. H.C.B. Sources: Gary B. Mills, "The Chauvin Brothers: Early Colonists of Louisiana," Louisiana History, XV (1974); Henry C. Bezou, Metairie: A Tongue of Land to Pasture … (1973); Heidi LaForte, Chauvin de Charleville.

CHAUVIN DE LA FRENIERE, Nicholas, fils, administrator, insurrectionist. Born, New Orleans, September 30, 1728; son of Nicolas Chauvin de La Frénière, pere (q.v.) and Marguerite Le Sueur. Educated in France. Married (1) Mlle Hubert de Bellair, daughter of Jacques Hubert de Bellair and Catherine Nepveu. Child: a daughter who married Jean-Baptiste Payen de Noyan (q.v.). Married (2) Marie de La Chaise, daughter of Jacques de La Chaise and Marguerite d'Arensbourg. Returned to Louisiana in 1748. Replaced father on the Superior Council as acting councillor assesseur, 1749. Went to France on business, 1752. Returned to Louisiana, 1755. Recommended by Louis Billouart de Kerlérec (q.v.) for reappointment to the Superior Council, 1758. Sent to France as Kerlérec's personal envoy to the minister of Marine, 1759. Studied law while in France and admitted to the French bar. Appointed attorney general of Louisiana, January 1, 1763; served until August 1769. Implemented ministerial directive to expel the Jesuit order from Louisiana, July 1763. With Denis-Nicolas Foucault (q.v.), presided over public sale of huge Jesuit estate, July 1763. Became a leading force in the Superior Council through effective prosecution of Jesuits and successful effort to secure legislation banning importation of slave "criminals" from other French colonies. Resulting prestige reinforced by extensive family alliances with numerous civil administrators and military officers. La Frénière's position of influence was the source of growing friction between the attorney general and Gov. Antonio de Ulloa (q.v.), who attempted to establish Spanish dominion over the colony after his arrival in 1766. Was consequently the moving force behind the rebellion that ousted Ulloa in October 1768. Arrested on August 18, 1769, and charged with treason by Alejandro O'Reilly (q.v.), who restored Spanish control over the colony. Subsequently tried, found guilty, and sentenced to death. Executed by firing squad, New Orleans, October 25, 1769. C.A.B. Sources: Carl A. Brasseaux, Denis-Nicolas Foucault and the New Orleans Rebellion of 1768 (1987); Stanley Clisby Arthur, Old Families of Louisiana (1971); Jean Delanglez, The French Jesuits in Lower Louisiana, 1700-1763 (1935); Gary B. Mills, "The Chauvin Brothers: Early Colonists of Louisiana," Louisiana History, XV (1974), 117-132; Marc de Villiers du Terrage, The Last Years of French Louisiana (1982).

CHAUVIN DE LA FRENIERE, Nicolas
, père, first generation Canadian, pioneer settler on Chapitoulas Coast, member of Superior Council of French Louisiana. Born, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; baptized, June 19, 1676; eighth child of Pierre Chauvin and Marthe Autreuil. In Louisiana by 1706, taking the name of La Frénière. Ventured into Texas with Juchereau de Saint-Denis, 1716, as a merchant along with his brothers Joseph and Louis. The brothers, learning of confiscation of St.-Denis' (q.v.) merchandise, placed theirs in the hands of the Recollet priests at the Presidio del Norte which they soon left to return to Mobile, October 25, 1717. Despite opposition, La Frénière was named to fill a vacancy on Superior Council, governing body of the province. By 1720, Nicolas was with brothers Joseph Chauvin de Léry (q.v.) and Louis Chauvin de Beaulieu (q.v.), on the Chapitoulas Coast, successfully clearing land, tilling the soil, exploiting the virgin cypress forest, digging canals and drainage ditches. The Chauvins were early slave owners, having nearly a hundred according to 1721 census. In 1725, at Bienville's suggestion, the Company of the Indies sold its herd of sheep to La Frénière. Nicolas père, largest lumber contributor (1,345 1/2 feet) to first church of St. Louis, New Orleans, 1727. Nicolas married Marguerite LeSueur of Mobile, second cousin to Bienville, ca. 1724. With Chevalier de Pradel (q.v.) opened a tavern stocked with wine and liquor worth 1,000 livres, 1729; first cabaret of record in the capital. La Frénière increased his land holdings as his family grew, buying nearly 30 arpents of former Bienville lands directly above New Orleans, and portion of Kolly-Sainte-Reyne Plantation. Owned a townhouse in the city but probably reared his children—Nicolas fils (q.v.), Jean-Baptiste, François, Catherine, and Jeanne Marguerite—at his Chapitoulas plantation. Largely self-educated, he provided the best school opportunities for Nicolas, fils, sending him to France for law studies. His eldest son succeeded him on the Council, being appointed attorney general of Louisiana in 1763. Nicolas, père, died in 1749. H.C.B. Sources: Gary Mills, "The Chauvin Brothers: Early Colonists of Louisiana," Louisiana History, XV (1974); Henry C. Bezou, Metairie: A Tongue of Land to Pasture … (1973); Heidi LaForte, Chauvin de Charleville.

CHAUVIN DELERY, Joseph, companion of the Le Moyne brothers, voyageur, concessionaire. Baptized, April 14, 1674; seventh child of Pierre Chauvin and Marthe Autreuil of the parish of Ville Marie, Montreal, Canada. Came to Louisiana with Iberville's second expedition; on roll of Canadians ordered to embark on the Renommée, at La Rochelle, October 17, 1699; listed in census of garrison at Bay of Biloxi, May, 1700; showed loyalty to Bienville (q.v.) during impeachment proceedings, 1708; adopted appellation of De Léry (also spelled Deléry). Married, 1708 or 1709, Hypolite Mercier, widow of Valentin Barreau, in Mobile. Children: Antoine Chauvin Deléry des Islets (in some records, Desilets Deléry), Nicolas Joseph Boisclair Deléry, both by Hypolite; and François, born of Joseph's second wife, Françoise Laurence LeBlanc, whom he married May 24 (or 27), 1726. Involved, 1716-1717, with two of his brothers, in the commercial company formed by Louis Juchereau de St-Denis (q.v.) when Antoine Crozat (q.v.) still held a monopoly on trade in Louisiana Province. In March, 1719, petitioned Superior Council for a concession of six arpents' frontage at The Chapitoulas, extending from Mississippi River to Lake Pontchartrain. Despite varied success with some crops, his and neighboring brothers' agricultural efforts earned praise of memorialist André Pénicaut (q.v.), and of perceptive traveller Pierre de Charlevoix, S. J. (q.v.). In 1724, Deléry had under cultivation 140 cleared arpents producing 500 to 600 measures of rice, 60 barrels of corn and 500 barrels of potatoes, in addition to 100 pounds of indigo. Additionally, with his brothers, owned slaves whose work in the cypress swamps netted 12,000 livres that year. Deléry's livestock inventory included 20 cows and 8 draft oxen—substantial numbers for those primitive days. Joseph pledged funds for establishment of first school for boys in New Orleans but kept only part of his agreement; case went to Louisiana Superior Council. Sent by Governor Perier to Choctaws for aid to colonists after Natchez Massacre of 1729. Died, 1732; interred parish church cemetery, New Orleans, August 20. H.C.B. Sources: Gary B. Mills, "The Chauvin Brothers: Early Colonists of Louisiana," Louisiana History, XV (1974); Henry C. Bezou, Metairie: A Tongue of Land to Pasture … (1973); Heidi LaForte, Chauvin de Charleville.

CHENNAULT, Claire Lee
, military aviator. Born, Commerce, Tex., September 6, 1893; son of John Stonewall and Jessie Lee Chennault. Education: Louisiana State Normal College; Louisiana State University. Military service: joined the Aviation Section of the U. S. Army Signal Corps Reserve (Army Air Corps) in 1917 and served until his retirement, largely for deafness, in 1937. Became air advisor to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek of China; organized the famous Flying Tiger squadron composed of volunteer American pilots who fought with China against Japan in 1941. Reactivated in the U. S. Army Air Corps and served as a brigadier and major general of the 14th Air Force until 1945. After the war, organized the Civil Air Transport airline and rendered aid to the Nationalist Chinese in their struggle against the Communists. Married (1), December 25, 1911, Nell Thompson, daughter of J. W. Thompson of Mer Rouge; divorced 1946. Married (2), December 21, 1947, Anna Chan, daughter of Y. W. Chan, Chinese consul general in Sarawak, Borneo. Children: John Stephen (b. 1913), Max Thompson (b. 1914), Jessie Lee (b. 1916), Charles Lee (b. 1918), Claire Patterson (b. 1921), David Wallace (b. 1923), Robert Kenneth (b. 1925), Rosemary Louise (b. 1928), Clair Anna (b. 1949), Cynthia Louise (b. 1950). Member: Masonic order (32nd Degree; Shriner), American Legion, Veterans of Foreign Wars. Died, New Orleans, July 27, 1958; interred Arlington National Cemetery. M.S.L. Sources: Robert B. Hotz, ed., Way of a Fighter: The Memoirs of Claire Lee Chennault (1949); Anna Chennault, Chennault and the Flying Tigers (1963); Wanda Cornelius and Thayne Short, Ding Hao: America's Air War in China, 1937-1945 (1980); Jack Samson, Chennault (1987); Chennault Papers are located at Stanford University.

CHERRIE, Ernest E.,, physician, business executive. Born, New Orleans, July 24, 1899; son of Joseph and Clara Cherrie. Education: local schools; Straight College (now Dillard University); Northwestern University, Chicago, Ill.; Howard University, Washington, D. C.; post graduate work, Columbia University Medical School. Army service, World War I and received some of his training at Tuskegee, Ala. Married Anna Louise Johnson of New Orleans, July 25, 1929, daughter of Felix and Leah Johnson. Children: Anna Cherrie Epps (b. 1930); Ernest, Jr., (b. 1934). Active in community and local politics. Began practicing medicine late in life after being a Pullman porter, a house boy, Broadway song and dance man in the summer, and a blackboard artist. Positions: Tulane University Medical School (lecturer in the department of Radiology); staff at Flint-Goodridge Hospital. Member: Orleans Parish Medical Society; Louisiana State Medical Association; National Medical Association; trustee, Central Congregational Church of Christ; the Urban League of Greater New Orleans; Friends of Amistad; Dillard University Alumni Association; Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity, Alpha Alpha Chapter; Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity; director, United Federal Savings and Loan Association; director, Liberty Bank. Died, New Orleans, July 31, 1981; interred Lake Lawn Mausoleum. C.T. Sources: Gil Webre, "A Black Doctor's Today & Yesterday," Dixie Magazine, April 29, 1973, p. 16; Letter to Carole R. Taylor from Dr. Anna Cherrie Epps, November 8, 1984.

CHEVREL, Sister Thérèse of the Cross (Julie Thérèse)
, religious, educator, spiritual leader. Born Julie Thérèse Chevrel, Fougères, France, October 13, 1806. Entered newly established Third Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel (later known as Sisters of St. Martin) at Tours in 1824; served as mistress of novices and superior. Among those dispersed after 1830 revolution; resided in Paris, 1831-1833. Called to Louisiana by Bishop Léo de Neckère (q.v.) to help with growing Catholic educational effort. Arrived in New Orleans, November 1, 1833, with Sister Augustin Clerc. Directed small Catholic school in Assumption Parish, La., 1834-1838; called by Bishop Antoine Blanc (q.v.) to staff school for young ladies of color on Bayou Road, New Orleans, 1838. Resided on this property adjoining St. Augustine Church (1841) for 50 years. Superior general of Sisters of Mount Carmel of Louisiana from 1833 to her retirement in 1885. Under her leadership, Sisters received official approval as a Louisiana Catholic religious congregation, 1859, adapted their statutes and rule to conditions in Louisiana, and grew from 2 to 78 professed Sisters by 1885. Under Sister Thérèse's leadership, the Sisters of Mount Carmel pioneered Catholic education in Lafayette (1846), Thibodaux (1855), Algiers (1857), New Iberia (1870), St. Charles (1874), St. John (1876), Paincourtville (1876), Washington (1879), and Abbeville (1885) and took charge of Mt. Carmel Orphan Asylum on Piety Street, New Orleans (1869). Authored brief "History of the Third Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel" and a short spiritual treatise on Carmelite life (1879). Died, New Orleans, December 21, 1888; interred St. Louis Cemetery III. C.E.N. Sources: Charles E. Nolan, Bayou Carmel: The Sisters of Mount Carmel of Louisiana, 1833-1903 (1977); Sister Thérèse Chevrel Papers in Archives of the Sisters of Mount Carmel, Lacombe, Louisiana.

CHEW, Beverly, merchant, government official. Born, Virginia, February 6, 1773. Married Maria Theodora Duer of New York (d. 1837). Several children, including a daughter Catherine and a son Beverly Chew Jr. (b. 1810). By 1801 had made his way to Louisiana and became the partner of Richard Relf (q.v.), a well-known New Orleans merchant. The firm of Chew and Relf was also associated for a decade with Daniel Clark, Jr. (q.v.), a prominent member of the city's business community. Clark made Chew and Relf the executors of his will and after his death in 1813 the partners found themselves at the center of a great controversy involving Clark's daughter Myra. Myra Clark Gaines (q.v.) sued Chew and Relf, and others, in order to establish her legitimacy and thus gain access to her father's considerable estate. The case dragged on for more than half a century, long after the death of the two executors. Despite the notoriety he gained in the Myra Clark Gaines case, Beverly Chew was an important figure in his own right. The firm of Chew and Relf prospered until the War of 1812 disrupted commerce at which point the partners were forced into bankruptcy. After taking time out during the war to serve as a sergeant in Captain Beale's Company of Riflemen in the Louisiana militia, Chew entered the New Orleans customhouse where he was serving as a customs collector by 1817. Chew's hostility to the Lafitte brothers (q.v.) of Barataria became legendary while he was in that post. At some point in his career Chew also became postmaster of New Orleans. Chew had a long career in banking. President, United States Branch Bank, 1804, and again in 1830; instrumental in organization, 1832, and served as cashier of New Orleans Canal and Banking Co.; president, New Orleans Savings Bank, a branch of the Canal Bank. Retired as cashier of Canal Bank, 1844. Episcopalian; served more than twenty years as vestryman. Died, New Orleans, January 13, 1851; interred Girod Street Cemetery. M.W. Sources: Leonard Huber and Guy F. Bernard, To Glorious Immortality: The Rise and Fall of the Girod Street Cemetery (1961); Stanley Faye, "Privateersmen of the Gulf and their Prizes," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXII (1939); Publications of the Louisiana Historical Society, VII (1913); New Orleans Commercial Bulletin, January 14, 1851.

CHINN, Thomas Withers, physician, jurist, politician. Born, Cynthiana, Ky., November 20, 1791; son of Chichester Chinn, Kentucky senator, 1810-1812. Educated by father; served with Kentucky Volunteers, War of 1812. Entered Western produce trade; removed to Woodville, Miss., ca. 1815; established mercantile business and studied medicine privately. Removed to St. Francisville, La., 1816; sold store, began medical practice. Married Elizabeth Johnson (q.v.), daughter Isaac Johnson (q.v.), 1817. First Worshipful Master of Feliciana Lodge No. 31, F. & A.M., 1817; appointed by trustees of St. Francisville to committee to superintend erection of public market house, 1819; studied law privately; appointed first judge of parish of West Feliciana, 1824, from which office he was impeached by Louisiana legislature for misuse of funds and forced to resign, 1826. Incorporator, Baptist church, St. Francisville, 1823; member, first board of trustees, College of Louisiana, Jackson, 1825. Removed to West Baton Rouge Parish, 1827; delegate to Whig convention, 1827; served in Louisiana legislature, 1833; U. S. Representative, 1839-1841; president, Board of Public Works (State Levee Board); member, constitutional convention, 1844-1845. Appointed chargé d'affairs to the Two Sicilies by President Zachary Taylor (q.v.), 1849, but resigned for reasons of health. Died, May 22, 1852; interred Cypress Hall Plantation, West Baton Rouge Parish, later reinterred Grosse Tête; cenotaph placed in Magnolia Cemetery, Baton Rouge. E.K.D. Source: Elrie Robinson, Early Feliciana Politics (1936).

CHOATES, Harry, Cajun musician (violin), singer, composer. Born, Rayne, Acadia Parish, La., December 26, 1922. Especially prominent during "string band era" (1940s); instrumental in bringing western swing and bluegrass influence into Cajun music; first recorded with Rayne-Bo Ramblers in 1940 and continued to record throughout the 1940s. Received national attention for 1947 recording of "Jolie Blonde." Died, Austin, Tex., July 17, 1951. B.J.A. Source: Author's research.

