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Louisiana History Journal



H

HAAS, A. M., planter. Born, Alsace, France, August 18, 1833. Immigrated to Louisiana, ca. 1845. Married Mary Macarinah ("Maccie") Marshall (1848-1876). A colonel in the Confederate Army; member of the honor guard at funeral of Jefferson Davis (q.v.). Owned the plantation on which the town of Bunkie is located and asked permission of Texas and Pacific Railroad to name the town in exchange for the right of way. Named it "Bunkie," nickname of his daughter, Mary Maccie. Children: W. D. Haas, Nannie Haas, Mary Maccie Haas, A. Marshall Haas, and Alice Haas. Died, February 24, 1908; interred Marshall Family Cemetery, Evergreen, La. S.E. Sources: Interview with Mrs. Helen Haas Ducote; Sue Eakin with La Commission des Avoyelles, Crossroads of Louisiana (1981).

HAAS, Samuel
, merchant. Born, Alsace, France, June 29, 1836; son of Samuel and Harriet Haas. Emigrated to United States about 1852. Operated a store at Bayou Chicot, La. Married Martha A. Cole, daughter of John Cole and Lavinia Hudson, March 15, 1862. Five children. First lieutenant and captain, Prairie Rangers, Company K, Third Louisiana Cavalry, during Civil War. Returned to mercantile business and began acquiring land. Business thrived and owned hundreds of acres in four parishes. Member police jury, St. Landry Parish, 1892-1907. Removed to Bunkie, 1907. Died, Opelousas, January 9, 1919; interred Bayou Chicot. A.W.B. Sources: Clement A. Evans, Confederate Military History, 13 vols. (1899), vol. X; St. Landry Clarion, January 11, 1919; Opelousas Star-Progress, January 11, 1919.

HACHARD, Marie-Madeleine (Sister St. Stanislaus)
, religious, letter writer. Born, Rouen, France, 1704. In a series of five letters to her father, she chronicled the journey to New Orleans of the first Ursuline nuns. Began her novitiate at Hennebon, France, January 1, 1727. Left for Louisiana on the ship La Gironde, February 22, 1727, in the company of nine nuns, two postulants, two servants, and three priests. Arrived in Louisiana on July 23, 1727. In her letters, she describes the adventures of the five-month voyage as well as the strangeness of the scenery and habits of the natives of her new land. The letters to her father, procurator in charge of accounts at Rouen, cover a period from February 22, 1727, to April 24, 1728, and were printed in Rouen in 1728. Other editions appeared in 1865, 1872, and a translation in 1974. Sister Stanislaus taught at the Ursuline Convent and acted as secretary for the community. Died, New Orleans, August 9, 1760. P.D.A. Sources: Diane M. Moore, Their Adventurous Will: Profiles of Memorable Louisiana Women (1984); Myldred M. Costa, trans., The Letters of Marie Madeleine Hachard (1974).

HAHN, Georg Michael Decker
, attorney, journalist, governor, planter, congressman. Born, Klingenmunster, in the German Palatinate, November 24, 1830. As a small child, he accompanied widowed mother, Magaretha Decker Hahn, and four siblings to New York, and soon afterward to New Orleans, ca. 1840. Mother died of yellow fever in following year. Education: local schools, law department of University of Louisiana (Tulane University), L.L.B., 1851; worked in the law office of Christian Roselius (q.v.) and also as a real estate agent and newspaper writer. After graduation, Hahn practiced law and also served as a notary public. A pre-war Democrat opposed to the state's John Slidell faction, he was against presidential nomination of Buchanan in 1856, and favored Douglas in 1860. A strong anti-secessionist, he became a Republican in 1862 when the city was occupied by Union military forces. Purchased and edited New Orleans True Delta, advocating emancipation and broad support of Lincoln's policies; served as congressman from Louisiana's Second District in 1863, and elected state's governor by the Free-State party in 1864. Resigning from governorship in 1865, he was elected U. S. senator, opposing President Andrew Johnson's "lenient" Reconstruction measures in his second newspaper venture, the New Orleans Republican (1867). Crippled by severe gunshot wound suffered in New Orleans Riot of 1866. Retired to plantation in St. Charles Parish, where he founded the town of Hahnville in 1872; published third newspaper, the St. Charles Herald, in same year. After serving again as a state legislator, and also as speaker of the house, was once more elected as congressman from state's Second District by miraculous majority of 3,000 votes. Although criticized for strong Unionist sympathies expressed before, during, and after the Civil War, Hahn's Southern opponents respected him for his personal courage, consistent philosophy, and scholarly approach. Died, Washington, D. C., March 15, 1886, while serving as Louisiana's sole Republican member of Congress. A.E.S. & T.F.R. Sources: "Michael Hahn," Appleton's Cyclopedia (1900); "Georg Michael Decker Hahn," Dictionary of American Biography, (1932).

HALL, Dominick Augustine
, jurist. Born, South Carolina, 1765. Began law practice in Charleston, S. C. District judge of Orleans Territory, 1809-1812. When Louisiana was admitted to the Union (1812), was one of the state's federal judges; resigned his seat on the bench to accept a judgeship of the state supreme court, but was reappointed federal judge instead and remained in the U. S. court until his death. In December 1814, was ordered by the military authorities to adjourn his court for two months, owing to the operations of the British against New Orleans. In March 1815 while the city was under martial law, granted a writ of habeas corpus to Louis Louillier, a member of the state legislature, who was then under arrest by order of Gen. Andrew Jackson (q.v.) for inciting a seditious meeting among his troops. Gen. Jackson refused to recognize Judge Hall's authority and at once ordered Louillier's rearrest and imprisonment and committed Hall to jail. Hall was released the next morning and summoned the general to answer for contempt of court in disregarding the writ of habeas corpus, in detaining an original paper, and in imprisoning a judge. The general appeared in person and after argument by counsel was sentenced to pay a fine of $41,000; Congress refunded this sum with interest in 1844. Died, New Orleans, December 19, 1820. J.B.C. Sources: Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography (1900); The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography (1906).

HALL, Edmond, jazz clarinetist. Born, New Orleans, May 15, 1901, into a family of musicians. Father, Edward, played with the Onward Brass Band, and three brothers, Herbert, Robert, and Clarence, became professional musicians. Played first guitar, then clarinet, with New Orleans bands, including the Buddy Petit Band, 1921-1923, and Alonzo Ross and his Deluxe Syncopators, 1926-1928. Removed North in 1928 and played clarinet and baritone sax with big swing bands: Claude Hopkins's Band, 1930-1935, Lucius (Lucky) Millinder, 1936-1937, Henry (Red) Allen, 1940-1941, and Theodore (Teddy) Wilson. In 1939, began working with small groups, including "Teddy" Wilson's Sextet, 1941-1944; then led his own sextet. In 1944 began performing at Cafe Society in New York and recording with Eddie Condon. From 1955 to 1958, performed with Louis Armstrong's All Stars. Went to Ghana in 1959, but returned after a few months. Recorded extensively from the 1930s on. Appeared in films including High Society (1956) and Satchmo the Great (1960); toured Europe and Japan; appeared in major jazz festivals. Died, Boston, February 11, 1967. M.A. Sources: H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie, eds., The New Grove Dictionary of American Music (1986); Eileen Southern, Biographical Dictionary of Afro-American and African Musicians (1982); B. McRae, "Edmond Hall," Jazz Journal, XXIII (1970).

HALL, Frederick Douglass
, composer, educator. Born, Atlanta, Ga., December 14, 1898. Studied at Morehouse College, Atlanta, where he was a student of Kemper Harreld, B.A., 1921; Chicago Musical College, B.M., 1924, and Columbia University Teachers' College, M.A., 1929, D.Ed. Mus., 1952. Studied in London, 1933-1935, at the Royal Academy of Music where he earned a licenciate degree and at London University. Toured England, Scotland and Wales studying folk music. Taught at Jackson College, Jackson, Miss., 1921-1927; at Dillard University in New Orleans, 1936-1941, and 1960-1974; at Alabama State College, Montgomery, 1941-1955, and Southern University in Baton Rouge, 1955-1959. Spent six months in West Africa, studying folk music. Prolific composer, produced six volumes of choral arrangements of spirituals, 1929-1953; an oratorio Deliverance (1938); a cycle Afro-American Religious Work Songs (1952); and the school songs for both Jackson College and Dillard University. Toured the United States as lecturer, consultant and guest choral conductor. Many civic, professional and government awards including a testimonial read into the Congressional Record by Augustus Hawkins, April 30, 1964. Died, Atlanta, December 28, 1982. M.A. Sources: Charles Panzen, Louisiana Composers (1972); Eileen Southern, Biographical Dictionary of Afro-American and African Musicians (1982); H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie, eds., The New Grove Dictionary of American Music (1986).