CHOISEUL, Etienne-François, duc de; comte de Stainville, soldier, statesman. Born, Nancy, France, June 27, 1719; son of Françoise-Louise de Bassompierre and François-Joseph II, baron de Beaupré and marquis de Stainville. Educated by Jesuits; entered the army and served as an officer in the War of the Austrian Succession, 1740-1748. Married Louise-Honorine Crozat du Châtel on December 22, 1750. No children. Protégé of Mme de Pompadour; ambassador to Rome, 1754-1757, and Vienna, 1757-1758; minister of foreign affairs, 1758-1761, of war and marine, 1761-1766, and of war and foreign affairs, 1766-1770. Created duc de Choiseul in 1758; directed French policy through Seven Years' War, 1758-1763; negotiated the Pacte de Famille in 1761; secretly ceded Louisiana to Spain in the Treaty of Fontainebleau in 1762; signed the Treaty of Paris in 1763 by which Louisiana was partitioned; ordered by the king in 1764 to investigate the "Louisiana Affair"; acquired Lorraine, 1766, and Corsica, 1768, for France; dismissed from office through the influence of Mme du Barry, 1770; lived at his Chanteloupe estate, 1770-1774, thereafter in Paris. Died, May 8, 1785; interred cemetery of Amboise. J.B.C. Sources: Dictionnaire de Biographie français (Paris, 1956), VIII; Marc de Villiers du Terrage, The Last Years of French Louisiana, trans. by Hosea Phillips, ed. by Carl A. Brasseaux and Glenn R. Conrad (1982); Webster's Biographical Dictionary (1974).

CHOPIN, Kate O'Flaherty
, author. Born, St. Louis, Mo., February 8, 1851; daughter of Thomas O'Flaherty and Eliza Faris. Christened Katherine O'Flaherty. Father Irish and mother of old St. Louis French background. Education: Sacred Heart Academy, graduated 1868. Married Oscar Chopin of Louisiana, June, 1870. Removed to New Orleans where Chopin was a cotton factor. At the end of 1879 removed to Cloutierville on the Red River near Natchitoches. Children: five sons, born in New Orleans, St. Louis and Cloutierville, and one daughter, born at Cloutierville. After husband's death in January, 1883, managed affairs of family plantations and general store for several years before removing to St. Louis. From 1889 to 1902 wrote numerous short stories for children and adults published in magazines such as the Atlantic Monthly, Vogue, the Century and Harper's Youth's Companion. Her major works: two short story collections, Bayou Folk (1894), and A Night in Acadie (1897), both contained many stories which had been published in magazines earlier. Two novels: At Fault (1890), and The Awakening (1899). The people in the stories are almost all inhabitants of French Louisiana and most locales are in the Natchitoches area. Grand Isle and New Orleans are the locations for the Awakening. Best known short story, "Desirée's Baby", a tale of miscegenation in antebellum Louisiana. She wrote of Louisiana women in the nineteenth century, but she addressed concerns of women in all places and times. Died, St. Louis, of a brain hemmorrhage, August 22, 1904. D.E.L. Sources: Per Seyersted, Kate Chopin: A Critical Biography (1969); Marlene Springer, Edith Wharton and Kate Chopin: A Reference Guide (1976); Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, "Kate Chopin's Awakening," Southern Studies, XVIII (1979); Lina Mainiero, ed., American Women Writers, I (1979).

CHOUTEAU, Auguste, co-founder of St. Louis, Mo. Born, New Orleans, September 1749; son of Marie Thérèse Bourgeois and René Auguste Chouteau. Education: literate and well informed as attested by his library in St. Louis. Married Marie Thérèse Cerré, September 26, 1796, in St. Louis. Children: five daughters and four sons. Career: at age 14 was clerk and second in command to Laclède (q.v.) when they left New Orleans in August of 1763 to establish a trading post on the Missouri River; helped find a suitable site for settlement; oversaw clearing of the area and laying out of the village according to Laclède's plan; supervised the building of the company's stone headquarters; worked as a partner after carrying Laclède's power of attorney to New Orleans in dissolution of the company in 1768; bought the St. Louis property after Laclède's death and rebuilt the house as his residence; continued trade with the Indians, Canada, and Louisiana; was the bearer of government dispatches on his trips to New Orleans in the 1770s; received from Governor Carondelet (q.v.) a six-year trade monopoly with the Osage Indians, 1794-1800; Carondelet also granted him 2,160 arpents on the Missouri River in 1797, and 7,056 more in 1798 north of St. Louis, where he raised cattle; appointed lieutenant of the first company of militia by Cruzat (q.v.); assigned to draw plans for the defense of St. Louis and to carry them to Gálvez (q.v.) for approval; this work dates the earliest existing plan of St. Louis; erected a fort in 1794 at the headwaters of the Osage River to control Indian raids; co-operated with officials in the transfer of Louisiana to the United States in 1804; appointed one of the three justices of the first Territorial Court of Common Pleas; first chairman of the board of trustees when St. Louis was chartered, 1809; colonel of the first regiment of militia, 1808-1816; served as a United States commissioner in making treaties with the northern Indian tribes in 1815; United States pension agent for the Missouri Territory, 1819-1820; entertained royalty, foreign dignitaries, and future presidents in his home. Wrote Narrative of the Settlement of St. Louis (1859; reprinted, 1911 and included in McDermott's The Early Histories of St. Louis [1952]); the original of this narrative is in the National Archives; also wrote, in February 1816, a paper on the location of various Indian tribes; an edited version, Auguste Chouteau's Notes, was published by the Missouri Historical Society in 1940. Died, at his home, February 24, 1829; interred St. Louis. J.B.C. Sources: "Auguste Chouteau, First Citizen of Upper Louisiana," in John Francis McDermott, ed., Frenchman and French Ways in the Mississippi Valley (1969); Edwin C. McReynolds, Missouri: A History of the Crossroads State (1962); Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896 (1967); Dictionary of American Biography.

CHRETIEN, Hypolite
, planter. Born, near Opelousas, La., May 30, 1781; son of Joseph and Magdalen Sonnier Chrétien. Married: Félicité Neda, daughter of François Antoine and Marie Gravel Neda, July 28, 1818. Children: Françoise Marguerite Félicia (b. 1820), Joseph (b. 1828), Zulima (b. 1830), Marie Xavier Aténaïs (b. 1832), Lucille (b. 1835). Career: was owner of a 1,200-acre sugar plantation near Opelousas; his plantation mansion, Chrétien Point, was built by Samuel Young and Jonathan Harris between 1831 and 1835 at a cost of $7,000. Died, September 29, 1839. In 1863, the plantation was the scene of a skirmish between Confederate and Union troops; allegedly, the house was spared destruction because the owner was a Mason. Chrétien Point fell into disrepair in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It was purchased by the Louis J. Cornays in 1975 and after restoration was opened as a tourist attraction. J.B.C. Sources: Carl A. Brassseaux, "Chretien Point," Attakapas Gazette, XII (1977); Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984).

CHRISTIAN, Emile Joseph, jazz musician (trombone and string bass). Born, New Orleans, April 20, 1895. Last surviving member of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band, which he joined in 1918 at Reisenweher in New York City. He traveled with the band to London in 1919, then left it in 1920 to join Phil Napoleon's Memphis Five for a brief time. Left that band and returned to Europe for 20 years, playing in Berlin, Paris, Belgium, Norway, Denmark and in Bombay, India. During several years of his intercontinental tour, he was the only white member of Leon Abbey's Orchestra. After returning to New Orleans, remained active with local musicians like George Gerard, Pete Fountain, Johnny Wiggs and Sharkey Bonano. Children: Azilda, Frank. Died, New Orleans, December 31, 1973; interred Greenwood Cemetery. H.C. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, January 1, 1974; Al Rose and Edmond Souchon, New Orleans Jazz: A Family Album, 3rd ed. (1984); John Chilton, Who's Who of Jazz … (1972); Charles E. Claghorn, Biographical Dictionary of American Music (1973).

CHRISTIAN, John "Jack," businessman, politician. Born, Vicksburg, Miss., January 22, 1911; son of John C. Christian, and Bessie Nicholson. Education: Vicksburg public schools; studied engineering at Louisiana State University, 1929-1930. Employed by his father's automobile agency, Christian & Brough Co., 1930-1937; special representative of Yellow Truck and Coach Mfg. Co., in Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana, 1937-1938. Removed to Baton Rouge and founded Baton Rouge Motors Co. on October 6, 1938, with a franchise for Cadillac, La Salle, and Oldsmobile cars; president and general manager, 1938-1942. Military service: active duty, U. S. Naval Reserve from June 1942 to November 1, 1945; retired with the rank of lieutenant (SG) USNR. President, Jack Christian Motor Company, 1946-1951; sales manager, McInnes Chevrolet, 1952-1956, and afterwards, McInnes-Peterson Chevrolet, 1964-1972, vice president and general manager. Member, Baton Rouge City-Parish Council, 1953-1956. Elected August 22, 1956, mayor-president, city-parish government; assumed office January 1, 1957. Re-elected mayor-president, 1960. Defeated for re-election by Woodrow W. Dumas, August 29, 1964. Introduced a comprehensive major medical insurance policy for city-parish employees; established a system of job classification and salary scales, and introduced a $21,000,000 sewer expansion program. Married Caryol (Toby) Caulfield, October 8, 1942, at First Presbyterian Church, New Orleans. No children. Member: Episcopal Church; Lakeshore Lions Club; Elks; Eagles; Military Order of the World Wars; American Legion. Died, Baton Rouge, December 31, 1972. P.C.L. Sources: Christian Papers, Centroplex Branch, Baton Rouge Public Library; Ellis Arthur Davis,The Historical Encyclopedia of Louisiana, II (1937); Baton Rouge Register, IV (1952); Baton Rouge State-Times, January 1, 1973.

CHRISTIAN, Marcus Bruce
, poet, historian. Born, Mechanicsville, Terrebonne Parish, La., March 8, 1900; son of Emanuel Banks Christian and Rebecca Harris. Education: Houma Academy and evening public school of New Orleans under Professor S. J. Greene. Grandfather and father were teachers; Ebed Christian, grandfather, a former slave who acted as director of the Lafourche Parish Public Schools during Reconstruction. Religion: Methodist. Resident of New Orleans, 1919-1976. First poems printed in 1922, "Ethiopia Triumphant and Other Poems." Owner of dry-cleaning business, 1926-1935. Joined Federal Writers' Project (FWP) in 1936; came under the general patronage of its director, Lyle Saxon (q.v.); assigned to "Colored Project" at Dillard University; eventually became director and served in that role until its demise in 1943. While on the project, met an important circle of black artists and writers assigned to the project or working at Dillard University, including Horace Mann Bond, Arna Bontemps (q.v.), Elizabeth Catlett, St. Clair Drake, Octave Lilly, Jr. (q.v.), Rudolphe Moses, Benjamin Quarles, Lawrence Reddick, and Margaret Walker. Under Christian's auspices, the Dillard project provided information on black Louisianians that became part of the Federal Writers' Project publications, The New Orleans City Guide (1938) and Louisiana: A Guide to the State (1941). Much of this research also found its way into a book edited by Lyle Saxon, Gumbo Ya-Ya (1945). The major work of the Dillard project, "A Black History of Louisiana," was never published but was partially revised by Christian and donated to the University of New Orleans, Archives Division. Married, March 1943, Ruth Morand; divorced, August 1947. No children. Rosenwald Fellow, 1943-1944; assistant librarian, Dillard University, 1944-1950, special lecturer and writer-in-residence, University of New Orleans, 1969-1976. Contributor: From the Deep South, edited by Christian (1937); The Poetry of the Negro, edited by Arna Bontemps (1949), The Negro Caravan, edited by Sterling Brown (1941). Author: (History) Negro Soldiers in the Battle of New Orleans (1955), Negro Ironworkers of Louisiana, 1718-1900 (1972), also articles in Negro History Bulletin, Phylon, Louisiana Weekly, and Dictionary of Negro American Biography; (Poetry) In Memoriam—Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1945), Common Peoples' Manifesto of World War II (1948), High Ground (1958), I Am New Orleans (1968; 1976), individual poems in Crisis, Louisiana Weekly, Phylon, Pittsburgh Courier, and New York Herald Tribune . Died, New Orleans, November 21, 1976; cremated. J.L. Sources: Jerah Johnson, "Marcus B. Christian and the WPA History of Black People of Louisiana," Louisiana History, XX (1979); Tom Dent, "Marcus Christian: An Appreciation," in John Cook, ed., Perspectives on Ethnicity in New Orleans (1980); Joseph Logsdon, "Spiritual Strivings of a Black Poet and Historian in Louisiana," Black History Museum Newsletter, IX (1981); Marcus B. Christian Papers, University of New Orleans.

CHRISTY, William H.
, soldier, politician. Born, Georgetown, Ky., December 6, 1791; son of George and Mary (Cave) Christy. Orphaned at age fourteen. Served in the Creek campaign and under Gen. William H. Harrison in the War of 1812, and became the "Hero of Fort Meigs" when he saved a group of men from certain death at the hands of Tecumseh. Later fought in the Florida War and rose to the rank of colonel. Removed to New Orleans in the winter of 1815 as an army paymaster, became a tobacco merchant in 1816 and lost his fortune in 1818. Was admitted to the bar, 1821, served as city councilman, 1823-1825, 1833, 1844, and notary public, 1827-1857, and published a Digest of the Decisions of the Supreme Court of Louisiana (1825). In 1835 helped found the Native American movement, ran unsuccessfully for governor, and agitated for separate municipalities in New Orleans. In October 1835 became the leading supporter of the Texas Revolution in the city, outfitting the New Orleans Grays and recruiting men for the Tampico Expedition. In 1836 helped procure loans to the Texas government totalling $250,000. His friend Sam Houston stayed with him while recuperating from a wound received at the Battle of San Jacinto and later that year honored Christy at his inauguration as president of the Republic of Texas. In 1839 as president of the Native American Party of Louisiana, Christy incited riots at Galveston and Cincinnati by his anti-foreign speeches and attacked a foreign newspaper establishment in New Orleans. In 1840 he campaigned actively for Harrison in the presidential election. In the 1850s he was surveyor of customs at New Orleans (1850-1854), again sought the gubernatorial nomination, 1855, and developed Abita Springs in St. Tammany Parish into a health resort. He actively supported the Confederacy, fighting at Chickamauga as a volunteer even though in his seventies. Married Catherine Pauline Baker Cenas (1783-1856), January 31, 1818, daughter of former Philadelphia mayor Hilary Baker and widow of Blaise Cenas (q.v.), former sheriff of New Orleans. Helped raise her three sons by her first marriage, and together they had two sons and a daughter. Died, New Orleans, November 7, 1865. R.S.J. Sources: National Cyclopedia of American Biography, XI (1901); Amelia Williams and Eugene C. Barker, eds., The Writings of Sam Houston … , I (1938; reprint ed., 1970); John S. Kendall, History of New Orleans, III (1922); John H. Jenkins, ed., The Papers of the Texas Revolution, 1835-1836 (1973); New Orleans Daily Picayune, November 8, 1865; New Orleans Daily True Delta, November 8, 1865; New Orleans Times-Picayune, June 5, 1955.

CICERI, Ernest, artist. Born, Paris, France, 1817; son of Pierre-Luc-Charles Ciceri; grandson of Eugène Isabey. Decorative painter in Paris. Employed by the gallery of the Louvre. French government sent him on an "artistic mission" to Egypt. Arrived in New Orleans in 1859 to paint with Develle the decorations and scenery of the New French Opera House. Remained in New Orleans; taught art classes in gouache and pastel. Painted landscapes, miniatures, decorations and scenery for the theatre. Died, New Orleans, July 5, 1866. K.W.H. Source: The Historic New Orleans Collection, Encyclopaedia of New Orleans Artists, 1718-1918 (1987).