HALL, James H. "Jim"
, sports writer, civic leader. Born, Sheffield, Ala. Education: Wendell Phillips Senior High School of Chicago, Ill.; Xavier University, A. B., 1938, on basketball scholarship under the coaching and supervision of Giles Wright. Sports editor for the Louisiana Weekly newspaper from 1946 until his death and a member of the New Orleans Saints public relations staff. Married Marion Duplessis, September 21, 1942. Children: Janet Hall of Oakland, Calif.; Mrs. Karen H. Castle of New Orleans. A World War II veteran who saw service twice; discharged with the rank of warrant officer. Member: Press Club of New Orleans; the Mid-Winter Sports Advisory Committee; the Mayor's Sports Advisory Committee; Louisiana Sportswriters Association; Crescent City Officials Association; Sports Awards Incorporated; V. F. W. Post 351; Greater New Orleans Sports Hall of Fame; Louisiana Education Association; Dryades Street Y. M. C. A.; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Urban League; the Superdome Task Force; Zulu Social and Pleasure Club, honorary member; the Old Timers' Sports Club; charter member of the Jug Buddies Club. St. Gabriel the Archangel Catholic Church. Awards: Silver Jubilee Alumnus Award, 1967, from Xavier University; Presidents Council on Youth Opportunity Award, 1968; cited by Mayors Victor Schiro and Moon Landrieu of New Orleans for "Outstanding Services Rendered to Youth of New Orleans." Died, New Orleans, July 4, 1974. C.T. Source: Authors research.

HALL, Luther Egbert, attorney, jurist, governor. Born, Bastrop, La., August 30, 1869; son of Bolling Cass Hall, planter, and Antoinette Newton. Education: local public schools; graduated from Washington and Lee, graduated, 1889; Tulane, LL. B., 1892. Practiced law briefly in Alexandria and in Bastrop. Served in the Louisiana state senate, 1898-1900; judge, Sixth Judicial District, 1900-1906; court of appeals, Northern District, 1906-1911, when he was elected to the state supreme court. Resigned from the supreme court to run for governor. Having won the supreme court seat following a heated campaign, Hall was persuaded to seek the governorship by John M. Parker (q.v.) of the New Orleans Good Government League, an organization opposed to the administration of New Orleans Mayor Martin Behrman (q.v.) and the city-based Democratic party Choctaw Club, an allegedly powerful and corrupt machine which had emerged as the leading issue in state politics. Hall's candidacy was solicited when a caucus of party leaders met in Monroe to support the gubernatorial aspirations of John T. Michel, one of the city ward leaders. Hall defeated Michel and James B. Aswell (q.v.) in the Democratic primary, tantamount to election. Hall's administration to an extent reflected progressive or reform forces of the period, and their frustration in opposition to the conservative, planter-city machine alliance. He failed to achieve civil service, anti-lobby, and electoral reforms, such as the non-partisan, short ballot sponsored by the New Orleans reformers. The state did enact a recall law. Hall admitted that he could not control the general assembly without compromising with Mayor Behrman and his allies. Political figures associated with both the reform and machine factions prevailed against the principal efforts of Hall to raise property taxes to improve state services and to reform broadly or re-write the state constitution. The Louisiana sugar planters demanded state restraints against the reputedly monopolistic power of the American Sugar Refining Company, an issue over which the governor had little control. With Hall's support, Louisiana was the first Southern state to enact a workman's compensation law, 1914. Another vintage progressive measure was the provision for a commission form of government for New Orleans, favored by the reformers: Behrman, however, easily won re-election in 1912, along with all five commission candidates supported by the Choctaw machine. Parker had become disillusioned with Hall's leadership, but he and most observers seemed to agree that he was better suited for the judicial than the executive branch of government. Hall practiced law in New Orleans, 1916-1918; served as assistant attorney general for Louisiana, 1918; was twice defeated, in 1918 and 1920, for the U. S. Senate and for the state supreme court, respectively. Death occurred at the time he was seeking to have the latter defeat reversed through a legal technicality involving his opponent's qualifications. Hall married Clara Wendell of Brownsville, Tenn., November 23, 1892. Children: Luther E. and Clara. In New Orleans he was a member of several civic and social clubs including the Masonic fraternity. Died, November 6, 1921; interred Bastrop Cemetery. M.J.S. Sources: Walter J. Burke, "Luther E. Hall," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, VI (1923); Matthew J. Schott, "John M. Parker and the Varieties of American Progressivism" (Ph. D. dissertation, Vanderbilt University, 1969); obituary, New Orleans Times-Picayune, November 7, 1921.

HALL, William Covington "Covami"
, Radical journalist and organizer, proponent of "Industrial Democracy." Born, Woodville, Miss., 1871; son of Rev. William Addison Hall, a Presbyterian minister, and Mary Elizabeth Pierce of Terrebonne Parish, La. After parents separated was raised on the plantation of a half-uncle in Terrebonne Parish. Lived in New Orleans after the mid-1890s selling insurance. A leading member of the radical faction of the Socialist Party in New Orleans. Joined the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) in 1905. Resigned from Socialist Party and temporarily joined the Socialist Labor Party. Active in labor struggles in New Orleans. Assistant editor of Oscar Amennger's Labor World during the 1907 Brewery Workers' strike. Played an important role in the affiliation of the Brotherhood of Timber Workers (BTW) with the IWW in 1912. Edited the BTW Lumberjack (Alexandria, La., January 9, 1913, to May 1, 1913; New Orleans, May to July, 1913), and its successor, The Voice of the People (New Orleans, July 17, 1913 to July, 1914). From July to September, 1913, Hall edited The Voice of the People in Portland, Ore. From January, 1915, through July, 1916, Hall published Rebellion (its first issue called Lodestar), a radical monthly in New Orleans. One of his more notable poems, "Us the Hoboes and Dreamers" (June, 1916). Wrote articles for the International Socialist Review, and later The One Big Union Monthly. In 1915 organized a short-lived successor to the BTW called first the Clan of Toil, then the Farm and Forest Workers' Union. During and after World War I worked as a publicity chief for the Non-Partisan League in North Dakota. Associated with the New Llano Colony in Vernon Parish. Taught briefly at Commonwealth College, Mena, Ark. and Work Peoples College, Duluth, Minn. Member, Sons of the Confederacy, adjutant general. Died, New Orleans, February 21, 1952. B.C.* Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, February 22, 1952; Hall, "Labor Struggles in the Deep South" (unpublished typescript, Tulane University); James Green, Grass-Roots Socialism (1978); Bernard Cook, "Covington Hall and Radical Rural Unionization in Louisiana," Louisiana History, (1977); Bernard Cook and James Watson, Louisiana Labor (1985); Thomas Becnel, "Agrarian Dichotomy," Louisiana History, XXIII (1982).

HALL, William Pike, attorney, jurist. Born, Statesville, N. C., January 21, 1851. Education: Tulane University, graduated 1875. Started law practice in Mansfield, La., then was elected district attorney for De Soto, Sabine, and Red River parishes. Seven years later he was elected district judge from the same district and served for 16 years. A member of the 1898 constitutional convention. Removed to Shreveport, 1900, and practiced law there. Married 3 times: (1) Ida Jack (d.1908) of Natchitoches, La. Three children: Lillian Hall Trichel, Pike Hall, Jr., and Mrs. Clifford Hall Sleeth. Married (2) Anita Perkins of Montgomery, Ala. One child: Myra S. Hall. Married (3) Elise Talley of Shreveport. Died, December 22, 1928. P.L.M. Source: J. Fair Hardin, Northwestern Louisiana (1939).