CIRILLO DE BARCELONA, bishop. Born, Barcelona, Spain, January 25, 1731; son of Antonio Sieni and Alexandra Flannings. First Roman Catholic bishop ever to set foot on any part of what is now the continental USA. Joined Capuchin Order, November 14, 1748; ordained priest and engaged in missionary and pastoral work in Mexico, 1752-1772. Appointed superior of the Spanish Capuchins in Louisiana, 1772. Accused the French Capuchins still in New Orleans of flagrant abuses and corruption. Assumed pastorate of St. Louis Church, New Orleans, 1776, and named vicar general for the bishop of Santiago, Cuba, in Louisiana. In 1781 Father Antonio de Sedella (q.v.) arrived in New Orleans and joined the parish staff. Father Cirillo in West Florida, 1780-1781. Charles III of Spain nominated Cirillo, 1782, as auxiliary bishop of Santiago (bishop of Tricali) with residence in New Orleans. Cirillo began signing as Obispo Electo in 1783. Pius VI approved nomination in 1784 and Cirillo consecrated bishop in Havana, March 6, 1785. Conflict over salary with Bishop Echeverria of Santiago. Returned to New Orleans on August 1, 1785, and made initial visitation of all the Louisiana parishes. Returned to Havana on hearing of Echeverria's poor health. Rebuked by Echeverria for leaving his post and deprived of the pastorate of St. Louis Church, which was given to Father de Sedella. Crown ordered Cirillo to return to Louisiana on May 17, 1787, and again on March 26, 1788. Arrived in St. Augustine, Fla., July 18, 1788. Conflict with Father de Sedella because the latter was dealing directly with Bishop Trespalacios (newly created bishop of Havana). Sedella appointed Commissary of the Holy Office on February 10, 1786. Cirillo and Governor Miró alarmed. Sedella's appointment suspended and Cirillo instituted proceedings against him charging him with "incredible abuses". Sedella deported to Spain after receiving another commission from the Inquisition dated December 5, 1789. Cirillo continued his procedures against Sedella for which he was censured by Trespalacios. Father Joaquin de Portillo, another Capuchin sent to replace Cirillo in 1790. Conflict now between Cirillo and de Portillo, the latter being shortly replaced by a secular priest Theodore Tirso Henrique Henriquez. Cirillo officially recalled in 1790 but remained in Louisiana. Founded ecclesiastical parishes at Baton Rouge (St. Joseph) and Plattenville (Assumption) in 1793. Date of return to Cuba uncertain, probably 1793/94. Trespalacios did not pay his pension. Left for Spain. Sought to obtain a new episcopal appointment from the crown and payment of his arrears in salary. Died in obscurity at Villanueva y Geltru in Catalonia, February 18, 1809. J.E.B. Sources: Roger Baudier, The Catholic Church in Louisiana (1939); J. B. Code, Dictionary of the American Hierarchy, 1789-1964 (1964), Appendix 23; M. J. Curley, Church and State in the Spanish Floridas, 1783-1822 (1940); Charles Gayarré, History of Louisiana: The Spanish Domination (1866).

CLACK, John Henry
, politician. Born, on Panola Plantation, near Tunica, La., August 18, 1847; son of James Stirling Clack and Elizabeth Allen Dickinson. Educated at home. Joined Confederate Army at age 16 and served as private in Third Louisiana Regiment, 1863-1865. Elected sheriff of West Feliciana Parish, La., on Anti-Lottery ticket 1892; re-elected six terms, retiring because of illness, 1919. Married (1) Elizabeth P. White, (2) Elizabeth Cox. Member of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Catholic Church, Knights of Pythias. Died, March 1, 1922. Interred Grace Churchyard, St. Francisville, La. E.K.D. Sources: Oath book, West Feliciana Parish; St. Francisville True Democrat, March 4, 1922; Grace Church Cemetery Records; Wilcox-Clack genealogy compiled by Caro Wilcox Davis, supplied by Adele Wilcox Percy, St. Francisville.

CLAGUE, Richard
, artist. Born, Paris, France, May 11, 1821; son of Richard Clague and Justine Delphine de la Roche. Education: New Orleans, Geneva and Paris. Encouraged by family to pursue a career in art. Studied the techniques of landscape and animal painting under Jean-Charles Humbert; returned to New Orleans after his father's death in 1836 and studied under Léon Pomerède, a muralist, 1842-1843. Returned again to Paris in 1844; studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under the neoclassicist Edouard Picotin in 1849; began teaching art in 1851. Travelled in Egypt as a draftsman on the expedition of Ferdinand de Lesseps down the Nile, November 1856-March 1857; returned to New Orleans to stay in 1857. Opened a studio with Paul Poincy (q.v.), painted portraits and landscapes and conducted art classes. Civil War service: joined the 10th Louisiana Infantry as a second lieutenant at Camp Moore, Tangipahoa Parish, La., July 22, 1861; resigned, February 12, 1862. Considered the preiminent landscape artist of the nineteenth-century South; founded the "Bayou School" of landscape painting, specializing in scenes of cabins, camps and boats on backgrounds of hazy swamps, streams, and moss-bedecked oaks. Formed a liaison with Pauline Touze, ca. 1849. Children: Marie (b. 1850), Pauline Amalie (b. 1853). Member, Roman Catholic church. Died, New Orleans, November 29, 1873; interred St. Louis Cemetery II. C.B.H. Sources: Roulhac Toledano, Richard Clague, 1821-1873 (1974); New Orleans L'Abeille, obituary, November 30, 1873.

CLAIBORNE, William Charles Cole, politician. Born, 1775, Sussex County, Va.; son of Col. William Claiborne, a small and generally impecunious landholder, and Mary (Leigh) Claiborne. Brother of Ferdinand Leigh, Thomas Augustine, Nathaniel Herbert, and Mary Leigh. Married (1) Elizabeth "Eliza" W. Lewis of Nashville, Tenn., April 20, 1801; one daughter: Cornelia Tennessee. Married (2), September 27, 1806, Clarissa Duralde, of Attakapas County, La.. Child: William C. C. II. Married (3), November 8, 1812, Susanna Bosque y Fangui (q.v.). Children: Charles and Sophronia. Attended Richmond Academy and, briefly, William and Mary College. At age of 15 became copyist for John Beckley, clerk of the national House of Representatives, first in New York and then in Philadelphia, where he also studied law under A. J. Dallas. Encouraged by John Sevier, migrated to Tennessee, beginning law practice there in May, 1794. Served in the Tennessee constitutional convention of 1796, resigned in 1797 to campaign successfully for the national House of Representatives. A firm Republican, cast Tennessee's vote for Jefferson in the disputed House election of 1801, to be rewarded with appointment as governor of the Territory of Mississippi on May 25, 1801. Claiborne's Mississippi years were plagued by continuation of a general "anti-governor" attitude among settlers dating back to the days of his predecessor, but he did make at least modest gains in establishing the militia, reorganizing the judicial and legal system, promoting education, and keeping the Indians subdued while schemes to exploit them advanced. With acquisition of Louisiana by the United States in 1803, he was sent by Jefferson to New Orleans with Gen. James Wilkinson (q.v.) to transact the transfer of the region to its new status, receiving in addition the sole authority to govern the ceded territory. His relations with the native Louisianians were soured by his ignorance of the French language, by the United States' refusal to honor certain clauses in the Treaty of 1803, and by his own judgment that the Louisianians were unprepared for self-government. By temperament emotionally insecure, Claiborne intensified the difficulties of his administration by identifying legitimate protest as hostility to the United States and by plunging into acrimonious and heated political strife with such non-French Louisianians as Edward Livingston (q.v.), Daniel Clark (q.v.), and James Workman (q.v.). His reputation was not advanced by his rather wavering resistance to Wilkinson's high-handed behavior during the Burr conspiracy, but marriage to two Latin women (one a Louisianian, the other Spanish), compassionate reception of émigrés from Saint-Domingue, support of a civil law system for the Territory, and prompt suppression of a slave insurrection in 1811 so improved his standing among the native population that he won election as first governor of the state of Louisiana in 1812, defeating the native Jacques Villeré (q.v.) 3,707 to 1,947 in the popular vote, 35 to 6 in the determining choice by the legislature. Claiborne's gubernatorial term was largely dominated by the crisis of the War of 1812, in which his own role, to his clear chagrin, was completely overwhelmed by that of Andrew Jackson (q.v.) during the campaigns at New Orleans in 1814-1815. His concerns for militia affairs and education were, however, persistent if only partially productive. Ineligible for reelection, he left office in November, 1816, to be chosen on January 13, 1817, as United States senator. Before he could take his seat, death came in New Orleans on November 23, 1817; interred St. Louis Cemetery. Remains later reinterred Metairie Cemetery. J.G.T. Source: Joseph G. Tregle, Jr., "William Charles Cole Claiborne," Louisiana History, XXII (1981).

CLANCY, Frank J., politician. Born, 1892, Kenner, La. Education: local schools, Soulé Business College, Tulane University Law School. After graduation (1917), became a practicing attorney. Married Vera Wattigny. Two daughters: Mrs. Vernon Dupepe and Mrs. Joseph S. Weimer. Active in the Democratic party: city attorney, Kenner, 1918-1920; clerk of court, Twenty-eighth Judicial District, 1920-1928; sheriff, Jefferson Parish, 1928-1956. As sheriff, gained national notoriety by refusing to testify before a U. S. Senate committee on gambling; when threatened with contempt of Congress charges, Clancy, who reputedly had ties to organized crime, drove gambling operations from Jefferson Parish, 1952. Subsequently ran as "good government" candidate in local elections. Was author of unsuc¬cessful "Clancy plan" to replace Jefferson Parish Police Jury with five-member commission. Organizational: first president, Louisiana Sheriffs' Association; founder of Junior Deputy Sheriff's Association to combat juvenile delinquincy. Died, Kenner, December 22, 1960; interred Carrollton Cemetery, New Orleans. C.A.B. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, December 23, 1960; Henry J. Thoede, History of Jefferson Parish and Its People (1976); U. S. Senate, Kefauver Committee Report on Organized Crime (1951).

CLAPP, Theodore "Parson
," clergyman, social critic. Born, East Hampton, Mass., March 29, 1792. Education: Yale, graduated 1814; studied theology at Andover, 1818-1819, and ordained in Easthampton, 1822. Departed New England during same year for New Orleans. Became pastor of the city's First Presbyterian Church. At first maintained a strict Calvinist theology, but in 1834 organized "the Church of the Messiah" (Congregationalist) with the help of some of his loyal followers. Acquired reputation as a "Universalist," and his church was loosely referred to as New Orleans' "Unitarian Church." Preached that Christ was of divine origin; yet disputed the concept of the Trinity and recognized the Holy Ghost only as a representative of a Supreme Godhead. With financial aid of his chief patron, businessman Judah Touro (q.v.), Clapp led his congregation until departing in 1856. Clapp's liberal religious views were tolerated in New Orleans because of his reputation as an "intellectual in residence" and his tact. Originally an abolitionist sympathizer, he later adopted a moderate proslavery stance. His support of slavery was partly based on his notions of the South's need of an orderly caste system in light of the African's supposed racial inferiority. Other social and religious topics dear to Clapp's heart included the evils of rampant materialism, the myth of eternal damnation to sinners, the idea of a spiritual elect, the evils of the fundamentalists' revivals, and the dangers of literal Biblical interpretation. Clapp usually maintained closer personal and intellectual ties with New Orleans' Roman Catholic clergymen and its Jewish rabbis than with his own Protestant colleagues. Clapp attained nationwide fame and even met with European intellectuals whenever he traveled abroad. He was often praised for his valiant efforts whenever the city endured recurring epidemics of yellow fever and cholera. For the antebellum traveler, the chief attractions of the Crescent City reportedly were the French Opera, the American Theater, and "Parson" Clapp's church. A typical congregation included a segregated local audience of liberal-minded whites and free-blacks, together with visiting planter-merchants and professional men. Several of Clapp's sermons were published in both Northern and Southern newspapers. Among the most famous was "Slavery: A Sermon Delivered in the First Congregational Church in New Orleans, April 15, 1838." Due to advanced age and ill-health, Clapp moved upriver to Louisville, Ky., where he died on May 17, 1866. Although various successors filled his pulpit, the local congregation faded from New Orleans shortly after the close of the Civil War. His best known work is Autobiographical Sketches and Recollections of a Thirty-five Year's Residence in New Orleans (1857). T.F.R. Sources: James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, I (1900); Theodore Clapp, Autobiographical Sketches and Recollections During a Thirty-five Years' Residence in New Orleans (1858); Timothy F. Reilly, "Parson Clapp of New Orleans: Antebellum Social Critic, Religious Radical, and Member of the Establishment," Louisiana History, XVI (1975).

CLARK, Daniel (the younger)
, merchant, land speculator, politician. Born, Sligo, Ireland, about 1766. Education: Eton and other colleges in England. Parents immigrated to Germantown, Pa. Arrived in New Orleans in 1786; employed by uncle, also named Daniel Clark, as a clerk in mercantile firm; given a post in the office of Governor Miró (q.v.); became partner in uncle's firm which was shipping agent for Gen. James Wilkinson (q.v.) in 1787; began land speculation after New Orleans fire of 1788; acknowledged by Governor Gayoso (q.v.) as acting vice-counsel in New Orleans in 1798; retained that position until 1801; became an American citizen in 1798; inherited business firm and plantation near Natchez, Miss., when uncle died in 1799; appointed by President Jefferson as American counsel in New Orleans, 1801-1803. Secretly married Marie Julie (Zulime) Carrière in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1802 or 1803. Daughter, Myra, born in New Orleans December 27, 1806; never publicly acknowledged wife or child. Elected as the first delegate for the Territory of Orleans to the Ninth and Tenth congresses and served from December 1, 1806, to March 3, 1809; was unsuccessful candidate for reelection, 1808. Wounded Governor Claiborne (q.v.) in a duel on June 8, 1807. In 1807 denied involvement in the Aaron Burr (q.v.) conspiracy; published in 1809 Proofs of the Corruption of Gen. James Wilkinson, and of His Connexion [sic] with Aaron Burr. Retired from political life and devoted himself to business interests. Died, August 13, 1813; interred St. Louis Cemetery I. In a will dated 1811, named his mother as principal heir to property which, in part, consisted of about one-third of the city of New Orleans; lawsuit (based on an alleged 1813 will) by daughter, Myra Clark Gaines (q.v.), and later by her heirs, was argued in the American courts from 1834 to 1890. J.B.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950); Nolan B. Harmon, Jr., The Famous Case of Myra Clark Gaines (1946); Perry Scott Rader, "The Romance of American Courts, Gaines vs. New Orleans," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXVII (1944); Michael Wohl, "Not Yet Saint Nor Sinner: A Further Note on Daniel Clark," Louisiana History, XXIV (1983).

CLARK, Felton Grandison
, educator. Born, Baton Rouge, La., October 13, 1903; son of Joseph Samuel and Octavia (Head) Clark. Education: attended Southern University, 1920-1922; Beloit College, Beloit, Wis., A. B., 1924; later Beloit conferred a Phi Beta Kappa Key for scholastic achievement and an honorary Doctor of Law degree; Columbia University, M. A., 1925, and Ph. D., 1933. Teaching at Howard University, Washington, D. C., when invited to join the faculty of Southern University. Became president of Southern University, July 1, 1938, on retirement of father, Joseph S. Clark. Honor Fraternities include Phi Beta Kappa, Kappa Delta Pi, Alpha Phi Omega, Pi Gammu Mu, Beta Kappa Chi, Sigma Pi Phi. A Thirty-third Degree Mason; a Baptist. Married Allene Knighton, August 17, 1958. President of Southern University for thirty years, a time of great change in black education. Retired October 13, 1968. Died, July 6, 1970; interred on the "bluff" on the Southern University campus, Baton Rouge, La. M.C.R. Sources: Iris Johnson Perkins, "Felton Grandison Clark: Louisiana Educator" (Ph. D. dissertation, Louisiana State University,1976); various newspaper articles in the Louisiana State Library vertical files, Baton Rouge, La.

CLARK, Joseph Leon
, educator. Born, Walters, Catahoula Parish, La., October 14, 1896; son of John Randolph and Mary Ellen Cooper Clark. Education: local schools; Louisiana College, B.A., 1924; University of North Carolina, M.A., 1927, Ph. D., 1931. World War I service: radio division of U.S. Army, Tulane University and Camp Jackson Radio School, South Carolina. Married Myra Gertrude Mercer of North Carolina, June 25, 1937. No children. Teacher and principal, Louisiana public schools, 1916-1928; professor of Education and director of teacher training, Southeastern Louisiana College, 1931-1936; instructor of Social Science, Louisiana State University, 1936-1937; president, Southeastern Louisiana College, 1937-1944; professor of Sociology and department head, Furman University, 1945-1946; associate professor of Social Science, Louisiana State University, 1946-1961; visiting professor, Lincoln Memorial University, 1927, Louisiana College, 1928, Louisiana Polytechnic Institute, 1932. Member, American Association of University Professors, Louisiana Teachers' Association, American Association of School Administration, American Association of Adult Teachers, Society for Advancement of Education, American Legion, Order of the Flag, Gideons International. Baptist. Mason. Democrat. Co-author, Sociology (1937). Died, January 7, 1961; interred Greenoaks Memorial Park. G.M.C. & J.P.S. Sources: Who Was Who in America, Vol. IV: 1961-1968; Who's Who in America, Vol. XXV: 1948-1949; Baton Rouge Sunday Advocate, January 8, 1961.