HALL, William Weeks
, artist, preservationist. Born, New Orleans, October 31, 1894; son of Gilbert Hall (d. 1909) and Lily Weeks; great-grandson of David Weeks (q.v.), who built the antebellum home Shadows-on-the-Teche. High school dropout, 10th grade, Old Boys School, New Orleans. Self-educated, life-long bachelor. Won scholarship in 1913 to attend Pennsylvania Academy of Arts at Philadelphia. While at the Academy, 1913-1915, was awarded scholarships to study abroad in France and England. He deferred this activity until after World War I (December 1920 through May 1922). World War I service record: joined U. S. Intelligence Service, camouflage unit, Gulf Coast activity. Enrolled July, 1918, as chief petty officer. Honorable discharge, December 20, 1918. As a result of these events, a close relationship developed between Hall and his widowed aunt, Mrs. Walter Torian (née Harriet Weeks), who lived in New Orleans. When the salt mine structures at Weeks Island were destroyed by fire, Hall and his aunt sold their interest in the mine and paid off a mortgage which hung over The Shadows. Hall then bought out his aunt's half-interest in The Shadows and became sole owner. In 1922, he secured services of prominent New Orleans architect Richard Koch (q.v.) in restoring the building. Hall supervised the restoration of the gardens. In 1923, D. W. Griffith filmed "The White Rose" at The Shadows. Portions of other movies made at The Shadows. Hall reached his zenith as an artist in 1928, as his New Orleans exhibit of canvases received favorable comments from critics. Crushed right-hand wrist in automobile accident in 1935. Handicapped as an artist, he took up photography and pioneered in colored transparencies. In later years he became more and more concerned about the welfare of The Shadows. In 1957, he appeared on Dave Garroway's nationally televised show, "Wide Wide World," where he made an appeal for some governmental agency to take over administration of The Shadows. Received notification on his deathbed that National Trust for Historic Preservation agreed to this responsibility. Died, June 27, 1958; interred grounds of The Shadows. M.R. Source: Morris Raphael, Weeks Hall, the Master of The Shadows (1981).

HAMILTON, Fuller M., educator. Born, Tenmile, rural Calcasieu Parish (presently Allen Parish), La., July 4, 1879; son of Rev. Isaac Hamilton and Lydia Eliza Simmons. Education: nearby rural schools; Georgetown (Tex.) High School; Louisiana State Normal (now Northwestern State University); University of Texas; Southwestern Louisiana Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana), B. A., 1922; Louisiana State University, M. A.; further study at Peabody College, Nashville, Tenn. Principal of Pickering School, Vernon Parish, 1904-1905; principal of Oakdale School, Calcasieu Parish, 1905-1909; assistant superintendent of schools, Calcasieu Parish, 1909-1913; superintendent schools, Calcasieu Parish, 1913-1917; director of Training School at SLI, 1917-1931; head of the Department of Elementary Education, 1931-1937; dean of College of Education, SLI, 1937-1940. President, Louisiana Teachers Association, 1916; editor of Department on Educational Trends for Louisiana School Review, contributor to Louisiana Teachers Journal, and consultant for Educational Policies Commission. Married Pearl Litton of Sabine Parish, daughter of Alfred Litton, Jr., and Sarah Oscar Tatum. Children: Versie Eloise (b. 1910), Herbert Alfred (b. 1913), Bonnie May (b. 1917), and Sarah Pearl (b. 1921). Member: Baptist church, board of trustees of Acadia Baptist Academy near Richard, La., Lafayette Rotary Club, Kappa Delta Pi, Louisiana Teachers Association National Education Association. Died, Lafayette, La., July 18, 1940; interred Lafayette Protestant Cemetery. S.H.M. Sources: Alcée Fortier, ed., Louisiana, vol. III (1914); family papers.

HAMILTON, Ruth Marie Mouton, civic leader. Born, Lafayette Parish, La., September 17, 1892; daughter of Judge Orther Charles Mouton and Elia Martin. Among her ancestors was Jean Mouton, who donated the land for the Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist and the courthouse in Lafayette. In 1915, she was first maid to the queen of the last major reunion of the United Daughters of the Confederacy in Richmond, Va. Married Charles D. Hamilton, 1920. Children: Ruth Elia (Mrs. Harry Turpie); Mary Virginia (Mrs. Madison Nelson); and Helen Carlyle (Mrs. Charles Bailey). Her civic activities are represented by her early interest in women's suffrage, numerous medical aid charities, and patriotic societies. She was a member of the Louisiana Milk Commission, and a member of the board of The Shadows-on-the-Teche and Sacred Heart Academy in Grand Coteau. An early leader in the movement to preserve the French language in Louisiana. She was a recipient of the French Palmes Académique and the Legion of Honor. In 1970, she was awarded the Pro Ecclesia et Poruifice medal by the pope for her service to her religion. Died, June 18, 1973; interred St. John Cathedral Cemetery, Lafayette, La. A.E.L. Sources: Lafayette Daily Advertiser, June 18, 1973; Mario Mamalakis, If They Could Talk! Acadiana's Buildings and Their Biographies (1984).

HAMILTON, William Sutherland
, planter, politician. Born, Edenton, N. C., April 3, 1789; son of John and Angel Hamilton. Educated at Princeton. Aide-de-camp to Gen. Wade Hampton (q.v.), 1812-1816, with rank of lieutenant colonel. Married Eliza Stewart, daughter of Duncan Stewart and Penelope Jones of Wilkinson County, Miss. Planter, West Feliciana Parish, La. Member first board of trustees, College of Louisiana, Jackson, 1825; served in Louisiana legislature, 1828-1830; unsuccessful gubernatorial candidate, 1830. Died prior to April 1867; interred Philadelphia, Pa. E.K.D. Sources: Hamilton Barrow Willis, St. Francisville, La.; House Journal; West Feliciana Parish Public Records.

HAMLIN, Walter B., jurist. Born, New Orleans, March 13, 1989; son of Charles H. and Henrietta M. Bergen Hamlin. Education: public schools; Soulé College, New Orleans; Loyola University, New Orleans, LL. B., 1919; honorary LL. D., 1969. Married Stella Malynn, April 3, 1923. No children. World War I veteran. Admitted to the bar, 1919; naval reserve, 1935-1942; assistant city attorney, New Orleans, 1943-1946; private practice until 1948; elected as judge of the Civil District Court, Orleans Parish, 1948; elected to Louisiana Supreme Court, 1958; reelected in 1966; became chief justice in 1972; retired in 1973. Prepared first draft of rules for the civil district of Orleans, effective June 1, 1954; prepared first draft of present rules of the state supreme court, effective April 1, 1962; discussion leader at seminars for supreme court justices held in New York, 1960, and Alabama, 1962 and 1963. Author of A History of the Courts in the Parish of Orleans (1950); The Courts of New Orleans, Their Past and Present Locations (1961); A Manual of Every Day Procedure in the Civil District Court (1952, 1958); "The History of the Supreme Court of Louisiana," published in Louisiana Reports; Techniques of and Style in Judicial Writings (1962); delivered over two hundred addresses on patriotic, literary, historical, and legal matters between 1957 and 1965; ten of these were broadcast on radio and television; was an amateur musician and enjoyed acting at New Orleans Little Theatre. Member, state supreme court judicial council, Loyola Alumni Association, Blue Key fraternity, Delta Theta Phi, national, state, and local bar associations, Military Order of the World Wars, American Legion, Young Men's Business Club, New Orleans Athletic Club, Woodmen of the World, Variety Club, Shakespeare Society of New Orleans, president of Grand Isle Tarpon Rodeo (1957); Catholic Lawyers Association. Died, January 1, 1984; interred Hope Mausoleum, New Orleans. J.B.C. Sources: Biographies of Louisiana Judges (1965); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, January 3, 1984.

HAMMOND, Peter, early settler, businessman, father of Hammond, La. Born in Sweden, 1798; names of parents and schools unknown. Left homeland in early teens; became rigger, sailmaker, and sailor. Captured by British while on way to United States in War of 1812. Escaped from Dartmoor Prison and made way to New Orleans and then to Wadesboro or Springfield; settled near present-day Hammond and established a commissary and naval stores industry; built home in 1825. Married Caroline Tucker, native of Massachusetts and resident of Pontchatoula or Wadesboro, in 1830. Six children, one son, five daughters. When New Orleans, Jackson and Great Northern Railroad crossed Hammond's property the area became known as Hammond's Crossing, later this was changed to Hammond Station and still later to Hammond. During his lifetime, Hammond acquired slaves and property. After the Civil War he was in reduced circumstances. Died, 1870; interred Hammond, La. D.J.† Sources: John V. Coumes, "Individual Studies of Place-Names in Tangipahoa Parish, Louisiana," Tangipahoa Parish, Louisiana Centennial, Official Souvenir Program (1969); C. Howard Nichols, "From Tank Square to Alley Square-Hammond Reclaims Her Past," Hammond Daily Star, May 1, 1983; Velmarae Dunn Papers, Archives and Special Collections, Southeastern Louisiana University; "Hammond Vertical File," Southeastern Louisiana University Library, Hammond, La.

HAMPTON, Wade
, planter, congressman, soldier. Born, Halifax County, Va., 1752. Received a good education. Engaged in agricultural pursuits. Removed to South Carolina; joined the command of Gen. Thomas Sumter. Married (1) Mrs. Martha Epps Howell, 1783. Married (2) Harriet Flud, 1786, one son, Wade (b. 1791). Married (3) Mary Cantey, 1801, daughter Caroline Martha married John Smith Preston (q.v.). Elected as a Democrat to the Fourth Congress, March 4, 1795, to March 3, 1797; presidential elector, 1801; elected to Eighth Congress from South Carolina, March 4, 1803, to March 3, 1805. Commissioned colonel in United States Army, October 1808 and brigadier general, February 1809. Assigned to duty in New Orleans as commander of federal troops in southern division. Ordered by Gov. W. C. C. Claiborne (q.v.) in January 1811 to quell a slave rebellion that had erupted along the Mississippi River above New Orleans. Purchased Houmas Plantation, 1812, near present-day Burnside, La.; also owned and resided at Orange Grove Plantation, near New Orleans. Appointed major general, March 2, 1813. Served in War of 1812 until resignation on April 6, 1814. Reputed to be the wealthiest planter in the United States and the owner of 3,000 slaves in 1830. Died, Columbia, S. C., February 4, 1835; interred Trinity Churchyard, J.B.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950); Dictionary of American Biography, VII (1946); Walter Prichard, et al., eds., "Southern Louisiana and Southern Alabama in 1819: The Journal of James Leander Cathcart," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXVIII (1945); James H. Dormon, "The Persistent Specter: Slave Rebellion in Territorial Louisiana," Louisiana History, XVIII (1977).

HANCOCK, Winfield Scott, soldier. Born, Montgomery Square, Pa., February 14, 1824; son of Benjamin Franklin Hancock and Elizabeth Hoxworth. Education: Norristown (Pa.) Academy, U. S. Military Academy, 1840-1844. Married, January 24, 1850, Almira Russell of St. Louis, Mo. Two children. Military service: lieutenant, Sixth Infantry, stationed in Texas, 1845-1846; Mexican War service: second lieutenant, U. S. Army; distinguished himself at Battles of Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del Rey and Chapultepec; breveted first lieutenant; Indian campaigns: regimental quartermaster and adjutant, Upper Missouri area, 1848-1855; captain, Seminole War, 1855; participated in Harvey's campaign to Utah. Civil War service: brigadier general of volunteers, September 23, 1861; organized and trained the Army of the Potomac; served under McClellan at Battles of Crampton's Pass, South Mountain, Antietam, and Fredericksburg, 1862; promoted to rank of major general of volunteers, November 29, 1862; corps commander at Gettysburg, 1863, and Spotsylvania, 1864; commissioned brigadier general, regular army, August 12, 1864; major general, regular army, July 26, 1866; commander, military department of Louisiana and Texas from November 29, 1867 to March 18, 1868. As military governor: revoked existing regulations requiring freedmen to be placed on jury lists; removed from office nine Republican members of New Orleans City Council for ordering an election without his authorization; when ordered by President Grant to reinstate council, he resigned and requested a transfer. Post-Louisiana career: commander, Department of Dakota, 1870-1872; Division of the Atlantic, 1872-1876; personal envoy from President Rutherford B. Hayes to Gov. Francis T. Nicholls (q.v.) with plea for clemency regarding T. C. Anderson, a Republican member of the state returns board accused of perjury and publishing false election results in a nationally sensational trial, February 1878; commander, Department of the East, 1876-1880. Active in the Democratic party: unsuccessful Democratic candidate for president, 1880. Died, Governors Island, N.Y., February 9, 1886; interred Norristown, Pa. C.A.B. Sources: Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896 (1967); Dictionary of American Biography, VII (1946); Garnie W. McGinty, Louisiana Redeemed (1941); Joe Gray Taylor, Louisiana Reconstructed (1974).

HANDY, "Captain" John
, jazz musician, alto saxophonist, clarinetist. Born, Pass Christian, Miss., June 24, 1900. Removed to New Orleans ca. 1918, when he began working with Tom "Kid" Albert. Played in mid-1920s with bands in Baton Rouge. Later played with Kid Rena, Buddy Petit, Jack Carey, Punch Miller, Chris Kelley and John Casimir's brass band. Made tours of England and Europe, accompanied Kid Shiek on 1967 tour of Japan. Recorded on Icon in 1962 and in 1967 on GHB, RCA Victor, and an English label. Appeared at Preservation Hall, usually with Kid Shiek. Married Mabel Moore. Children: Mrs. Charles Snead, Mrs. Neville Johnson, John III, and Roy. Died, Pass Christian, Miss., January 12, 1971; interred Live Oak Cemetery. H.C. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, January 17, 1971; Noel Rockmore, Preservation Hall Portraits (1968); John Chilton, Who's Who of Jazz (1972); Second Line, January/February, 1971.

HARALSON, Archibald
, politician. Born, July 5, 1792; son of Herndon Haralson and Mary Murphy. Education: Princeton University. Married, 1813, Thérèse Lodoiska Augustine Pont-Brieullet, daughter of French military officer killed in Saint-Domingue insurrection. Admitted to Louisiana bar, ca. 1822; co-author (with Alexander Barrow) of pamphlet which resulted in impeachment of Feliciana Parish judge Thomas W. Chinn (q.v.), 1826. Editor, Louisiana Journal, St. Francisville newspaper, 1829. Appointed by Gov. A. B. Roman (q.v.) to be district attorney, Third Judicial District, 1833; elected to that position, 1837. Died, October 29, 1839, of yellow fever; interred West Feliciana Parish. E.K.D. Sources: Elrie Robinson, Early Feliciana Politics (1936); Grace Church Parish Register.

HARALSON, Bertrand
, politician. Born, Laurel Grove Plantation, near St. Francisville, La., May 5, 1859; son of Bertrand Haralson, Sr. (parish recorder, 1847-1856, register, State Land Office, 1846-1850, and parish judge, 1873-1874) and Frances Tempel Pierce. Education: local schools. Parish Democratic Executive Committee, chairman, 1901; appointed West Feliciana Parish assessor, 1892; elected assessor, 1896-1900, 1908-1920, succeeded by son Francis Bertrand Haralson, who remained in office until 1963. Married Jennie Percy Whicher, 1889. Died, July 31, 1920; interred Grace Church Cemetery, St. Francisville. E.K.D. Sources: Oath Books, West Feliciana Parish, St. Francisville True Democrat, Silver Anniversary Edition, 1917; August 7, 1920; Grace Church Register.