CLARK, Joseph Samuel, educator, civic leader. Born, Sparta, La., June 7, 1881. Education: public and private schools in Bienville Parish, Coleman and Bishop colleges; Leland University, B. A., 1901; Ph. D., 1914; Selma University, M. A., 1913; Arkansas Baptist College, Ph. D., 1921. Further studies at Chicago and Harvard universities. Served as principal of Slater High School, Donaldsonville, and of Baton Rouge Academy between 1901 and 1912; president of Southern University, 1913-1938. During his administration, the school progressed from an institution with an enrollment of forty-seven students and an appropriation of $10,000 to a university with 3,067 students and an appropriation of approximately one million dollars. Married Octavia Head (q.v.). Two sons. Served as president of the National Association of Teachers in Colored Schools, 1916-1917; reorganized the Louisiana State Colored Teachers Association and served as president for eight years; member, Inter-Racial Council of Land Grant College Presidents Association; served as superintendent, Louisiana State School for Negro Blind in Baton Rouge. Appointed by President Coolidge to a commission to produce a national survey on education. Appointed by President Herbert Hoover as minister to Liberia, 1930, but declined the offer to continue development of Southern University. Appointed by President Hoover to the White House Committee on Child Welfare and Protection, 1930. Participated in the President's Conference on House Building and Home Ownership, 1931. Became president of the New Capital Insurance Company of New Orleans, 1932. Retired, June 30, 1938, completing a quarter century as president of Southern University. Succeeded by son, Felton G. Clark (q.v.). Died, October 27, 1944, New Orleans; interred campus of Southern University, Scotlandville, La. F.J. & R.E.M. Sources: "Clark to Retire as College Head," New Orleans Times-Picayune, June 30, 1938; Robert Meyer, Jr., Names Over New Orleans Public Schools (1975); Charles Vincent, A Centennial History of Southern University (1981); Rayford W. Logan and Michael R. WInston, eds., Dictionary of American Negro Biography (1982).

CLARK, Marguerite, see WILLIAMS, Helen Marguerite Clark

CLARK, Myra, see GAINES, Myra Clark

CLARK, Octavia Head, administrator, community leader, wife of the first president and mother of the second president of Southern University, Scotlandville, La. Born, Monroe, La., 1880; daughter of the Reverend William Head and Mary Jeanette Amos Clark. Education: public schools, Monroe; Leland College; Coleman College, Gibsland, La. Married, December 29, 1901, Joseph Samuel Clark (q.v.), of Bill Poland Plantation (Shepherdton), Bienville Parish. One child: Felton Grandison Clark (q.v.). Active in civic, professional, and social activities. Recognized for speaking ability, interest in welfare of Southern University, worked with husband and son to promote the progress of Southern University. Teaching career, China Grove Common School, Caldwell Parish; first director of music and first registrar, Southern University. Retired, 1925. Member, Mount Zion Baptist Church, Baton Rouge. Octavia Hall (dormitory) named in honor of subject. Died, 1959; interred Southern University campus, Baton Rouge. R.J.S. Sources: Research on subject by Dr. Ruby Jean Simms, Archives Department, Southern University; and John Brother Cade's The Man Christened Josiah Clark, Who as J. S. Clark, Became President of a Louisiana State Land Grant College (1966).

CLARK, William, explorer, soldier, Indian agent. Born, Caroline County, Va., August 1, 1770; ninth child of Ann Rogers and John Clark III. Received little formal education. Family removed to Louisville, Ky., 1784. Served in campaigns against Indians of the Ohio Valley, 1788-1791; commissioned lieutenant in the fourth sub-legion, 1792; served four years under Gen. Anthony Wayne; resigned from army, 1796; joined Meriwether Lewis (q.v.) in expedition across Rocky Mountains to Pacific Ocean, 1804-1805; journal of explorations published in 1814; appointed Indian Agent at St. Louis, Mo., and brigadier general of militia in Territory of Louisiana, 1807; in charge of Indian defense in the territory during War of 1812. Appointed governor of Missouri Territory, 1813, 1817, and 1820; defeated in state gubernatorial election, 1820. Superintendent of Indian affairs, 1822-1838; surveyor general for Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas, 1824-1825; laid out plans for town of Paducah, Ky., 1828. Married (1) Julia Hancock (d. 1820), at Fincastle, Va., January 5, 1808. Children: Meriwether Lewis, William Preston, Mary Margaret, George Rogers Hancock, and John Julius. Married (2) Harriet Kennerly Radford of St. Louis, November 28, 1821. One son: Jefferson Kearney. Remained occupied with Indian affairs until his death in St. Louis, September 1, 1838. J.B.C. Sources: Dictionary of American Biography, III (1946); Jerome O. Steffen, William Clark: Jeffersonian Man on the Frontier (1977); The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans (1904).

CLARKE, Lewis Strong, planter, Republican party leader. Born, Southampton, Mass., November 7, 1837; son of Oliver Clarke and Elizabeth Strong. Removed with family to Springfield, Ohio, shortly after birth. Educated in Springfield public schools. Began career as a commission and produce dealer in Cincinnati. In 1870, with his longtime friend George Steele, purchased a sugar plantation on Bayou Teche in St. Mary Parish near Patterson (site of present-day Bayou Vista), which they named Lagonda after the Lagonda Creek in Springfield. Initially they operated the plantation together. In September 1878 George Steele and Lewis Clarke's younger brother, Oliver, died in a yellow-fever epidemic, and Lewis Clarke became sole owner and operator. In the late 1880s established one of the first effusion plants as part of his sugar-refining operation. Married, February 28, 1888, in New Orleans, Lillian Keener Lyons (b. 1865) daughter of Dr. Johnson J. Lyons and Frances Augusta Equen. Children: Lewis Strong, Jr. (b. 1889); George Steele (b. 1890); Elizabeth (b. 1891); Walter Lyons (b. 1894); Oliver Lyons (b. 1897); Frank Delmas (b. 1900). Although never active in politics before, in 1894 was a leader in organizing the "New Party" of moderate Louisiana Republicans. In 1896 skillfully managed the gubernatorial campaign of John Newton Pharr (q.v.), the Republican candidate, who garnered forty-four percent of the votes to the consternation of the entrenched Democratic party. Republican National Committeeman for Louisiana, 1900-1904. Died, New Orleans, July 5, 1906; interred Lafayette Cemetery I; reinterred Metairie Cemetery. F.M. Sources: Alcée Fortier, Louisiana … , III (1914); New Iberia Louisiana Sugar-Bowl, November 7, 1878; New Orleans Picayune, obituary, July 7, 1906; Benjamin W. Dwight, The History of the Descendants of Elder John Strong … , II (1871); Clarke family papers.

CLEMMONS, Joseph Bryan, politician. Born, Baton Rouge, 1906 or 1907. Education: graduate of Tulane University and the Federal Bureau of Investigation National Academy; attended other law enforcement training schools. Began his career in law enforcement in 1935 with the Baton Rouge city police department. Became a special investigator for the district attorney's office in 1937. Sheriff of East Baton Rouge Parish, 1948 to 1972. President, Louisiana Peace Officers Association, the National and Louisiana Sheriffs associations, and the FBI National Academy Association. Was one of the first sheriffs in the United States to organize a Junior Deputy Sheriffs League. Instrumental in creating the Louisiana State University Law Enforcement Training Institute. Served on numerous boards and agencies to aid the physically and mentally handicapped. Director, East Baton Rouge Unit, Louisiana Chapter, National Society for Crippled Children and Adults. Member, Lodge No. 372, Free and Accepted Masons, Lions, Elks, and Shriners clubs. Awarded the Legion of Merit by the International Supreme Council, Order of DeMolay. Died while on a business trip, Natchez, Miss., July 5, 1976; interred Roselawn Memorial Park, Baton Rouge; survived by his widow Catherine P. Clemmons and one son, J. Bryan Clemmons, Jr. J.B.C. Source: Baton Rouge Morning Advocate, obituary, July 6, 1976.

CLINE, Isaac Monroe, meteorologist. Born, Madisonville, Tenn., October 13, 1861; son of Jacob Leander and Mary Isabel (Wilson) Cline. Education: Hiawassee College, Tenn., A. B., 1882, A. M., 1885; University of Arkansas, M. D., 1885; Texas Christian University, Ph. D., 1896; Tulane University, honorary Sc. D., 1934;. Married Cora May Ballew, March 17, 1887, in Abilene, Tex. (d. 1900). Children: Allie May (b. 1887); Rosemary (b. 1889); Esther Ballew. Entered U. S. Weather Service (then Signal Corps, U. S. Army), July 7, 1882; assistant observor, Little Rock, Ark., 1883-1885; in charge of observation station, Abilene, Texas, 1885-1889; in Galveston, Tex., 1889-1891, local forecaster and sectional director, Texas Section Climatological Service, Weather Bureau of U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1891-1901; at New Orleans, 1901-1935, in charge of forecast center embracing Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana; also in charge of cooperation between Mexican Weather Service and U. S. Weather Bureau; principal meteorologist, U. S. Weather Service. Retired December 31, 1935, after fifty-three years service in U. S. government. Allowed over four years beyond retirement age by President Herbert Hoover, because of work and predictions of the Mississippi River Flood of 1927. Instructor Climatology, University of Texas, 1897-1901; Fellow, American Meteorological Society, president, 1934-1935; New Orleans Academy of Sciences, president, 1934-1935; American Geological Society, A.A.A.S.; member, National Institute of Social Sciences; Pi Gamma Mu; delegate, Second Pan-Am Scientific Congress, Washington, D. C., 1915; member, Union Géodésique et Géophysic, Commission pour l'Etude des Raz de Marée; past commander, San Felipe de Austin Commandery #1, Knights Templar, of Galveston, Tex.; honorary curator of paintings, Louisiana State Museum in New Orleans; Conglist Club; National Arts Club of New York; the Art Club of Washington, D. C., and the New Orleans Press Club. Author of many bulletins and published articles on climate of the Southwest. Author of Tropical Cyclones. Made a special study of art and antiques. Brought together through the years and restored a notable collection of American paintings, some of which are in the Andrew Mellon Collection and other museums. Also a collection of Chinese bronzes, which was presented to the Delgado Museum of Art and which is lost. Restored many paintings until 1952. Author of Art and Artists in New Orleans during the Last Century (1920); also Contemporary Art and Artists in New Orleans (1924), both in pamphlet form. Died, New Orleans, August 3, 1955; interred Metairie Cemetery. M.P.T. Sources: John Smith Kendall, History of New Orleans, Vol. II; Who Was Who, 1951-1960 (1960); I. M. Cline, Storms, Floods, and Sunshine (1945).

CLOUTIER, Alexis
, planter. Born, Poste de Pointe Coupée, July 10, 1769; son of Alexis Cloutier, Sr., of Canada and Marie Louise Rachal of Poste des Natchitoches. Married (1), August 18, 1788, Marie Françoise Lecomte, Rivière aux Cannes, daughter of Jean-Baptiste Lecomte and Marguerite Leroy. One child: Jean-Baptiste Sevère (b. 1796). Built Louisiana-type plantation home on Cane River, 1806, home of Kate Chopin (q.v.), the writer, 1880-1884; now houses Bayou Folk Museum, 1965-present. Following wife's death, 1806, married (2) Marie Luce Rachal, daughter of Louis Rachal and Marie Françoise Grillette. Donated to Roman Catholic church tract of land on which donor had built a church, St. John the Baptist, 1817. Organized inhabitants of Rivière aux Cannes area into a town, petitioned the legislature, had it incorporated, 1822. Town named Cloutierville for subject. Worked unsuccessfully to divide lower Natchitoches Parish with Cloutierville the parish seat of the new parish, 1825-1827. Died, Cloutierville, March 1, 1836; interred Shallow Lake Cemetery near Cloutierville; tombstone now on grounds of Bayou Folk Museum. L.T.C.* Sources: Department of Archives, Diocese of Baton Rouge; Elizabeth Shown Mills, Chauvin dit Charleville (1976); Natchitoches, 1729-1803 (1977); Natchitoches, 1800-1826 … (1980); Elizabeth Shown Mills and Gary B. Mills, Tales of Old Natchitoches (1978); Germaine Portre-Bobinski, Natchitoches, the Up-to-Date Oldest Town in Louisiana (1936); Cyprien Tanguay, Dictionnaire généalogique des familles canadiennes … (1871-1890).

COADY, Sister Clare, religious, spiritual leader, educator. Born Margaret Ann Coady, New Orleans, October 3, 1875, daughter of Joseph Coady and Mary Jane Farley. Raised in Irish Channel and Mount Carmel Orphan Asylum in New Orleans. Entered community of Sisters of Mount Carmel, New Orleans, September 2, 1891; professed first vows, New Orleans, July 27, 1894; and final vows, Thibodaux, La., July 24, 1902. Teacher in Abbeville, Lafayette, Thibodaux and Vinita in Indian Territory, 1894-1913. School principal and superior at Mount Carmel Academy in Lafayette, 1909-1915, 1931-1935. Superior general, Sisters of Mount Carmel, 1915-1931; during her tenure, Sisters took charge of three parochial schools in New Orleans (St. Dominic, St. James, and St. Augustine) as well as Our Lady of Prompt Succor School in Westwego; opened new Mount Carmel Academy in the Lakeview section of New Orleans, 1926; established a state-approved normal school in New Orleans, 1923, to better prepare Sisters for teaching; won state approval for community high schools; fostered state certification for teaching Sisters. Encouraged spiritual renewal among the Sisters through personal example, legislative changes, and motherly supervision. Affiliated community to main branch of Carmelite Order, 1931. Died, Lafayette, La., March 22, 1935; interred St. John the Evangelist Cemetery. C.E.N. Sources: Charles E. Nolan, Mother Clare Coady: Her Life, Her Times and Her Sisters (1983); Mother Clare Coady Papers in Archives of the Sisters of Mount Carmel, Lacombe, Louisiana.

CODY, John Patrick, clergyman, prelate. Born, St. Louis, Mo., December 24, 1907; son of Thomas Cody and Mary Begley. Education: Holy Rosary Elementary School, St. Louis; St. Louis Preparatory Seminary; Propaganda Fide University in Rome, 1926-1930, Ph. D., 1928 and S.T.D., 1930; attended Appollinaris College in Rome, J.C.D., 1938. Ordained to priesthood in Rome, December 8, 1931; served on staff of North American College in Rome and at Vatican Secretariate of State, 1932-1938; secretary to John Cardinal Glennon and later chancellor of Archdiocese of St. Louis, 1938-1947; consecrated titular bishop of Apollonia, July 2, 1947; auxiliary bishop of St. Louis, 1947-1954; co-adjutor bishop of St. Joseph, Mo., 1954-1956; bishop of Kansas City-St. Joseph, 1956-1961; appointed titular archbishop of Bostra and co-adjutor to Archbishop Joseph Rummel (q.v.) of New Orleans, July 20, 1961; named apostolic administrator of New Orleans, June 1, 1962; became archbishop of New Orleans, November 8, 1964. Major contributions to New Orleans archdiocese include: establishment of twenty-five new parishes; vast building program of churches and schools; vigorous program of social justice highlighted by integration of Catholic schools; initiation of new programs for youth, handicapped, needy, and Catholic students in state colleges and universities; re-organization of the archdiocesan administration and finances; promotion of greater lay participation in church through Confraternity of Christian Doctrine and Family Life Bureau; encouragement of closer relationship with Protestant and Jewish communities through Operation Understanding. Appointed archbishop of Chicago, June 16, 1965; named cardinal priest, June 26, 1967 (first New Orleans prelate or former prelate to be named to College of Cardinals). Died, Chicago, April 25, 1982; interred Mt. Carmel Cemetery, Hillside, Ill. E.C.W. Sources: John Patrick Cody Papers in Archives of the Archdiocese of New Orleans; Catholic Action of the South, August 2, 1961; Clarion Herald, June 17, June 24, August 19, August 25, 1965; April 29, 1982.

COHEN, Walter L., politician, businessman. Born, New Orleans, 1860; son of Bernard and Amelia Bingaman Cohen; a free man of color. Education: local public school, New Orleans. Married Antonia Manadé. Three children: Walter L., Jr., Bernard J., and Margot Farrell. Active in Reconstruction Republican politics; one of few blacks to successfully hold political office beyond Reconstruction. Appointed customs inspector by President William McKinley, and register of the land office by Theodore Roosevelt. Often in the center of state Republican politics even after the black-and-tan machinery lost control. Appointed comptroller of customs by President Warren G. Harding, 1921, and later by President Calvin Coolidge. Eventually ousted as secretary of the State Republican Committee and became head of a dissenting group. Opposed Herbert Hoover's nomination for president in 1928. Supported Hoover's running mate. Appointed minister to Liberia, 1928, but declined. A successful businessman; founder and president of the People's Life Insurance Company, a large black industrial insurance company. Active in the benevolent and fraternal organizations. Member: Corpus Christi Church, New Orleans. Died, New Orleans, December 29, 1930; interred St. Louis Cemetery III. C.V. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, December 30, 1930; Decem¬ber 31, 1930; Pittsburgh Courier, January 10, 1931; Charles Roussève, The Negro in Louisiana: Aspects of His History and His Literature (1937); Louis Harlan, ed., The Papers of Booker T. Washington, VIIII (1972); Robert Meyers, Jr., Names Over New Orleans Public Schools (1975).

COHN, Isidore
, surgeon, teacher, civic leader. Born, Bruslé Landing, West Baton Rouge Parish, La., April 9, 1885; son of Henry Cohn, Jr., and Sophie Farrnbacher Cohn of Baton Rouge, La. Education: Louisiana State University, B. S., 1903; Tulane University School of Medicine, 1907. Interned, Charity Hospital, Shreveport, and Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. Appointed to Touro Infirmary Surgical Staff, 1911; chief, 1935-1940. Consulting surgeon, Charity Hospital, Flint-Goodridge Hospital, Sarah Mayo Hospital, New Orleans. Member, Orleans Parish Medical Society, Louisiana State Medical Society, American Medical Association, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, American College of Surgeons, American Board of Surgery (Founder's Group). Teaching positions: Tulane University, 1908-1937; Louisiana State University, 1938-1952. Surgeon to the Jewish Children's Home, Hope Haven Institution (Marrero), and the Episcopal Children's Home of the Diocese of Louisiana. Chairman of the Committee for the Rudolph Matas History of Medicine Trust Fund. Publications include Normal Bones and Joints (1924); Rudolph Matas: A Biography, with Herman Deutsch (1960); and over 400 articles and pamphlets on medical and religious subjects. Married Elsie Waldhorn of New Orleans, April 5, 1910. Three children: Babette Cohn Golden (b. 1913); Elise Cohn Rosenthal (b. 1917), and Dr. Isidore Cohn, Jr. (b. 1921), now professor of Surgery at Louisiana State University Medical School. Member, International Society of Surgery, American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Touro Synagogue, Round Table Club, International House, National Conference of Christians and Jews, and the Foreign Policy Association. Chairman, Doctors' Division of the Community Chest; president, New Orleans and Southeastern Surgical societies. Honorary faculty member of Alpha Omega Alpha, Omega Delta Kappa, Phi Kappa Phi, and Phi Delta Epsilon. Died, New Orleans, January 3, 1980; intrerred Hebrew Rest Cemetery. C.C.K. Sources: Interview with Mrs. Babette Cohn Golden and Dr. Isidore Cohn, Jr.; Louisiana State University Medical School files; Cohn Family Papers.

COINCOIN, Marie Thérèse dite
, freedwoman and femme extraordinaire of colonial Natchitoches. Baptized, August 24, 1742; second-born daughter of François and his wife Marie Françoise, slaves in the household of Natchitoches' founder and long-time commandant, Louis Juchereau de St. Denis (q.v.). Given a traditional saint's name, the now-legendary Marie Thérèse was better known throughout her life by an African name that suggests her pre-Louisiana roots: Coincoin (pronounced ko kwi), this name was traditionally given to second-born daughters by those who spoke the Glidzi dialect of the Ewe cultural group along the coastal region of present Togo. Earning her freedom at mid-life, together with a small corner of her master's plantation and an equally small annuity to help support her numerous children, Coincoin parlayed her economic stake into a planting and ranching operation that few of her frontier contemporaries matched. Although she manned her various enterprises with slave labor, she also purchased the freedom of numerous relatives; together they laid the foundations of the noted créole de couleur colony that has dominated the social, economic, and religious life of the Isle Brevelle area of Cane River since the colonial period. By an unknown union, Coincoin was the mother of five children whom tradition sometimes identify as half-Indian: Marie Louise (b. 1759); Thérèse (b. 1761); Françoise (b. 1763); Nicolas Chiquito (b. ca. 1764-1765); Jean Joseph (b. 1766). By Coincoin's subsequent union with the French merchant and planter, Metoyer, she was the mother of ten additional children: Nicolas Augustin Metoyer (q.v.); Marie Susanne Metoyer (b. 1768; twin of Augustin and manumitted by her father at mid-life, she also became a leading Cane River planter); Louis Metoyer (q.v.); Pierre Metoyer, II, (b. ca. 1772; likewise manumitted by his father, he had extensive landholdings on the Isle); Dominique Metoyer (b. ca. 1774 and freed by his father shortly before his marriage in 1795, he amassed a considerable fortune in spite of rearing a family of seventeen children); Marie Eulalie Metoyer (b. 1776, died in childhood); Antoine Joseph Metoyer (b. 1778 and manumitted with his mother shortly thereafter; Joseph likewise settled on the Isle); Marie Françoise Rosalie Metoyer (b. 1780; died in childhood); Pierre Toussaint Metoyer (b. 1782; never married); François Metoyer (b. 1784; called La Pointe because his plantation lay at the southern point of the Isle, he remains a favorite of Isle folklorists who frequently recount his great strength and humor). G.B.M. Sources: Gary B. Mills, The Forgotten People: Cane River's Creoles of Color (1977); Gary B. Mills, "Coincoin: An Eighteenth Century 'Liberated' Woman," Journal of Southern History, XLII (1976); Elizabeth Shown Mills and Gary B. Mills, "Slaves and Master: The Louisiana Metoyers," National Genealogical Society Quarterly, LXX (1982).

COLBERT, William Williams
, planter. Born, Greene County, Ga., April 6, 1807; son of William Colbert and Margaret Williams. Removed to Montgomery County, Ala., 1817. Married, February 17, 1831, Mary Ann Elizabeth Goodson of Montgomery County, Ala., daughter of John Goodson and Mary Elizabeth Adams, who came from Darlington, S.C. Children: Mary Ann Elizabeth (b. 1831), Richard (b. 1835), Evelyn Mahala (b. 1836), Margaret Malinda (b. 1838), William Bonaparte (b. 1840), John Randolph (b. 1842), Georgia Alabama (b. 1843), James Polk (b. 1844), Andrew Jackson (b. 1849), and Augustus (b. 1852). Became a successful planter in Montgomery County, Ala., before removing to Bienville Parish, La., in 1849. By 1860 he had 53 slaves and eventually had in excess of 2,300 acres in his plantation, located five miles west of Mount Lebanon, and known as Oak Lawn. He was one of the largest planters in Bienville Parish in the antebellum period. Died, Gibsland, La., August 14, 1890; interred Oak Lawn Plantation Cemetery. W.W.C. Sources: Katherine C. Colbert and William W. Colbert, Jr., Descendants of William Colbert (1956); North Louisiana Historical Association Journal, V (1973), No. 1; Colbert family papers.

COLE, Catherine, see FIELD, Martha Reinhard Smallwood

COLE, Frank Estes, educator, politician. Born, Ball, La., March 4, 1908; son of Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Cole. Education: Franklin (Tex.) High School, 1925; attended Louisiana State University and lettered as a guard and tackle, degree in agriculture, 1931. Taught in Rayville (La.) High School as coach and classroom instructor. Removed to Many, La., in the late 1930s as head of the Cotton Office; joined staff of Many High School as vocational agriculture teacher and football coach for four years. Worked in shipyards during World War II; returned to teaching, 1950-1965, when he retired. Member, Louisiana house of representatives, 1944-1952; member, Louisiana senate, 1956-1960; introduced legislation establishing the Sabine Valley Vo-Tech School in Many. Appointed to State Board of Education in 1960. Member, First Baptist Church of Many, Sabine Parish Chamber of Commerce, Masonic Lodge. Married (1) Edna Phares. Children: Sally Beth and James R. Married (2) Margaret Jacobs, 1976. Died, May 31, 1981. J.H.P. Sources: The Sabine Index, June 4, 1981.

COLEMAN, Elliot d'Evereaux
, law enforcement officer, politician. Born, Live Oak Plantation, Waterproof, La., 1881; son of E. D. Coleman and Lou Ellen Pollard. Educated in local schools. Began law enforcement career at age 17 as deputy sheriff under Sheriff Young, future father-in-law. Served as justice of the peace and police juror, Tensas Parish, La. Member, 1921 constitutional convention. Served with state police; a bodyguard of Senator Huey P. Long (q.v.); with Long when senator mortally wounded; testified he shot Long's assassin twice. Served as a prohibition agent until elected sheriff of Tensas Parish, 1936; served in that capacity until defeated for reelection, 1960. Oldest sheriff in Louisiana at time of retirement. Married Jane Young, 1907. Children: Louis, Jane, and Elliot D., Jr. Died, Ferriday, La., May 26, 1963; interred Natchez, Miss. G.R.C. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, May 27, 1963; Monroe (La.) Morning World, April 17, 1960; Wm. E. Skaggs and J. B. Lux, eds., Louisiana Business and Professional Directory (n. d.).

COLEMAN, Hamilton Dudley
, politician, businessman. Born, New Orleans, May 12, 1845. Attended public and private schools. Enlisted in 1861 as a private in the Washington Artillery, Army of Northern Virginia, and served throughout the Civil War, surrendering at Appomattox with Gen. Robert E. Lee. Married Jessie Prague, August 4, 1870. Manufacturer of and dealer in plantation machinery; head of Coleman Machinery Co., New Orleans. An organizer of the first electric lighting company in the city, 1880, served as vice president and president of the company, active in the organization of the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition, 1884-1885. President of the New Orleans Chamber of Commerce, 1887-1888; a vice president of the National Board of Trade and the New Orleans Board of Trade, 1889. Elected as a Republican to the Fifty-first Congress (March 4, 1889-March 3, 1891); unsuccessful candidate for reelection to Congress in 1890 and 1894; unsuccessful candidate for governor, 1890 and 1894, and for lieutenant governor, 1892; delegate to Republican League Convention at Cleveland, Ohio, 1895; delegate to the Republican state conventions in 1896, 1900, and 1904. Appointed melter and refiner, United States Mint at New Orleans in 1899 and served until March 1, 1905; served as a member of United States Assay Commission, 1912. Died, Jefferson Davis Confederate Soldiers Home, Biloxi, Miss., March 16, 1926. Survived by three sons: W. P., Hamilton, and H. Dudley, Jr., and two grandsons: Coleman and Victor Romain; interred Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans. J.B.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (Washington, D. C., 1950); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, March 17, 1926.

COLEMAN, Oliver L., educator and college founder. Born, Livingstone, Miss., 1863. Education: Livingstone High School; Alcorn University, 1886; studied medicine for two years at Chautauqua University, New York, and later received the M.A. from Leland University (1896). After several years in the teaching profession established Coleman College, 1888, at Gibsland, La. Married, Mattie A. Perkins of Jackson, Miss., a teacher of music at Coleman College. Children: Mary Olive, McVicker Monroe (who succeeded father as president), Alfred S., and Senobia V. One biographer indicates that he erected one of the first brick buildings for blacks in southern Arkansas and northern Louisiana, organized the first Negro fair, farm loan association, and farmer's league in Louisiana. Most of the years as president, paid teachers and went without a salary for himself and his wife. Coleman College was a co-educational institution owned and operated by the Baptist denomination of the state of Louisiana. It owned more than 175 acres of land and a number of buildings with property valued in excess of $150,000 in the late 1920s. The enrollment grew to more than 400. The school also received financial assistance from the American Baptist Home Mission Society, Phelps-Stokes Board, the Woman's Home Mission Society of Chicago and the General Education Board of New York. Died, March 6, 1927, as a result of a car accident; interred Jackson Miss. C.V. Sources: A. E. Perkins, ed., Who's Who in Colored Louisiana (1930); Melerson Guy Dunham, The Centennial History of Alcorn A & M College; State Superintendent of Education Correspondence, Bienville Parish, State Archives and Records, Baton Rouge; Joseph J. Boris, ed., Who's Who in Colored America … (1927); Shreveport Journal, March 9, 10, 1927.

COLLINS, Luke, pioneer. First mentioned in Augusta County, Va., June 5, 1752. Served as captain and perhaps major in Hampshire County (Va.) militia in French and Indian War. Later removed to Frederick and Bedford counties (Va.). In 1773, he and his wife, Sarah White Collins, and their six children: John (d. 1811?), Luke, Jr. (d. 1810?), Sarah (?), Susanna (d. 1804), Theophilus (1752-1810), and William (d. 1820?), removed to the Natchez district. Luke Sr. and part of the family then removed to the Opelousas Post, ca. 1780. In 1796, Luke, Sr. and several sons were living in the "Quarter of the Coteau." They raised cattle and their brands are registered in the Brand Book for the Districts of Opelousas and Attakapas, 1760-1888. Died, Opelousas; interred June 20, 1801. W.S.C. Source: William S. Coker, "Luke Collins Senior and Family: An Overview," Louisiana History, XIV (1973).

COLVIN, Daniel, pioneer. Born, Chester County, S. C., ca. 1777; son of John and Hannah Price Colvin. Married (1), date unknown, Susan Huey of South Carolina, daughter of James Huey of Chester County, S. C., also early North Louisiana frontiersman. Children: Jeptha, Daniel, Jr., Susan Loonse and Sarah Johnson. Married (2) Katherine (Katey) May of Louisiana, 1843. Arrived at Ft. Miró (Monroe), La., either 1809 or 1812. Following hint of Federal surveyors, Colvin and family proceeded westward into north-central uplands, blazing trail that would eventually become main route across northern Louisiana, known later as Old Wire Road. Settled on site six miles north of present Ruston, La. A village developed nearby, known first as Colvinsville, later as Vienna, which became principal antebellum town of North-Central Louisiana. Vienna also first seat of government in Lincoln Parish. Many relatives followed subject to the area and today Colvins are largest family clan in north-central portion of state. Died, March 24, 1850; interred Old Colvin Cemetery, Vienna, La. P.C.C. Sources: Ethelle and Baker Colvin, Colvin and Allied Families (1965); Mary Frances Fletcher and Ralph L. Ropp, eds., Lincoln Parish History (1976); Ruston Daily Leader, September 26, 1973; June 28, 1976.

COMPTON, John, pioneer. Born, Charles County, Md., June 20, 1779. Migrated to Louisiana, 1799. Eventually acquired several thousand acres of land south of Lecompte, La. Married Amelie Baillio, daughter of Pierre Baillio II, June 18, 1817. Was serving in the Louisiana militia shortly after the Battle of New Orleans (January 1815). Was a charter stockholder of the College of Rapides, incorporated 1819, with Rev. Timothy Flint (q.v.) as president. Was a director of the Red River Railroad, the first railroad built west of the Mississippi River. Died, September 18, 1855. P.K.B. & R.L.J. Sources: Family Bible; J. Fair Hardin's Northwestern Louisiana: A History of the Watershed of the Red River, 1714-1939 (1939); George P. Whittington, Rapides Parish, Louisiana: A History (n.d.); Mrs. Thomas Nelson Carter Bruns, comp., Louisiana Portraits (1975).

CONEY, Cameron Beard, educator. Born, Bordelonville, La., October 1, 1900; son of Dr. Walter Clarence Coney and Caroline Beard. Education: grade school, Catahoula Parish, and high school in Natchitoches, La. Attended State Normal College. Taught one year, 1920, at Vick, La., and the next year was offered the principalship at Manifest. In 1923 became principal at Sicily Island and served until 1951. In 1925 he received his B. A. degree in Education from Louisiana State Normal (now Northwestern State University) and in 1954 received a M. A. from Louisiana. State University. In 1951 he became director of transportation for the Department of Education in Baton Rouge and held this position until 1966 at which time he retired. He was a member of the Methodist church, the Catahoula Retired Teachers Association, Sigma Tau Gamma, Phi Delta Kappa, and Red Red Rose. He was a Mason (Royal Arch Mason), a Moose, scout master, 1940-1942, listed in Who's Who in American Education in 1953-1954. A member of the Sicily Island Town Council and director of the Catahoula Council on Aging. Married Katie Harris in 1924. Two children by this marriage are Dr. William C. Coney of Jonesville, La., and Mrs. Johnny Weston of Jena, La. Died, January 12, 1975; interred Old Pinehill Cemetery, Sicily Island, La. S.C.H. Source: Author's research.

CONNELL, Hugh Holliman, planter. Born, Woodville, Miss., September 25, 1827. Married Ellen McDougald Stewart (1832-1864). Children: William Stewart; Hugh, IV, married Anna C. Richardson; Frances Matilda; Martha Holliman; Ellen McDougald, married William Connell Cage; Robert Sample, married Mary Ventress Cage; Leonora, married Hilliard Richardson (brother of Anna); Eliza. Removed to West Feliciana Parish, La., 1850; cotton planter and owner of Egypt Plantation near Jackson, La. On May 14, 1865, confronted Union soldiers on his plantation and was shot. Died, at his plantation home, Little Egypt, May 15, 1865; interred Stewart-West Cemetery, adjoining Egypt Plantation. D.L.C. Source: Author's research.

CONNER, John Louis
, politician, cattleman, rice farmer. Born, Jennings, La., September 30, 1901; son of Euclide D. Conner, banker, civic leader, and farmer, and Rosalie Castex, of Castex Landing, Mermentau. Education: local schools; Peacock Military Academy, San Antonio, Tex.; Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind., 1919-1922. Career: accountant, Illinois Steel Company, Gary, Ind., 1923-1924; advertising and sales, Reliance Manufacturing Company, Chicago, 1924-1925; tax collector, Jefferson Davis Parish, La., 1926-1931; sheriff, Jefferson Davis Parish, 1932-1936; auditor, Unemployment Compensation Division, Labor Department, New Orleans District, 1936-1938; superivsor of public funds, Northern District of Louisiana, 1938-1940; executive assistant to Louisiana Conservation Commissioner, 1941-1943; mayor of Jennings, 1945-1969. Service and awards: vice-president, Louisiana Municipal Association; recipient, Louisiana Municipal Review's Distinguished Service Award, 1956; declared LMR's Mayor of the Year, 1962. Member, Louisiana Cattleman's Association, Democratic party, Jefferson Davis Farm Bureau, Elks Club, Kiwanis Club, Jennings Association of Commerce, Our Lady Help of Christians Catholic Church. Married, December 22, 1941, Valerie Wartelle, daughter of Louis Lastrapes Wartelle and Mary Lucille Quirk. Children: Valerie Jean (b.1945); John Louis, Jr. (b.1952); Rosalie Wartelle (b.1959). Died, June 19, 1973; interred Greenwood Cemetery, Jennings. V.W.C. Sources: Edwin Adams Davis, The Story of Louisiana, 3 vols. (1960); Who's Who in the South and Southwest, 1963-1964; obituary and other news stories, Jennings Daily News, June 20, 1973; Conner family papers. See also Louisiana Municipal Review in the 1950s and 1960s for various cover and feature stories about Conner as mayor; and Mary Alice Fontenot, Acadia Parish, Louisiana: A History to 1920 (1979), vol. II, for contextual information about the Castex and Conner families.