HARDI DE BOISBLANC, Pierre, attorney for vacant estates, French Superior Council. Born, La Rochelle, France. Family involved in extensive merchant-trading ventures between La Rochelle and New Orleans in the 1750s and 1760s. Married Marie Rose Charlotte Tatin, daughter of Sebastien Tatin (New Orleans merchant) and Rosa Le Mercier. One son: Guillaume Auguste (b. April 1, 1752). Following death of wife, purchased and managed extensive holdings of urban real estate in New Orleans. A close friend of Nicolas Chauvin de La Frénière, fils and Denis-Nicolas Foucault (q.v.), was elected attorney for vacant estates by the Superior Council in the early 1760s. Following the expulsion of Spanish governor Antonio de Ulloa (q.v.), elected to an expanded Superior Council, October 29, 1768. Along with Pierre Poupet (q.v.), promoted the establishment of the Banque du Mont de Piété to create currency and provide loans. Arrested August 19, 1769, was charged and convicted of conspiring against the Spanish crown. Although sentenced to a six-year term in a Cuban prison, was released in December 1770, through the influence of his brother, a provincial of the Order of Recollets in Acquitaine. B.C. Sources: Jacqueline K. Voorhies, Some Eighteenth Century Louisianians; John Preston Moore, Revolt in Louisiana (1976); "Index to Baptisms, Little Red Church, 1739-55," Louisiana Genesis, I; "Judicial Records of the Spanish Cabildo," Louisiana State Museum, #177307241.

HARDIE, John Timmons, businessman, civic leader. Born, Huntsville, Ala., November 29, 1829; son of John Hardie of County Fife, Scotland, and Mary Meade Hall. Married Ann Eliza Gary (1836-1912), daughter of William L. Gary and Frances E. Satterwhite, of Tuskegee, Ala. Children: Mary Frances (1855-1920); William (1857-1916), married Sue Covington Kearney; John Newton (1859-1960); Thomas Gary (1860-1933), married Louise Carter; Ann Eliza (1862-1865); Joseph (1866-1916), married Lucia Huger; Helen Hardie (1868-1924), married Albert Baldwin, Jr. (q.v.); Samuel Jamison (1870-1871); Lewis Hall (1872-1941), married Alice Stauffer, granddaughter of Gen. Richard Taylor (q.v.); Henry Mellon (1875-1931), married Louise Rainey; Leila (1875-1943), married Robert Moore; Isabella (1880-1944), married Henderson Barkley. Cotton factor and commission merchant. President, Mutual National Bank; charter member, New Orleans Cotton Exchange; ruling elder, First Presbyterian Church; member, Board of Liquidation of the City Debt; director, Howard Memorial Library; charter member, board of administrators, Tulane Educational Fund; organizer of Wesson Mills. Died, New Orleans, April 10, 1895. G.D. Sources: Family papers, newspaper obituaries, National Cyclopedia of American Biography (1906).

HARDIN, J. Fair
, attorney, historian. Born, Mansfield, La., October 27, 1893; son of Thomas R. Hardin and Sarah M. Fair. Education: public schools of Lincoln Parish; Kentucky Wesleyan College, B. A. and B. S., 1911. Studied law and was admitted into practice in 1915. World War I service: went to France as a captain in command of Company "G", 153rd Infantry, Thirty-ninth Division. While in France, transferred to the judge advocate general, Louisiana National Guard. Appointed assistant U. S. district attorney for the Western District of Louisiana in 1921. Was a noted historian of northwestern Louisiana and authored a three-volume work entitled Northwestern Louisiana: A History of the Watershed of the Red River, 1714-1937. Past president of Shreveport Bar Association and member of Louisiana and American Bar associations. Married August 22, 1922, Mary Hannah Hudson, daughter of William H. Hudson. One child, Jack Fair Hardin. Member, Kiwanis, Louisiana Reserve Officers Association, American Legion, Masons and Shrine. Studied and wrote history as an avocation. Died, October 30, 1940. P.L.M. Source: J. Fair Hardin, Northwestern Louisiana (1939).

HARDTNER, Henry E., businessman, conservationist, "Father of Forestry in the South." Born, Pineville, La., 1870. Began experimental reforestation project on his Urania Lumber Company lands in Central Louisiana. Appointed chairman of state commission for the Conservation of Natural Resources, ca. 1908. 1910 commission issued six-point forestry program that became the foundation for Louisiana's subsequent forestry legislation. First state representative from LaSalle Parish, 1910-1920; state senator, 1920-1924. Spearheaded legislation to encourage reforestation projects in cutover areas, 1913. Died in auto accident, 1935. A.C.B. Source: Author's research.

HARDY, James Hamilton, politician. Born in Maryland, 1835; son of Thomas Sibert Hardy and Helena Anne Hamilton. Removed with family to St. Landry Parish, La., sometime before the census of 1840. Father owned plantation near Grand Coteau. Education unknown. Civil War service: enlisted May 17, 1861, Company K, Third Louisiana Regiment; discharged August 13, 1861. Nominated for the office of secretary of state by the Democratic State Convention meeting in New Orleans, on October 3, 1865. Elected November 6, by vote of 20,869 to 4,881 for T. J. Edwards, candidate for the National Conservative Union Party. Refused, ca. June 27, 1866, to sign order for an election to fill vacancies for the reassembly of the constitutional convention of 1864. Removed from office by order of General Mower on November 21, 1867; order suspended November 22, by General Grant. Hardy reinstated December 19, 1867, by Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock (q.v.). Defeated for re-election in April 1868 by Republican George Boree. Removed from office on June 27, 1868, by order of General Buchanan. Remained in New Orleans. Died, September 1, 1879, at Mound Place, Bayou Teche, near Patterson, La. P.C.L. Sources: National Archives Microfilm Publications, Population Schedules Census, 1840; and ibid., 1850; New Orleans Daily Picayune, October 4, 1865; September 6, 1879; Report of the Auditor of Publilc Accounts, to the General Assembly of the State of Louisiana, December 31, 1865 (1866); Reports of the Secretary of State and the State Librarian to the General Assembly of the State of Louisiana. Session, January 1867 (1867); John Rose Ficklen, History of Reconstruction in Louisiana (Through 1868) (1940; reprinted., 1966); Walter McGehee Lowery, "The Political Career of James Madison Wells" Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXXI (1948); Donald J. Hébert, comp., Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); Joseph G. Dawson, "The Long Ordeal: Army Generals and Reconstruction in Louisiana, 1862-1877," 2 vols. (Ph. D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1978).

HARGIS, Levi Michel
, educator. Born, Donaldsonville, La., December 20, 1834; son of Thomas Hargis and Felonise Caillouet. Education: private schools. Civil War service: corporal and first lieutenant, Company G, Eighteenth Louisiana Infantry Regiment. Married Marie Rose Aucoin, January 23, 1867. Four children. Taught and served as principal at Thibodaux College for twenty-two years. Ran a private school for three years. Returned as principal of Thibodaux College, 1900-1908. Again ran a private school, 1908-1911. A.W.B. Sources: Alcde Fortier, Louisiana, 3 vols. (1914), Vol. III; Arthur W. Bergeron, Jr., ed., Reminiscences of Uncle Silas: A History of the Eighteenth Louisiana Infantry Regiment (1981).

HARKNESS (or HARK)
. Negro slave who trained famous race horse Lecompte, at Dentley Plantation of Thomas Jefferson Wells (q.v.), between Lecompte and Forest Hill, La. Called one of the most astute trainers in the country prior to the Civil War. Other horses trained by Harkness (or Hark) besides Lecompte were War Dance and Prioress. S.E. Sources: George Mason Graham Stafford, The Wells Family and Allied Families (1942); George Mason Graham Stafford, Three Pioneer Families of Rapides Parish (1946).

HARMAN, Sidney Johnston
, financier and civic leader. Born, Big Blossom Prairie, near Paris, Tex., August 1868. Orphaned early, he was reared by his uncle, George Watkins, in Clinton, Mo., where he attended public schools. At 15 began clerking in uncle's grocery. In 1888 returned to Big Blossom Prairie and became cottonseed buyer for the Sherman Cotton Oil Co. In 1890 became supervisor of purchase for the Paris Oil and Cotton Company. In 1896 removed to Shreveport and built Bossier's first cotton mill, the Shreveport Cotton Oil Company. Expanded it to include a soap factory. Acquired a number of mills in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. In 1903, joined E. G. Scales and Company, a cotton and stock brokerage firm, later acquiring the Scales interest and operating the firm under the name of S. J. Harman and Co. In 1912, built the Independent Ice and Cold Storage plant in Shreveport. Many business and civic activities; director, First National Bank; director, Louisiana and Arkansas Railroad. Steward, First Methodist Church; member, board of trustees, Centenary College. Built in 1929 an orphanage for boys in Ruston, La., which he turned over to the Methodist Conference. Married, 1901, Bessie Louise Stringfellow. Children: Bessie Harman Barrow and Georgia Agnes Harman Chandler. Died, 1947. M.A. Source: Author's research.