CONNOLLY, John Hector
, carpenter, civic leader. Born, New Orleans, August 2, 1872; son of Michael Connolly and Marie Octavie Magnon. Married Marie Philomene Naquin of Cecelia, La. (La Grande Pointe), January 28, 1903. Had no children of their own, but helped educate seven children. Lived in Carencro, La., for more than ninety years serving the Sixth Ward of Lafayette Parish as police juror and school board member for twenty years. A carpenter by trade; built St. Peter's Catholic Church in Carencro and Mt. Carmel Convent and many homes in the community; was a trustee of St. Peter's Church for forty-two years and usher for seventy years until his retirement. In 1953, dubbed Knight of St. Gregory by Pope Pius XII. A member of the Holy Name Society and the League of the Sacred Heart at St. Peter's Church. There remain many intangible monuments to him, but perhaps none so poignant as a country lane, often traveled by him in his lifetime, now called Hector Connolly Road. Died, September 6, 1969; interred St. Peter's Mausoleum, Carencro. A.J.M. Sources: Lafayette Daily Advertiser, January 29, 1953; obituary, September 8, 1969.

CONRAD, Charles Magill
, attorney, congressman. Born, Winchester, Va., December 24, 1804; son of Frederick and Frances Thruston Conrad. Family removed to Mississippi in 1809 and then to the Teche country of Louisiana. Education: private school in New Orleans; studied law. Admitted to the bar in 1828 and began practice in New Orleans; associated with the law firm of Slidell, Conrad, and Benjamin. Married Mary Eliza Angela Lewis, grandniece of George Washington, daughter of Lawrence and Nellie Lewis and granddaughter of Fielding Lewis and Elizabeth Washington, only sister of General Washington. Children: Charles M. and Lawrence Lewis. A Jacksonian Democrat, but became a Whig over the issue of the national bank; member of the state house of representatives; elected as a Whig to the U. S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Alexandre Mouton (q.v.), served from April 14, 1842, to March 3, 1843; delegate to the state constitutional convention, 1844; elected as a Whig to the Thirty-first Congress and served from March 4, 1849, to resignation on August 17, 1850; appointed secretary of war in cabinet of President Fillmore and served from August 14, 1850, to March 7, 1853; delegate from Louisiana to the Provisional Confederate Congress at Montgomery, Ala., 1861; delegate to the First and Second Confederate congresses, 1862-1864. After the war resumed law practice. Died, New Orleans, February 11, 1878; interred Girod Street Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950); New Orleans Daily Picayune, obituary, February 12, 1878; Morris Raphael, "Charles Magill Conrad," Attakapas Gazette, V (1973); Glenn R. Conrad, comp., New Iberia … (1979).

CONRAD, Philip A.
, businessman, planter. Born, St. Morris Plantation, Pointe Coupée Parish, La., February 21, 1882; son of Adrian Conrad and Arcise Cambre. Educated in public and private schools. Removed to St. Mary Parish in 1888; to Iberia Parish, 1906, and to New Iberia, 1909. Founder of Conrad Rice Mill, now oldest rice mill in Louisiana and second oldest in U.S.A. Became widely known in rice circles as grower and miller. Member, St. Peter's Catholic Church; member of New Iberia City Council, 1924-1928; active in flood control and environmental protection of Bayou Teche. Married Marie Louise Bourgogne, daughter of Claude François Jules Bourgogne and Anna Krauss, October 9, 1902. Children: Philip O., Allen, Alma Ruth, Julian, and Gertrude Conrad Taylor (q.v.). Died, New Iberia, March 30, 1961; interred St. Peter's Catholic Cemetery. G.C.T.† Source: Author's research.

CONWAY, Thomas W., politician, clergyman, U. S. Army chaplain during Civil War. Appointed superintendent, Bureau of Free Labor, August 1864. Appointed head (assistant commissioner), Freedman's Bureau in Louisiana, 1865, but soon removed. Organized New Orleans Black Republican, April 1865. Ran schools of Freedman's Bureau. Organized Union League clubs in New Orleans. Superintendent of Public Education, 1868-1874. A.W.B. Sources: Howard A. White, The Freedman's Bureau in Louisiana (1970); Joe Gray Taylor, Louisiana Reconstructed, 1863-1877 (1974).

COOPER, Emil
, opera and orchestra conductor. Born, Kherson, Russia, December 20, 1877. Studied at Odessa Conservatory and in Vienna and Moscow. Became conductor of Kiev Opera at age 20. Conducted for Diaghileff's Ballet Russe in Paris and London, 1909. Various conducting assignments in Russia, including Imperial Opera in Moscow, culminating in an appointment as conductor of Petrograd Philharmonic after revolution in 1917. Founded State Philharmonic Society of Leningrad, 1920. Left Russia in 1923, conducted various orchestras in Europe and America, including Chicago Civic Opera, 1929-1932; Metropolitan Opera, New York, 1940-1950; named musical director, Montreal Opera Guild, 1942. Served as artistic director and conductor, Baton Rouge Symphony Orchestra, 1951-1960. Conducted Russian premieres of Wagner's Das Rheingold and Götterdämmerung, world premiere of Rimsky Korsakoff's Coq d'or. Chevalier, French Legion of Honor. Died, New York, November 16, 1960. L.I.W. Sources: International Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians, 10th ed.; obituary, New York Times, November 17, 1960.

COOPER, Joe Henry
, businessman, politician. Born, Fullerton, Vernon Parish, La., May 8, 1918; son of Dock Henry, native of Vernon Parish, and Elestine Neely Cooper, native of Copiah County, Miss. Served in the U. S. Navy (Seabees) as coxswain in the Pacific area during World War II. Married, December 14, 1937, Hazel Elizabeth Strong, born in Shelby County, Tex., daughter of Chester A. Strong, prominent farmer, Shelby County, and Naomi Mitchell Strong. Two daughters: Martha Anne (b. 1942), Sara Lynn (b. 1947). Established general merchandise store in Mansfield, La., 1946. Member of Sabine River Authority, DeSoto Chamber of Commerce, Farm Bureau, American Legion, Veterans of Foreign Wars, Masonic Lodge, First Baptist Church of Mansfield (deacon) and member, board of directors, Mansfield Bank & Trust. Served five terms in the Louisiana legislature, 1960-1980. At various times represented the parishes of DeSoto, Red River, Sabine and Caddo. During first four-year term, under Governor Jimmie Davis, supported a code of ethics for elected officials, to invest the state's idle funds and to reduce and make public the unclassified payroll and to promote efficient managerial controls on state government. Governor John J. McKeithen agreed to this legislation and during the next four years introduced the bills which were floor managed by Representative Cooper. Served as chairman of the House Highway, Transportation and Public Works Committee, 1976-1980, and co-chairman of Joint Committee on Highways, Public Works and Transportation, 1976-1980. Was instrumental in development of Parish Unit System for highway work and Highway Priority Program. Served on the "Mafia Probe" Committee in 1969 and authored significant minority report. Served on several joint committees for state management and efficiency and for prison reform. Passed legislation pertaining to these subjects. Co-authored and floor managed creation of Toledo Bend Dam and served on the Sabine River Authority for 18 years. Was instrumental in development of Toledo Bend Lake area and its recreational sites, including the Toledo Bend Forest Scenic Drive project. Co-authored and floor managed bill making LSU-Shreveport a four-year college. Died, Dallas, Tex., August 10, 1980; interred Mansfield Cemetery. A.C.B.* Sources: Louisiana Legislative Council records, acts of the Louisiana Legislature, Legislative papers and family papers.

CORMIER, Jean-Baptiste
, planter; one of the first four documented Acadians in Louisiana in 1764, the others being Jean Poirier, Jean Richard, and Olivier Landry. Cormier married (1) Marie Magdeleine Richard in Acadia. Children: Anastasie, Marie, and Marguerite. Appears on a list of prisoners sent to Charleston, S. C., November 1755. Escaped South Carolina authorities; captured in New York and held until the peace of 1763 when he purchased passage from New York to Mobile. Moved from Mobile to New Orleans, 1764, and then to St. James Parish. Married (2), in St. James Parish, Marguerite Bourg. Child: Jean-Baptiste, Jr. (b. 1778). Married (3) Anne Blanchard, the widow of Joseph Richard, in St. James Parish, 1779. Died, St. James Parish, ca. 1800. R.M.K. Sources: Louisiana Genealogical Register, XXXI (December, 1985); Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); William Rushton, The Cajuns (1979); South Carolina Gazette, November 5, 1755; South Carolina Council Journal; South Carolina Historical Commission, January 1755-1756; Chapman J. Milling, Exile Without End (1943).

COTTINGHAM, Claybrook C.
, academic. Born, Ottoman, Va., May 4, 1881; son of George Cottingham and Louise Palmer. Education: Chesapeake Academy, Irvington, Va.; Richmond College (now University of Richmond), B. A., M. A.; Baylor University, D. D. Assistant principal, Chesapeake Academy, 1900-1902; professor, Greek and Philosophy, Mt. Lebanon College, La., 1902-1905; president, Mt. Lebanon, 1905-1906; professor, Louisiana College, Pineville, 1906-1910; president, Louisiana College, 1910-1941; president, Louisiana Polytechnic Institute (now Louisiana Tech University), 1941-1949. Married, June 8, 1904, Myrtle Baker of Mt. Lebanon, daughter of J. L. Baker, Mt. Lebanon merchant, and Mary Williamson. Children: Mary Virginia (b. 1906), Margaret Drew (b. 1913), Claybrook Baker (b. 1915). Baptist deacon; president, Louisiana Baptist Convention, 1914-1916; director, Rotary International, 1930-1931; world traveler. Died, Mexico City, August 17, 1949; interred Greenwood Memorial Park, Pineville, La. L.S. Sources: Louisiana College Archives; Lynn Edward May, Jr., "Claybrook Cottingham: A Study of His Life and Work" (unpublished dissertation).

COULON, George David
, artist. Born, Seloncourt (Doubs), France, November 14, 1822; son of George Louis Coulon. Removed to New Orleans in the summer of 1833 with family. Education: public school; studied drawing with Toussaint Bigot. Took lessons in portraiture from Fleischbein. Studied decorative painting with Antonio Mondelli in 1838 and assisted his son-in-law, Leon Pomarede, in painting the Transfiguration on the altar wall of St. Patrick's Church. Also assisted in frescoing the ceiling of the Old Criminal Court in the Cabildo. In 1840 took lessons in portraiture from Julien Hudson and more lessons from Bigot in figure and landscape. Painted his first portrait in 1841. Studied animals, flowers, and still life. In 1842 he painted his second portrait. Continued to paint many studies of human heads. After 1845 he did conservation work by relining and restoring old paintings. In 1848 he painted a large work entitled Worshipping of the Shepherds. Married, March 19, 1850, Paoline Casbergue, of New Orleans, an artist. Children, only two of whom survived: George Joseph Amédé (b. 1854) and Mary Elizabeth Emma (b. 1859), both artists. Taught lessons in drawing and painting, 1851-1865. Painted portraits from life and from masks taken after death. Some of his major portrait commissions include: several of Msgr. Antoine Blanc (q.v.), first archbishop of New Orleans; two of Rev. F. Mullen, founder of St. Patrick's Church; Laurent Sigur, founder of The Delta; one of Capt. Tos. Fry, the Cuban martyr; two of Col. W. Wright, U. S. Commissioner, and portraits of ten Louisiana Supreme Court justices. Died, New Orleans, February 28, 1904; interred St. Louis Cemetery III, New Orleans. K.W.H. Source: The Historic New Orleans Collection, Encyclopaedia of New Orleans Artists, 1718-1918 (1987).

COULON DE VILLIERS, François, chevalier de Villiers
, French officer and early settler of Louisiana. Born, Verchères, Canada, 1712; son of Nicolas Antoine Coulon de Villiers, originally of Nantes, France, and Angélique Jarret, of Verchères, near Montreal, Canada. Married (1) Elizabeth Groston de Saint Ange de Bellerive in Illinois country, before 1740. Married (2) Madeleine Marin de la Marque. Married (3) Marie-Geneviève Enould de Livaudais de Fontenette of New Orleans (marriage contract, June 28, 1762). Children: Isabelle (b. 1740), married François de Volsey); Joachime (b. 1746), married François Picote de Belestre); Joseph (b. 1747); Louis (b. 1751); Jean Marc; Charles Philippe (d. 1833). Served as soldier of France in Canada, District of Illinois, and Louisiana; remembered chiefly for service during the Seven Years' War when, at Fort Necessity, subject's troops fought British forces commanded by George Washington, avenging recent defeat and death of subject's brother, Jumonville de Villiers, at Fort Duquesne; accepted Washington's surrender, July 4, 1754; dubbed chevalier of the Order of St. Louis. Arrived in Louisiana, January 1761; settled in Opelousas; served in cabildo as alcalde ordinaire and as probate judge, 1772, 1777. Died, New Orleans, May 22, 1794; interred St. Louis Cemetery, New Orleans. F.M.J. Sources: George W. Neal and L. Pelletier, "Notes on the Vives Family and Coulon de Villiers Family"; Sidney L. Villeré, "Direct Ancestry of Leontine Jumonville de Villiers"; Grace King, Creole Families of New Orleans (1921; reprint ed., 1971); Stanley Clisby Arthur, Old Families of Louisiana (1931; reprint ed., 1971).

COULTER, James Hammon
, architect, builder. Born, Delaware, 1795. Thought to have been classics professor at Maysville, Ky., before arriving in West Feliciana Parish, La., ca. 1819; with Severn White had cabinetry shop, St. Francisville, 1825-1827. Married (1) Jeanette McQueen, May 22, 1823. Married (2) Emmeline M. Treat, February 22, 1831. Built Ellerslie for Olivia Lane Wade, 1828-1832; built Greenwood for William Ruffin Barrow (q.v.), 1830. Died, October 27, 1861; interred Grace Church Cemetery, St. Francisville. E.K.D. Sources: West Feliciana Public Records; Grace Church Register; WIlliam Barrow Floyd, The Barrow Family of Old Louisiana (1963).

COURMONT, Félix de
, political journalist, social critic. French Creole immigrant from the West Indies who arrived in Louisiana ca. 1841. Founded Le Taenarion: Journal du Progrès, a French-language tri-weekly newspaper first published October 4, 1846, and ending in November after sixteen issues. Subjects included satirical verse on local politics and cultural events. Another publication, a small magazine called Le Taenarion, Satires Périodiques, numbered twelve issues and ran between July 15, 1846, and January 1, 1847. Described by one historian as a veritable Don Quixote tilting at windmills, Courmont verbally attacked New Orleans' bankers and female prostitutes. He apparently departed the city ca. 1848. Historian E. L. Tinker ranked the satirist among the foremost of Louisiana's French writers in "fugitive and miscellaneous poetry." T.F.R. Sources: Edward Larocque Tinker, Les Ecrits de Langue en Louisiane au XIX Siècle: Essais Biographiques et Bibliographiques (1932); __________, Creole City: Its Past and Its People (1953); Ruby Van Allen Caulfield, The French Literature of Louisiana (1929); François Charles Deléry (?), "Native French Literature in Louisiana," Newspaper clipping (1871?) in "Louisiana Papers, 1779-1937," E. L. Tinker Collection, American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass.

COURTABLEAU, Jacques Guillaume, colonial trader, planter, military figure. Born, Biloxi, 1725; son of Jacques Courtableau and Catherine Menu. Entered Indian trade; settled on Bayou Teche, Opelousas Post, before 1756; captain of militia. Married (1), May 4, 1765, Marguerite Le Kintrek, of the German Coast, widow of Claude DesBordes and daughter of Joseph Le Kintrek (q.v.), Opelousas fur-trader. One child: Zoe. Nominal leader, probably magistrate and, traditionally, first commandant, Opelousas Post (no contemporary evidence), 1767-1769. Married (2), before 1772, Madeleine Vincent. Bayou Courtableau named for subject. Died before October 16, 1772. J.L.F. Sources: Winston DeVille, Opelousas: The History of a French and Spanish Military Post in America, 1716-1803 (1973); Charles W. Hackett, ed. and trans., Pichardo's Treatise on the Limits of Louisiana and Texas … , 4 vols. (1931-1946); Opelousas colonial records, succession, October 16, 1772, and April 2, 1774; Opelousas Daily World, November 3, 1955.

COURVILLE, Arville, Cajun musician (violin). Born, near Eunice, La., March 18, 1882. Popular at the end of the nineteenth century; performed with brother Eraste (q.v.); influenced many Cajun musicians including nephew Sady Courville and Dennis McGee. Died, Eunice, La., November 11, 1929. B.J.A. Source: Author's research.

COURVILLE, Eraste
, Cajun musician (violin). Born, near Eunice, La., December 30, 1879. Popular at the end of the nineteenth century; performed with brother Arville (q.v.); influenced many Cajun musicians including son Sady Courville and Dennis McGee. B.J.A. Source: Author's research.

COUVENT, Justine Fervin
, also known as Widow Couvent (La Veuve Couvent), ex-slave, benefactress of education and of orphans. Born in Africa (precise place unknown) in the 1750s (precise date unknown). Deprived of formal education, posessed common sense and uncommon business sense. After death of husband, Gabriel Bernard Couvent, May 22, 1829, Widow Couvent developed their holdings in money and in real estate. Drafted will leaving her estate to school to be established for orphans of free population of color. Unique institution at time of founding, the school, no longer reserved to orphans, survives today in downtown New Orleans. Died, New Orleans, June 28, 1837. C.E.O. Sources: Rodolphe Lucien Desdunes, Our People and Our History, trans. and ed. by Dorothea Olga McCants (1973); Charles B. Roussève, The Negro in Louisiana: Aspects of His History and His Literature (1937).

COVINGTON, Leonard
, soldier, politician. Born, Aquasco, Md., October 30, 1768. Received a liberal schooling; entered the United States Army as a cornet of cavalry, March 14, 1792; commissioned lieutenant of dragoons by General Washington in 1793, and joined the army under General Wayne. Distinguished himself at Fort Recovery and the Battle of Miami, and was mentioned in the official report of General Wayne; promoted to captain, and resigned September 12, 1795. Engaged in agricultural pursuits; member of the state house of delegates for many years; elected as a Democrat to the Ninth Congress (March 4, 1805-March 3, 1807). Appointed by President Jefferson lieutenant-colonel of light dragoons on January 9, 1809, and colonel, February 15, 1809; in command at Fort Adams on the Mississippi in 1810. On December 10, 1810, led a force that lowered the flag of the Republic of West Florida in Baton Rouge; at that time was a resident of Natchez, Miss. At the outbreak of the War of 1812 joined Gen. James Wilkinson (q.v.) in the invasion of Canada; appointed brigadier general by President Madison, August 1, 1813; mortally wounded at the Battle of Chryslers Field, November 11, 1813; and died at French Mills, N.Y., November 14, 1813; remains were removed to Sackets Harbor, N.Y., August 13, 1820; place of burial now known as Mount Covington. Covington, Ky., and Covington, La., named for him. J.B.C. Sources Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950); Frederick S. Ellis, St. Tammany Parish, L'Autre Côté du Lac (1981); Adrian D. Schwartz, Sesquicentennial in St. Tammany (1963).

COXE, Daniel W.
, merchant. Born 1769. Began career in Philadelphia firm of his brother Tench Coxe. Married, 1800, Margaret Burd. In 1791 travelled to New Orleans as agent of Philadelphia firm of Reed and Forde. While in the then Spanish-controlled city, met Daniel Clark, (the younger [q.v.]), who, at the age of twenty-five, was already a notable figure in the New Orleans business community. Two years later they formed a partnership which lasted until 1811. Economic reverses brought about by Coxe's inept trading had cost the firm a good deal of money but the partnership was dissolved amicably and Clark and Coxe remained good friends. Daniel Clark died in 1813 still in debt to Coxe as a result of the dissolution of the firm. In 1819 Coxe settled with Clark's other partners, the firm of Chew and Relf, taking land instead of the money which was owed him. These lands, known as the Maison Rouge Tract, some 170,000 acres, were later claimed by Clark's daughter Myra Clark Gaines (q.v.) when she instituted her famous suit to establish her legitimacy and claim her father's considerable estate. Daniel Coxe spent much of the rest of his life defending his land titles against the claims made by Myra Clark Gaines. Coxe also found himself in court facing the United States government for, in the 1840s, the federal government claimed that the lands had never been granted by the Spanish government in the first place. It was charged that the baron de Bastrop and the marquis de Maison Rouge had never owned the land and therefore had no right to sell it to Daniel Clark. The case went before a chain of state and federal courts; twice going before the Supreme Court. In 1848 that body handed down the final decision finding in favor of the government. Coxe died in 1852. M.W. Sources: Nolan Harmon, Jr., The Famous Case of Myra Clark Gaines (1946); Jennie O'Kelly Mitchell and Robert Dabney Calhoun, "The Marquis de Maison Rouge, the Baron de Bastrop, and Colonel Abraham Morehouse: Three Ouachita Valley Soldiers of Fortune, the Maison Rouge and Bastrop Spanish Land 'Grants'," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XX (1937).

CRABITES, Pierre, attorney, jurist, author, lecturer. Born, New Orleans, February 17, 1877; son of Pierre Crabitès and Martha Patton. Education: local schools; College Immaculate Conception, New Orleans, A.M., 1895; Tulane University, LL.B., 1898; Loyola University, New Orleans, LL.D., 1918; graduate study University of Paris. Married Charlotte Berlin of Chattanooga, Tenn., daughter of Dr. Henry Berlin. Child: Henry Berlin Crabitès. Admitted to Louisiana bar, 1900; practiced law in New Orleans, 1900-1911; American judge, Mixed Tribunal, Cairo, Egypt, 1911-1936 (rendered decision between Howard Carter, the English archaeologist, discoverer of Tutankhamun's tomb and the Egyptian Department of Public Works.) Special lecturer Louisiana State University Law School. Appointed American national commissioner under provisions of Egypto-American Arbitration Treaty of 1929, in 1939. Special assistant to U. S. minister, Cairo, Egypt, 1942-1943; special assistant to U. S. minister, Baghdad, Iraq, 1943. Awarded: Order of Ismail (Grand Officer) Egypt. Translator: Armenia and the Armenians from the Earliest Times Until the Great War (1914), 1920. Author: Gordon, the Sudan and Slavery (1933); Ismail, the Maligned Khedive (1933); Who Rules France? (1933); The Winning of the Sudan (1934); Benes, Statesman of Central Europe (1935); Clement VII and Henry VIII (1936); Unhappy Spain (1937); Victoria's Guardian Angel: A Study of Baron Stockmar (1937); Americans in the Egyptian Army (1938); The Spoilation of Suez (1940). Contributed many articles to publications of learned societies. Member: Catholic church. Died, Iraq, October 10, 1943; interred English Christian Cemetery, Baghdad, Iraq. B.R.O. Sources: Baton Rouge States-Item, December 11, 1943; obituary, New Orleans Times-Picayune, October 11, 1943; obituary, New York Times, October 11, 1943; Who Was Who in America, 1943-1950, (1950).

CRAMERS, Hubert
, clergyman. Born, Thron, The Netherlands, September 3, 1875. Began seminary studies, Weert, in the Diocese of Richmond. Completed theology course at University of Louvain, Belgium, 1898, ordained to priesthood that year. Volunterring for assignment in Archdiocese of New Orleans, served as pastor in Houma, 1898-1900, then pastor in Cameron. Appointed pastor of Immaculate Conception Parish in Lake Charles, 1902, a position he held until his death. Instrumental in establishing St. Patrick Hospital, and St. Charles Academy. Supervised establishment of church parishes in Iowa, Oberlin, Sulphur, Vinton, and Lake Charles. Present Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Lake Charles, built under his leadership and consecrated 1913. Elevated to rank of domestic prelate, 1927. Died, August 10, 1935. T.S. Sources: Archives, Archdiocese of New Orleans; Archives, Diocese of Lafayette; Lake Charles American Press.

CRAWFORD, Josephine Marien, artist. Born, New Orleans, 1878; daughter of Charles Campbell Crawford and Louise Bienvenu Crawford. Education: Cenas Institute for Young Ladies; McDonogh High School; Newcomb College. Never married. Began studying art in 1922 (at age of 44) at the New Orleans Art School. In 1927, studied art in Paris under André L'Hote; she befriended such artists as Georges Bracques, André Derain, Raoul Dufy, Fernand Leger, and Pablo Picasso, most of whom had been involved in the 1912 "Salon de la Section d'Or" in Paris which marked the appearance of the Cubist movment. In 1928 she had her first one-man show at the Arts and Crafts Club; she exhibited regularly at the Club, and in 1934 was awarded the Blanche S. Benjamin prize for a Louisiana scene with her painting entitled Rue Kerlérec. A second one-man show opened at the Arts and Crafts Club in 1940; later she juried shows at the Club. Her style, relying on an economy of line to produce strong compositions, and an economy of color resulted in canvasses with a flat, mural-like quality. This contrasted sharply with the artistic milieu of New Orleans at that time, which was influenced by the teachings of the Woodwards, late Impressionism, and WPA American Realism. Exhibited at Newcomb College, at Louisiana State University, in New York at the Montross Gallery, 1929, in Philadelphia at the Boyer Galleries, 1935, and with the Central American Art Circuit, 1941. A retrospective exhibition was held at the Delgado Museum of Art (now the New Orleans Museum of Art) in 1965. After her death, her brother Charles C. Crawford, gave some 70 canvasses and over 400 of her drawings to The Historic New Orleans Collection. Died, New Orleans, March 25, 1952. K.F. Sources: The Historic New Orleans Collection, Josephine Marien Crawford Collection; Family Papers; Isaac Delgado Museum of Art, The World of Miss Josephine Crawford, 1878-1952 (New Orleans, 1965); New Orleans Item-Tribune, December 9, 1928; April 19, 1935; New Orleans States, February 9, 1934; March 26, 1952; New Orleans Times-Picayune, January 28, 1934; February 11, 1934; April 1, 1934; May 5, 1935; March 4, 1941; March 26, 1952; September 19, 1965.

CREECH, Oscar, physician, surgeon, medical scientist, editor, administrator. Born, Nashville, N. C., November 14, 1916; son of Oscar Creech, Sr., and Martha Gulley. Education: Ahoski (N. C.) High School, 1933; Wake Forest College, B. S., 1937; Jefferson Medical College, M. D., 1941; internship, Charity Hospital of Louisiana at New Orleans, 1941-1942; major, Army Medical Corps, 1942-1946; residency, Tulane Surgical Service, Charity Hospital of Louisiana, 1946-1949; senior resident, 1948-1949. Board certified, American Board of Surgery, May 1951; Board of Thoracic Surgery, October 1953. Married Dorothy Browne, September 7, 1937. Four children. Teaching experience: assistant in Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1946-1949, then rose from instructor to associate professor of Surgery, Baylor University College of Medicine, 1949-1956. One year spent on research and writing while undergoing treatment for tuberculosis. William Henderson Professor of Surgery and chairman of the Department of Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1956-1967; and dean, July 1, 1967. An intense combination of medicine's traditional scientific discipline and human compassion, Creech published more than two hundred papers and chapters. In research he improved cardiovascular surgery, regional perfusion chemotherapy for cancer (pioneered), and organ transplantation. His innovations in medicine and surgery at Tulane well served the university and the state of Louisiana. Died of lymphoma, New Orleans, December 22, 1967. J.P.M. Sources: Official records in New Orleans at the Rudolph Matas Medical Library of Tulane University Medical Center, and in Houston through Baylor College of Medicine; Lois DeBakey, "A Tribute: Oscar Creech, Jr., M. D.," Archives of Surgery, XCVI (1968); Orleans Parish Medical Society Bulletin, XXXIX (1968); and John Duffy, The Tulane University Medical Center (1984).

CRESSWELL, Elihu, slave dealer. Born in South Carolina, c. 1811; son of Sarah Cresswell. Came to New Orleans, 1844-1845; set up slave yard at Dryades and Erato streets, later 156 Common St. Several times sued for selling ill or chronically diseased slaves and representing them as healthy. Unmarried. Died, New Orleans, May 29, 1851. J.K.S. Sources: Coulter v. Cresswell, 7 La. Ann. 367 #2734, New Orleans, June 1852; Succession of Cresswell, 8 La. Ann. 122 #3521, New Orleans, April 1853; Orleans Parish Death Certificates, Vol. 12, p. 741.

CROSS, Lena Himel
, nurse. Born, January 22, 1880, at Himelaya Plantation on Bayou Lafourche in Assumption Parish, La.; daughter of Dorothy Bernard and Oscar Himel (q.v.); was educated as a boarding student at Mount Carmel convent in Thibodaux, La., from 1894 to 1901; married Edward Wallace Cross on January 4, 1904; lived in Thibodaux and Gibson, La., before moving to New Orleans in 1906; studied nursing at Hotel Dieu, New Orleans, after husband's death in 1912; served as registrar for the Nursing Bureau of New Orleans District Nurses Association; president of the Louisiana State Nurses Association from 1918 to 1921; worked for passage of legislation to protect registered nurses of the state; died March 9, 1942; survived by one daughter, Mrs. M. B. French; services held at Catholic church in Thibodaux with interment in Thibodaux cemetery. E.C.F. Sources: Author's research; New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, March 10, 1942.

CROSS, Noah Webster
, politician. Born, Monterey, La., October 3, 1908; son of Marsalin Gillis Cross and Lydia Catherine Wilson. Education: Ferriday High School; Louisiana Tech. Married Iola May Denham of Baton Rouge. Children: Phyllis, Kay, and Lydia. Began his career with William Campbell Nabors Oil Co., 1927. In 1940 elected sheriff of Concordia Parish, at the time Louisiana's youngest sheriff. Served until 1948 when defeated in a bid for reelection, but reelected to office, 1952, and served until his death. Did much to modernize the operation of the Concordia Parish Sheriff's Office. Member, Ferriday Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons; Ferriday Royal Arch Chapter Masons; Sevier Memorial United Methodist Church; Louisiana Sheriffs' Association and National Sheriffs' Association. Died, Ferriday, La., November 22, 1976. A.T. Source: Author's research.

CROSS, Ruth Palmer
, novelist. Born near Paris, Tex., December 25, 1887; daughter of Walter Derohan Cross and Willie Alta Cole. Education: Paris High School; graduated Phi Beta Kappa from University of Texas at Austin, 1911; post-graduate work in journalism and philosophy at University of Chicago, University of California, and Columbia University. Holland's Magazine, a Texas publication, one of the first to publish her work. Novelette, Question of Honor, published 1917 in People's Home Journal, made into movie starring Anita Stewart. Gained nationwide prominence with first novel The Golden Cocoon; won D. A. Frank prize of $500 for best novel by student of University of Texas between 1914 and 1919; one of seven books to place in the first Harper Prize Novel Contest; made into movie by Warner Brothers, starring Helene Chadwick, 1926. Invited to membership in the Screen Writers' Guild and the Authors' League of America while residing in Los Angeles shortly after World War I. Married, G. W. Palmer, 1926. Playlet "Exposing Hotel Souvenir Fans" taken up by Keith Vaudeville Circuit, 1924. "Toll," a short story, given favorable mention in O'Brien's Yearbook of Best American Short Stories. Short story "Mary 'Lisbeth's Folks" published in Saturday Evening Post, 1924. Other novels published: The Unknown Goddess, 1926; Enchantment, 1930; The Big Road, 1931; Soldier of Good Fortune, 1936; Back Door to Happiness, 1937. Play bought by Broadway producer David Belasco, 1926. Published number of popular articles on gardening in New York Times, Better Homes and Gardens, American Home, Country Gentleman, and others. Resided 1925-1945 near Winsted, Conn. Book Eden on a Country Hill, 1938, based on restoration of her 200-year-old home; Wake Up and Garden published 1942. Friend of Cammie G. Henry (q.v.) of Melrose Plantation. Moved to Winnfield, Louisiana, 1957. The Beautiful and the Doomed published in 1976. Donated research notes, manuscripts, published works, clippings, and correspondence to the Special Collections Division of Northwestern State University's Eugene P. Watson Memorial Library, 1975. Died, September 30, 1981. P.W.J. Sources: Ruth Cross Papers, Special Collections Division, Eugene P. Watson Library, Northwestern State University, Natchitoches, Louisiana; Pamela Wester Jones, Thesis, Northwestern State University, Natchitoches, Louisiana, 1976.