HARMANSON, John Henry
, congressman. Born, Norfolk, Va., January 15, 1803. Pursued classical studies and was graduated from Jefferson College, Washington, Miss. Removed to Avoyelles Parish, La., in 1830 and engaged in agricultural pursuits. Studied law; was admitted to the bar and practiced law. Married Rachel Selser, February 5, 1833. Member of the state senate in 1844; elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth, and Thirty-first Congresses; aggressively supported "The Swamp Land Act" whereby Congress ceded the swamplands (public lands) to the state of Louisiana; served from March 4, 1845, until his death in New Orleans, La., October 24, 1850; interred Moreau Plantation Cemetery, Pointe Coupée Parish, La. J.B.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950); Jeraldine Dufour LaCour, Brides Book of Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana, 1808-1855 (1979); Sam Mims, "Louisiana's Administration of Swamp Land Funds," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXVIII (1945).

HARPER, Will Meyer
, jurist, civic leader. Born, Pine Bluff, Ark., June 26, 1893; son of William Ward Harper and Elizabeth Alice McCaskill. Removed to Monroe in 1912. Education: schools of Pine Bluff; legal study with Joseph B. Dawkins of Monroe. Admitted Louisiana bar, 1924; elected Monroe city judge, 1928, served continuously almost forty years until retirement in 1967. Married (1), 1920, Georgia Black Mowen (1891-1920); married (2), September 14, 1922, Vyvian Humphnes Wallace of Oxford, Miss. (1894-1951). Children: Vyvian Emma Frazier (b. 1925); Alice Joy Marshall (b. 1927); Billie Addylee Jackson (b. 1931). Married (3), July 8, 1954, Mabel Ann Walker (b. 1907) of Dodson and Ruston, La. Organizer of Louisiana City Judges Association; Juvenile Court Advisory Committee; Monroe Shrine Club; president of Rotary Club, Shrine Club, Ouachita Valley Boy Scout Council, and Monroe Little Theatre; dean of Louisiana Court-of-Record Judges; special adviser to Louisiana Law Institute; member of Lions Club, Red Cross, National Association of Juvenile Judges, Fourth District Bar, Louisiana Bar, Louisiana Juvenile Probation Council, U. S. Marshall's Association, and Presbyterian church. Served on Ouachita Parish Selective Service Board, Civilian Advisory Committee for U. S. Fourth Army, and Louisiana Supreme Court Advisory Council. Died, Monroe, November 4, 1982; interred Monroe Riverview Cemetery. W.A.W. Sources: Grave markers, Monroe Riverview Cemetery; Harper Family Bible and private papers; obituary, Monroe News Star-World, November 5, 1982.

HARPER, Wiliam Poynot, soldier, law enforcement official, civil sheriff. Born, New Orleans, November 5, 1834; son of Henry Sidney Harper and Virginia Poynot. Confederate service: entered the Confederate Army, June 7, 1861, at Camp Moore near Ainite, Louisiana; first lieutenant, Company B, later redesignated as Company H, Crescent Rifles, of the Seventh Regiment of Louisiana Volunteers; 1861, participated in the First Battle of Manassas (Bull Run); promoted to rank of captain; 1862, participated in the Valley Campaign, the Seven Days Campaign and the Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam); wounded at Sharpsburg, captured and later paroled; 1863, assigned to the staff of Brig. Gen. Francis T. Nicholls (q.v.), commanding general of the Second Louisiana Brigade, Army of Northern Virginia; participated in the Battle of Chancellorsville, wounded and captured again at the Battle of Rappahannock, sent to Johnson's Island, Ohio; 1864, exchanged and retired as a captain of infantry, became a member of the Invalid Corps; 1865, served on General Nicholls staff in the Trans-Mississippi Department. Married Mary Lelia Montan, daughter of Anthony Montan and Ann Eliza McKee of Baton Rouge. Children: Lelia Douglas (b. 1866), Thomas Dover (b. 1867), Nina Ellison (b. 1869), Virginia Eliza (b. 1871) and Isabelle Montan (b. 1874). Appointed, June 8, 1870, to serve as adjutant general of the Second Brigade, First Division of the Louisiana State Militia with the rank of captain; July 22, 1870, promoted to the rank of major. Appointed on June 14, 1872, to serve as adjutant general of the Louisiana State Militia with the rank of brigadier general; resigned on November 21, 1872. Member, Democratic party; 1872, elected to the office of civil sheriff of Orleans Parish; took office on November 21, 1872. Member, Pickwick Club of New Orleans and Mistick Krewe of Comas and Rex. Died, New Orleans, December 3, 1874; interred Metairie Cemetery. W.H.F. Sources: William H. Forman, Jr., "William P. Harper in War and Reconstruction," Louisiana History, XIII (1972); William H. Forman, Jr., "William P. Harper and the Early New Orleans Carnival," Louisiana History, XIV (1973); Evans J. Casso, Louisiana Legacy: A History of the State National Guard (1976).

HARRIS, John Spafford, U. S. senator. Born, Truxton, Cortland County, N. Y., December18, 1825. Education: common schools. Removed to Millwaukee, Wis., 1846; employed as clerk in a mecantile establishment, 1846-1849; continued education; engaged in mercantile pursuits, 1849-1863. Removed to Natchez, La., 1863, and at the close of the Civil War was one of the largest cotton planters in the state. Member, state constitutional convention, 1868, being chosen one of a committee of seven to conduct the affairs of the state until the constitution should be adopted. Served in the state senate in 1868. Upon the readmission of Louisiana to representation was elected as a Republican to the United States Senate and served from July 9, 1868, to March 3, 1871. Appointed surveyor general for Montana by President Arthur on November 23, 1881. Died, Butte, Mont., January 25, 1906; interred Forestvale Cemetery, Helena, Mont. J.B.C. Source: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950).

HARRIS, Joseph D. "Joe"
, saxophonist. Born, Paulina, La. Removed to New Orleans' Gert Town area, 1920. Worked with celebrated musicians including "Papa" Celestin (q.v.), Fats Domino, Albert "Papa" French and Dave Bartholomew. Featured on an album recorded in McAllister Auditorium, Tulane University in 1973, with part of his work recorded in the university's Jazz Archives. Lifetime member of the Musicians Mutual Protective Union, Local 174-496, of the American Federation of Musicians. Died, New Orleans, March 1, 1980. H.C. Source: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, March 3, 1980.

HARRIS, T(homas) H, educator. Born, near Arizona, Claiborne Parish, La., March 26, 1869; son of Rettie Rebecca Milner and the Reverend Austin Harris, a Baptist minister and teacher of languages; was christened Lee Marcus but became legally known as Thomas H (middle initial stood for nothing); attended Arizona Academy, conducted by his father, for one or two summer sessions; in 1889, at age 20, enrolled in Lisbon Academy and attended for eight months; attended the 1891-1892 session at Homer College; taught school in Claiborne and Winn Parishes, 1892-1893; enrolled at Louisiana State Normal School (now Northwestern State University) in Natchitoches in the fall of 1893. Accepted post of assistant principal at Central High School, Lake Charles. While teaching in Winnsboro in 1896 married (1) Minnie Earle (d. 1899) and became a Methodist. One child Sadie Guice. Elected principal of St. Landry High School, Opelousas, 1897. was a part-time student and teacher at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge. Married (2), 1900, Mary Elizabeth Blackshear Evans, a widow with three small sons. Attended the University of Chicago in 1900; studied at Harvard in the summer of 1901; became principal of Baton Rouge High School in 1903; studied courses in law at Louisiana State University while employed in Baton Rouge; resigned from Baton Rouge position and sold life insurance. Appointed state superintendent of public schools in August 1908 and retained position until 1940. Received B. A. degree from LSU, 1922, and M. A., 1924; received honorary doctor of law degree from LSU in 1935. Was the dominant figure in some of the accomplishments in state education during his tenure: the system of school finance combined local and state support; consolidated schools replaced one-room country schools; standards for teacher certification were raised to the level of the baccalaureate degree; teacher-benefit laws as to tenure and retirement were enacted; a system of state-operated trade schools was established, and state colleges became four-year degree granting institutions with well-developed physical plants and improved financial support. Most appreciated by him was the establishment by the legislature, 1938, of the T. H Harris Scholarships by which an annual appropriation of $40,000 helps students secure a college education. Died, February 24, 1942; interred Roselawn Memorial Park, Baton Rouge. J.B.C. Sources: Rodney Cline, Pioneer Leaders and Early Institutions in Louisiana Education (1969); New Orleans Times-Picayune, February 25, 1942.