CROSSMAN, Abial Daily, politician, mayor of New Orleans. Born, Greene, Me., November 3, 1803. Limited formal education; was taught by father to make and sell hats. Arrived New Orleans, 1829; opened hat shop at 24 Canal Street; succeeded in business; entered politics 1839; became successively alderman, state representative, mayor. A Whig, elected to the state legislature, 1844, about same time named to the general council when Mayor Joseph E. Montegut was elected, April 11, 1844. Thus Crossman became chairman of the Financial Committee of the debt-ridden Municipality Council. His fiscal conservatism won Crossman popularity. Elected mayor, April 6, 1846. Reelected to three two-year terms. Left office in the spring of 1854. During tenure a new city hall, now named James Gallier Hall for its architect, was designed in 1846 and constructed shortly thereafter; levees were built; local streets were paved with granite blocks for the first time; a new charter consolidated the city's former three municipalities. Never married. Died, New Orleans, June 13, 1859. Interred Cypress Cemetery. His remains were subsequently moved to the base of a monument in nearby Greenwood Cemetery. Crossman Public School named for subject in 1907. R.M.J. Sources: obituary, New Orleans Daily Delta, June 14, 1859; obituary, New Orleans Daily True Delta, June 14, 15, 1859; New Orleans Commercial Bulletin, June 14-16, 1859; New Orleans Daily Crescent, June 14-15, 1859; Cohen's New Orleans Directory (1853); Robert Meyer, Jr., Names Over New Orleans Public Schools (1975); W. P. A., Biographies of the Mayors of New Orleans; W. P. A., Administrations of the Mayors of New Orleans.

CROZAT, Antoine
, marquis du Châtel, financier, proprietor of Louisiana. Born, Toulouse, France, 1655. Married, Marguerite Legendre. Four children: Marie-Anne, who married the comte d'Evreux; Louis-François, who inherited his father's title; Joseph Antoine, who became the marquis de Thugny; and Louis-Antoine, the baron de Thiers. Councilor to King Louis XIV; secretary of the king's household; investor in the Guinea Company and the Asiento Company; income from these investments led him to accept the king's offer of a fifteen-year trade monopoly in Louisiana established with the founding of the Company of Louisiana in 1712. Inability of Crozat's agents to establish the monopoly, failure to find precious metals, and conflicts within the colonial government forced him to surrender his monopoly in 1717. Died, Paris, June 7, 1738. J.P.S. Sources: Edwin Adams Davis, Louisiana: A Narrative History; Alcée Fortier, ed., Louisiana, Comprising Sketches of Parishes, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons Arranged in Cyclopedic Form, vol. I (1909); Marcel Giraud, A History of French Louisiana, Vol. I (1974), The Reign of Louis XIV; Dictionnaire de Biographie française, IX.

CROZET, Claudius
, educator. Born, Villefranche, France, January 1, 1790. Education: Polytechnic School of Science, Paris, graduated 1807; military school at Metz, 1807-1809. Married Mlle de Camp. Immigrated to the United States in 1816; taught at West Point and Virginia Military Institute; removed to Louisiana in 1832; was state engineer until elected president of Jefferson College in St. James Parish, served 1834-1837. College established, 1830, as a French-speaking institution; college was funded by pledges from St. James sugar planters and received yearly state subsidies. After the Civil War the college was bought by the Marist Order and is now known as Manresa, a retreat house run by the Jesuits. Crozet was called the best mathematician in the United States; introduced study of descriptive geometry to America; author of A Treatise of Descriptive Geometry for the Use of the Cadets of the United States Military Academy (1821); it was the first American textbook on the subject; also wrote Arithmetic for Colleges and Schools (1858). Died, Richmond, Va., January 29, 1864. J.B.C. Sources: The National Cyclopedia of American Biography; Roulhac B. Toledano, "Louisiana's Golden Age: Valcour Aime in St. James Parish," Louisiana History, X (1969); Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896 (1967).

CRUZAT, Francisco
, colonial official. Born, Navarre, Spain, March 10, 1739; son of Balthasar Cruzat and Francesca Virto. Served four years in Guard of Oran, Africa. A member of O'Reilly's expedition to Louisiana. Placed in charge of establishing a Spanish settlement in Illinois. Appointed lieutenant governor of Spanish Illinois, 1776-1778, 1780-1787. Served at the siege of Baton Rouge. Married Nicamora Ramos y Tibalde. Two sons, José Ignacio and Antoine, survived their father. Died in Pensacola. D.N.K. Sources: "Plana Mayor, Capitanes, Tenientes, Sub-Tenientes, Sargentos y Cadetes," AGI, PC 159 (1781), from Barrow Papers, Special Collections, Tulane University; Frederick Billon, Annals of St. Louis in Its Early Days … (1886); Stanley Clisby Arthur, Old Families of Louisiana (1971).

CULVER, Essae Martha, first state librarian of Louisiana. Born, Kansas, 1882. Education: Pamona College, Claremont, Calif.; New York State Library School, Albany; honorary doctor of letters degrees, Pomona College, 1954, and Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 1959. Organized Louisiana's statewide public library program and was in charge of state library work from 1925 to retirement in 1962; helped draft new, more adequate legislation outlining qualifications for librarians and library program standards; worked toward establishment of a school of library science at Louisiana State University and the initiation of a School Library Division in the State Department of Education. Served as president, Louisiana Library Association, Southwestern Library Association, League of Library Commissions, American Library Association (first woman president from a Southern state). Louisiana Library Association's Essae M. Culver Distinguished Service Award named for subject. Died, Baton Rouge, La., January 3, 1973. F.M.J. Sources: Shirley Knowles Stephenson, "History of the Louisiana State Library, Formerly Louisiana Library Commission" (Ph. D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1957); Dick Wright, "State Librarian Emeritus Dies at 90," Baton Rouge Morning Advocate, January 4, 1973.

CUMMINS, Harold
, anatomist, educator, editor. Born, Markleville, Ind., May 28, 1893; son of William Herbert and Margaret John McCallister Cummins. Education: public schools of Kalamazoo, Mich.; University of Michigan, A. B., 1916; Tulane University, Ph. D., 1925. Married Elizabeth Clay Van Buskirk, August 28, 1918. Three sons. Assistant in Zoology, University of Michigan, 1912-1915; assistant in Botany, 1915-1916; instructor later assistant professor of Anatomy, Vanderbilt University, 1916-1919; at Tulane University, 1919-1976. Professor in the medical school. Head of the Division of Microscopic Anatomy, 1933-1945; chairman of the Department of Anatomy, 1945-1949; assistant dean, 1949-1964. Emeritus after 1964. American Journal of Anatomy, associate editor, 1939-1946, and managing editor, 1946-1959. Founding member of the Conference of Biological Editors. National Board of Medical Examiners, anatomy, four-year term. Louisiana State Anatomical Board, founding member and co-author of the first Louisiana State Anatomical Act, 1944. President, American Association of Anatomists, 1961-1962. Cummins became internationally recognized as the founder of the science of dermatoglyphics. Authored two books on dermatoglyphics, sections in various anatomical texts, and numerous papers in technical journals. Papers mainly studied dermatoglyphics, but "included a considerable variety of anatomical work, medical history, and medical education." Cummins kept daily hours in an office provided for him at the Tulane Medical Center until past age eighty. Died, May 12, 1976. J.P.M. Sources: Who's Who in America; American Men and Women of Science, editions 4-12; Tulane University publications and records; interviews with Cummins by the author, Rudolph Matas Medical Library, Tulane University Medical Center; Cummins and Charles Midlo, Finger Prints, Palms, and Soles: An Introduction to Dermatoglyphics (1943).

CURRIE, Andrew, politician. Born, Ibricken, Kilmery Parish, County Clare, Ireland, March 4, 1843; son of James Currie and Mary Griffin. Civil War service: joined Caddo Rifles under the command of Captain Shivers, and was sent to Virginia with his company. On return to Shreveport became a sheriff's deputy. Later elected town's first constable. Elected the first Democratic mayor after the war and served from 1878-1890. Resigned in 1890 to devote time to his insurance business. Served in the state senate, 1892-1896, and introduced bill to establish Louisiana Tech University. Served as postmaster of Shreveport, 1896-1901. Married, 1876, Annie Fort Gregg of Marshall, Tex. Children: Andrew, Jr., and Mary B. Member, Holy Trinity Catholic Church, Gen. LeRoy Stafford Camp, U.C.V. Died, February 8, 1918. P.L.M. Sources: Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Northwest Louisiana; Lilla McLure and J. Ed Howe, History of Shreveport and Shreveport Builders (1937); Maude Hearn O'Pry, Chronicles of Shreveport (1928).

CURTIS, Henry Baldwin
, attorney, politician, commander, Washington Artillery. Born, New Orleans, December 7, 1895; son of Edward B. Curtis and Harriet Baldwin. Education: Jesuit High School; Loyola University, New Orleans; Loyola Law School; attended Sorbonne, Paris, France. Became first assistant city attorney, 1946; city attorney, 1949; elected city councilman in 1957, served for twelve years. Colonel, Louisiana National Guard. Commanded Washington Artillery, 1928-1941. Served on Mexican Border in 1916, and in Europe during World Wars I and II. Awarded Bronze Star Medal; European African Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with Three Bronze Stars; American Defense Service Medal; American Campaign Medal; Victory Medal, World War II. Presidential Testimonial presented. Married: Marguerite Grant. Died, New Orleans, February 14, 1980; interred Metairie Cemetery. TAG, LA Sources: Military records, Jackson Barracks Library, compiled by Mary B. Oalmann, military historian; "In Memoriam: Henry Baldwin Curtis," Louisiana History, XXI (1980).

CURTO, Gregorio, singer, organist, composer, music teacher. A native of Tortosa, Spain. Educated in Paris at the Choron singing school. Organist at the Cathedral of Soisson, then maître de chapelle at the Sorbonne. In 1830 while singing with the Opéra des Italiens was engaged by John Davis for the Théâtre d'Orléans, as basso cantante. Sang for two seasons with the Théâtre, then devoted himself to teaching voice. Among his students was the celebrated Minnie Hauk (q.v.), America's first Carmen. Married famous New Orleans actress Mme Closel, organist at St. Anne's Church. Numerous church compositions, many of which were published in New York by J. Fischer & Bros.: three Stabat mater and a Grand Mass performed at St. Eustache in Paris. Several operas: Le Nouvel Hermite (performed Théâtre d'Orléans, May 16, 1834), Amour et Folie (1834), Sardanapale (1838), Le Lepreux (1845, libretto by Placide Canonge [q.v.]); manuscript in the American Antiquarian Society Library, Worcester, Mass.), L'Heritière, La Mort de Jeanne d'Arc. Died, New Orleans, November 19, 1887. M.A. Sources: Louis Panzeri, Louisiana Composers (1972); Henry Kmen, Music in New Orleans, The Formative Years, 1791-1841 (1966); New Orleans Times-Democrat, November 20, 1887.

CUSHMAN, Charlotte Saunders
, actress. Born, Boston, Mass., July 23, 1816; daughter of Elkanah Cushman and Mary Eliza Babbitt. Studied opera; debut, Boston, Tremont Theatre, April 8, 1835, as Countess Almaviva in The Marriage of Figaro. Went with Clara Fisher Company to New Orleans; member of the company at the St. Charles Theatre during the 1835-1836 season; appeared in operas to bad reviews. James H. Caldwell (q.v.), manager of the St. Charles Theatre, encouraged her to develop her dramatic talents and to abandon singing which she was willing to do. Dramatic debut, New Orleans, St. Charles Theatre, April 23, 1836, as Lady Macbeth; marked the beginning of her successful career as a dramatic actress. Noted here and abroad in such roles as Meg Merriliers in Guy Mannering, Nancy Sykes in Oliver Twist, and Queen Katharine in Henry VIII. Essayed male roles: Romeo, Wolsey, Hamlet. Made frequent "farewell" tours as health declined. Described as the most powerful American actress of the nineteenth century. Never married. Died, Boston, February 17, 1876; interred Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Mass. P.D.A. Sources: Allen Johnson and Dumas Malone, eds., Dictionary of American Biography, vol. V (1930); John S. Kendall, The Golden Age of the New Orleans Theater (1952); William C. Young, Famous Actors and Actresses on the American Stage, 2 vols. (1975).

CUSHMAN, Pauline
, Union spy, actress. Born, New Orleans, June 10, 1833. At 18, went to New York to try for career as an actress. Met Thomas Placide, manager of the New Orleans Varieties, and was given a part in one of his shows. Next twelve years toured the country, and finally arrived at "star" billing. In Louisville, Ky., 1863, publicly toasted Southern cause, fired from cast, took oath of allegiance to U. S. government. Became Union secret agent. Eventually captured near General Bragg's headquarters, Tullahoma, Tenn., with military documents in her boots. Tried and sentenced to be hanged, she was left behind as Bragg retreated under General Rosecrans' advance from the north. Became a heroine when she was released, commissioned as an honorary major of cavalry. Returned to acting. Died a pauper in San Francisco, December 7, 1893; interred burial plot of Grand Army of the Republic, Oakdale Cemetery. H.C. Sources: Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896; Harnett T. Kane, Spies for the Blue and Gray (1954); Baton Rouge Sunday Advocate, March 10, 1968.

CUSHMAN, Ralph
, planter, jurist. Born, Barnet, Vt., November 18, 1800; son of Clark Cushman and Katherine Grout. Taught school in Maryland and South Carolina; studied law in Georgia; began practice of law in Opelousas, La., 1829. Married, October 25, 1832, Esther Rebecca Brashear of Opelousas, daughter of Beall Belt Brashear and Amelia Duvall. Children: Walter Overton (b. 1833), Margery Eliza (b. 1836), Charles Willard (b. 1837), Katherine Amelia (b. 1839), Basil Crow (b. 1841), Felix Albert (b. 1843), Pamela Jane (b. 1845), Edward (b. 1848), and Mary Louisa (b. 1849). Removed to Avoyelles Parish establishing residence at his plantation "Poplar Hill" near Marksville. Admitted to the Avoyelles bar in 1839; appointed judge of the Thirteenth Judicial District Court of Louisiana in 1846 holding court in Alexandria, Rapides Parish, and Marksville. Elected to a four-year term to that office in 1853. Died, Marksville, September 17, 1855. T.H. Sources: Virginia W. de Gravelles, ed., Farewell to Youth: The Diary of Margery Cushman (1982); Cushman Family Bible.

CUTLER, R. King, attorney, politician. Born in 1819. Lived in the Midwest before removing to Louisiana, 1838, and living in New Orleans and vicinity. Practiced law and served as constable, justice of the peace, judge, and alderman. Although later claimed to have opposed secession, at the beginning of the Civil War, he raised and captained a Confederate company called King Cutler Guards. After Union occupation of New Orleans, went over to the federals and in 1864 was elected to the state constitutional convention and then to the legislature which elected him to the U. S. Senate, which, however, refused to seat him because of differences over Reconstruction policy with the president. He was among the organizers of the state's Republican party, as well as a leader in the reconvening of the 1864 constitutional convention in 1866, whose purpose he freely admitted was to grant "colored suffrage & disfranchise rebels." Following the bloody riot resulting from the recall, and finding himself "scoffed & scorned" and his "business lost," he removed to the North. J.A.B. Sources: U.S. Congress, House, New Orleans Riots of July 30, 1866 (1867); Diary and Correspnodence of Salmon P. Chase (1903); Andrew Johnson Papers, Library of Congress; John Rose Ficklen, History of Reconstruction in Louisiana (1910).

CYR, Paul N., dentist, banker, school board president, lieutenant-governor. Born, Jeanerette, La., September 9, 1878; son of Joseph C. Cyr and Emilie Julie Hoffherr. Education: Chamberlain Hunt Academy, Port Gibson, Miss.; Louisiana State University; Atlanta Dental College, Altanta, Ga., graduated 1900. Married Florence Mary McGowen, February 6, 1907. Children: Marjorie Emily (b. 1910), Emily Julie (b. 1912), Louie McGowen (b. 1913), and Charles McGowen (b. 1915). Practiced dentistry in Jeanerette, 1900-1939. Member, Louisiana Dental Society serving in executive positions, including president; member, Louisiana Dental Examining Board, president in 1922. Associated banking business, 1907-1946; one of the founders of the First National Bank, Jeanerette, La.; served as director, vice-president, acting president; director, Consolidated Grocery Company. Member, Iberia Executive Democratic Committee; Democratic State Central Committee; Iberia Parish School Board, 1908-1914 and 1925-1928, six years as president. Resigned presidency September 8, 1914, to accept appointment on Louisiana Dental Board. Served on campaign committees of Louisiana Governors Hall (q.v.), Pleasant (q.v.) and Parker (q.v.); secretary to Governor Pleasant last five months of his term. Lieutenant-governor of Louisiana, 1928-1931; sworn in as governor by Caddo Parish Clerk of Court to fill term of Huey Long expiring 1932. Broke with Gov. Long over issue of state purchase of Watson-Williams bridge and opposed Long remainder of his life. Member, Woodmen of the World, Elks. Religion: Presbyterian. Died, August 24, 1946; interred Jeanerette Protestant Cemetery. L.M.C. Sources: Who's Who in America, Vol. II, 1943-1931; Minutes, Iberia Parish School Board, December 10, 1908-September 8, 1914; New Orleans Item, August 27, 1946; New Orleans Times-Picayune; New Orleans States; New Orleans Item; Baton Rouge Morning Advocate; Baton Rouge States-Times.





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