HARROD, Benjamin Morgan
, engineer. Born, New Orleans, February 19, 1837; son of Charles Harrod and Mary Morgan. Education: private tutors; Harvard, A. B., 1856; A. M., 1859. Civil War: enlisted, 1861, Crescent Rifles; second lieutenant, Second Louisiana Regular Artillery. First lieutenant, siege of Vicksburg; captured there, later paroled. Appointed to Second Regiment of Engineers, ordered to Petersburg, Va. With Lee at surrender at Appomattox. After war resumed engineering profession, New Orleans. Chief engineer, State of Louisiana, 1877-1880. Member, Louisiana River Commisison, 1879-1904. City engineer of New Orleans, 1888-1902. Chief engineer in charge of constructing water and sewerage systems of New Orleans, 1895-1902. Named by President Theodore Roosevelt to Panama Canal Commission. President, 1897-1898, Society of Civil Engineers; member, Louisiana Engineering Society. Member, Round Table and Pickwick clubs. An art lover, notable private collection. Consulting engineer for construction of Delgado Art Museum. Ardent supporter of Audubon Society. Married (1) Harriet Uhlhorn; married (2) Eugenia Uhlhorn (Harriets sister). No children. Episcopalian. Died, New Orleans, September 7, 1912; interred Metairie Cemetery. G.R.C. Sources: Who Was Who in America, 1897-1942 (1967); New Orleans Daily Picayune, September 8, 1912.

HART, Rosa Lucille, cheerleader, educator, theater director. Born, August 27, 1900, in Woodville, Miss. Removed to Lake Charles, La., 1910, with family. Became the first female university cheerleader in the United States while attending Sophie Newcomb College in New Orleans. An active worker in the Tulane Alumni Association. Founded the Lake Charles Little Theater and was its director for thirty years; presented a Shakespearean revival which attracted protographers from magazines throughout the country a few weeks before her death. Taught at Lake Charles High School and worked in fathers insurance agency; was world traveler and knew presidents and prime ministers; was praised by actors, Charles Laughton, Vincent Price, and John Barrymore, as well as Gen. John J. Pershing. Best remembered for providing food and lodging for young writers, artists, and actors down on their luck. Died, June 7, 1964; interred Opelousas (La.) Jewish Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, June 8, 1964; Lake Charles American Press, obituary, June 8, 1964.

HARTLEY, Charles Augustus
, civil engineer. Born, Heworth (Gateshead), County Durham, England, February 3, 1825; second son of William Augustus Hartley and Lillias Tod. Education: local schools and apprenticed to Civil Engineers in Bishop Auckland and Leeds. Contractors engineer building section of Scottish Central Railway, 1845-1848; engineer, under Joseph Locke, for extensions of Sutton Harbour, Plymouth, England, 1848-1855; captain, Royal Engineers, in the Turkish Contingent at Kurtch in the Crimean War, 1855-1856. Appointed engineer-in-chief, European Commission of the Danube in 1856, and at Sulina constructed provisional jetties which in 1861, cleared the bar and gave an entrance depth of 17 ft., subsequently increased to 20 ft. when jetties consolidated in 1870-1872. Visited the United States, 1873-1874 and again in 1875, agreeing with James B. Ends and Gen. J. G. Barnard that the mouth of the Mississippi should be cleared by means of jetties, and recommending the use of the South Pass. In 1875 appointed by the president to be a member of the board of engineers to report and advise on the details of jetty construction being carried out by Eads at the South Pass; visited this Pass and New Orleans with board in November 1875. Consulting engineer to European Commission of the Danube 1872 to 1906 and designed all works for straightening Sulina branch from Toulcha to Black Sea. British member of the International Technical Commission of the Suez Canal, 1884-1906; designed improvements to the harbours of the Odessa and Durban. Died, London, February 20, 1915; interred Highgate Cemetery. C.W.S.H. Sources: Dictionary of National Biography, 1912-21; Inst. Civil Engineers, Minutes of Proceedings, Vol. 200; E. L. Corthell, A History of the Jetties at the Mouth of the Mississippi (1881); Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts, Report No. NRA 20358, 77/1 (Hartley Papers in possession of C. W. S. Hartley).

HARVEY, Martin Luther
, university administrator, church leader. Born, Newberg, N. Y., August 11, 1911; son of Martin Luther Harvey and Rosa Monroe. Education: schools of Newberg; New York University. Removed to Baton Rouge, La., 1944. Married, 1943, Clarie Collins, of Jackson, Miss. Active member of A.M.E. Zion Church; Phi Delta Kappa Honorary Fraternity; Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity and Alpha Xi Chapter of Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity, American College Personnel Association; board of directors, Southern Regional Council; executive committee of the American College and University Concert and Art Administrators, Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps Selection Board. Served as national director for the A.M.E. Zion Church; traveled to Asia, Africa, Europe and other parts of the world attending ecumenical conferences and meeting with student groups in higher education. Died, Baton Rouge, March 23, 1976; interred Mississippi. G.W.B. Sources: Charles Vincent, A Centennial History of Southern University A & M College, 1880-1980 (1981); obituary, Southern University Archival Collection.

HARWOOD, Thomas Franklin
, academic. Born, Kerrville, Tex., October 26, 1918; son of Miller Harwood and Clair L.everton Harwood. Education: Certificate of Honor for scholastic record, Franklin Junior High School, May 23, 1932; valedictorian, Taft High School, June 1935; A. A., valedictorian, Schreiner Institute (Junior College), Kerrville, June 1937; University of Texas, B. A., English Literature, 1946. Service in U. S. Army from August 8, 1941, to 1953. During World War II, duty in Algeria, Morocco, Italy, France, Germany, and Austria. Later service in Japan and Virginia. University of Texas, M.A., 1954; major, History, minor, English Literature. Thesis: "The Indian Problem on the First Frontier:Virginia,1584-1622," supervised by Rudolph L. Biesele, with W. A. Bultmann, a visitor in English History as second reader. University of Texas, Ph. D., 1959. Dissertation: "Great Britain and American Antislavery" (2 vols., 838 pp.), supervised by Barnes F. Lathrop, with committee including J. Harry Bennett (English history), Philip Graham (American literature), and Walter Prescott Webb. Harwood maintained a straight A record in graduate school, held a Texas Colonial Dames Scholarship in 1955, and a Southern Fellowship Fund scholarship in 1956. He became a teaching assistant at the University of Texas in 1955. Before completion of his dissertation, Harwood began teaching as a member of the original faculty at the quickly organized Louisiana State University at New Orleans in September of 1958. He served as assistant professor, 1959-1966, and associate professor, 1966-1971. Although a potentially outstanding scholar, Harwood's publishing promise remained largely unfulfilled. His three articles are "British Evangelical Abolitionism and American Churches in the 1830s," Journal of Southern History, XXVIII (1962); "British Evangelism: A Devisive Influence on Protestant Churches," in Richard 0. Curry, ed., The Abolitionists: Reformers or Fanatics? (New York, 1965); and "The Abolitionist Image of Louisiana and Mississippi," Louisiana History, VII (1966). He contributed a book review to Louisiana History, VII (1966). L.S.U.N.O., name changed to the University of New Orleans (UNO) in 1974, designated a major street on campus to be named in honor of Harwood. Died unexpectedly, New Orleans, September 1, 1971. J.P.M. Sources: Thomas Franklin Harwood Collection, Archives, Earl K. Long Library, University of New Orleans; correspondence with Professor Barnes F. Lathrop of the University of Texas, September 15, 1982; obituary, The Driftwood: Voice of the University Community, September 3, 1971; conversations with Joseph G. Tregle, Jr., and Homer Hitt; Jerah Johnson, ed., UNO Prisms, 1958-1983 (New Orleans, 1983).

HASSELMANNS, Louis
, opera and orchestra conductor, academic. Born, Paris, France, July 25, 1878; son of a well-known harpist. Studied at Paris Conservatory of Music, winning first prize at age 15. Appointed premier conductor at Paris Opéra-Comique, 1909; founded Montreal Opera, 1911; first conductor of Chicago Civic Opera Ravinia season, 1918-1930. Leading conductor of the "French Wing" of the Metropolitan Opera, New York, 1922-1936, conductor of Chicago Opera 1930-1944. Conducted world premieres of Faure's Penelope, other works; American premieres of Ravel's L'Heure Espagnole, Massenet's Le Roi de Lahore and the Metropolitan Opera premiere of Debussy's Pelleas et Melisande. Also conducted numerous symphony orchestras; awarded the French Legion of Honor. Served in Louisiana State University School of Music faculty as head of the chamber music department and opera conductor from 1936 until retirement in 1948. Joined Loyola (New Orleans) University as first head of the opera department, 1950-1951. Died, San Juan, Puerto Rico, December 27, 1957. L.I.W. Sources: Louisiana Leader, November 2, 1936; LSU Alumni News, June, 1948; New Orleans Times-Picayune, September 24, 1950; LSU Daily Reveille, October 15, 1953; Baton Rouge State-Times, obituary, December 30, 1957.

HAUCK, Amelia Mignon
, see HAUK, Minnie

HAUGHERY, Margaret Gaffney
, humanitarian, philanthropist. Daughter of William Gaffney and Margaret O'Rourke. Religion: Catholic. Migrated to Baltimore, Md., in 1818 with parents. Parents died of yellow fever in 1822. Went to live with a Welsh friend of her family, Mrs. Richardson. Received no education. Married: Charles Haughery, October 10, 1835, in Baltimore cathedral. Went to New Orleans aboard Hyperion, November 1835. Had one child, a daughter, Frances, born ca. 1836. Her husband in ill health took a sea voyage on recommendation of his doctor, but died after reaching his Irish homeland. Her infant daughter also died. As a widow, worked in the laundry at the St. Charles Hotel and later for the Sisters of Charity at the Poydras Orphan Asylum. The rest of her life was devoted to furthering the cause of orphans. Worked closely in association with Sister Regis to found an orphanage on New Levee Street in 1836. Went into the dairy business and used her profits to aid the orphans. Later helped in the founding of the St. Theresa Asylum, the St. Elizabeth's Asylum, the St. Vincent's Infant Asylum, and a number of other such institutions. Aided the sick during yellow-fever epidemics and the poor and displaced during the Civil War. In 1859 took over a bankrupt bakery and turned it into a profitable enterprise which gave her one of the largest fortunes in New Orleans. Despite her wealth, owned only two dresses and a simple bonnet. Adopted Bernard Klotz, who later inherited the bakery which became Klotz Cracker Factory. Died, February 9, 1882; interred St. Louis Cemetery II. First statue in America to honor a woman was set up in her memory at Prytania and Camp streets in Margaret Place. J.J.J. Sources: Grace King, New Orleans; The Place and the People (1895); Raymond J. Martinez, The Immortal Margaret Haughery (1956); The WPA Guide to New Orleans (reprint, 1983); New Orleans Daily Picayune, February 10, 1882.

HAUK, Minnie (Amelia Mignon Hauck)
, opera singer. Born, New York, November 16, 1851. Father, a German refugee from the 1848 revolution, moved the family to Fort Leavenworth, Kan., then to Summer City, leaving when a tornado destroyed the farm. They embarked on a houseboat (possibly built by the father) to gain Louisville via the Missouri and Mississippi, but when a steamer sank the boat, ended up in New Orleans. Studied with Gregorio Curto and made her debut at age twelve singing "Casta Diva" from Bellini's Norma and florid arias from Rossini's La Gazza Ladra and Auber's Les Diamants de la couronne at a benefit for Civil War widows and orphans. After the fall of New Orleans, sent back to New York with her family on a Federal warship. Studied with Achille Errani. Made a semi-public New York debut in La Somnanbula and a public one in L'Etoile du Nord before her fourteenth birthday. Created the role of Juliette in Gounod's Romeo et Juliette, November 15, 1867. Sang in Paris, London, St. Petersburg, Moscow, Vienna, Budapest, Berlin, Brunswick, Stuttgart, Cologne, Coblenz, Hanover, Weimar, and Brussels. Sang the first American Carmen (New York Academy of Music, October 23, 1878) and the first Manon (December 23, 1885). Sang at the Metropolitan Opera, 1890-1891. Organized her own company and toured the country in 1891, then retired from the stage after singing over a hundred roles. Sang Carmen some five hundred times in French, English, German and Italian. Her memoirs were published in 1925 as Memoirs of a Singer. Settled in Lucerne, Switzerland, with her husband, Baron Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg. Died in Lucerne, February 6, 1929. M.A. Sources: Oscar Thompson, The International Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians (1975); John S. Kendall, "The Friend of Chopin and Some Other New Orleans Musical Celebrities," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXXI (1948).

HAYES, Margaret Isabella Green
, educator. Born, Franklin, Tenn., November 12, 1843; daughter of Benjamin Rogers White and Eliza Mothershed McKinney. Education: Nashville, Tenn., schools; John Stone Davis Institute, New Iberia, La.; Franklin College. Married, 1868, James Gethern Hayes, sheriff of St. Landry Parish, La. Two children died in infancy; two step-children: Clarence L. Hayes and Ida Hayes. Member, Methodist church, leader in local and state religious activities; St. Landry Parish Sunday School Association, 1914; Methodist Episcopal Church South Missionary Conference, New Orleans, 1915. Established Opelousas Female Institute, 1871, incorporated, August 13, 1885. Died, Opelousas, June 8, 1917; interred Myrtle Grove Cemetery. M.N.N. Sources: Tennessee Methodist, January 5, 1893; Journal of the Louisiana Conference Methodist Church, September 2, 1907; Opelousas Courier, December 1894; Opelousas St. Landry Clarion, June 23, 1910; Margaret Hayes scrapbook.

HAYNIE, Martin Luther, physician. Born, Maryland. Studied medicine, Philadelphia, ca. 1808. Because of "high recommendation as physician" given permission to settle in New Feliciana, July 1808. Commissioned surgeon-general of Republic of West Florida, 1810. Married Ann Stirling, daughter of Alexander Stirling (q.v.), 1811; practiced medicine in St. Francisville, 1811-1815; published treatises on treatment of fevers, 1813. Died, March 1815; interred New Orleans. E.K.D. Sources: West Feliciana Parish Records; various issues of the St. Francisville Time Piece, 1811-1815; John Duffy, ed., The Rudolph Matas History of Medicine in Louisiana (1962).

HAYS, Harry Thompson, soldier, politician. Born, Wilson County, Tenn., April 14, 1820; orphaned and reared by uncle, Wilkinson County, Miss. Education: St. Mary's College, Baltimore, Md. Distinguished service in Mexican War. Civil War record: elected colonel of Seventh Louisiana Volunteers, 1861; promoted to rank of brigadier general, July 25, 1862, as commander of First Louisiana Brigade, Army of Northern Virginia; originator of using "Rogues March" to drum soldiers out of army; distinguished service at First Manassas, Valley Campaign, Antietam, Second Battle of Fredericksburg, Second Battle of Winchester, Gettysburg and Wilderness Campaign; severely wounded at Port Republic and Spotsylvania; transferred to Trans-Mississippi Department, 1864, as acting major general. After Civil War resumed law practice in New Orleans. Political career: active in Whig party, serving as presidential elector in 1852; elected sheriff of Orleans Parish, 1866; accused of using deputies to attack carpetbag supporters in New Orleans riot, 1866; removed from office by Gen. Philip Sheridan (q.v.) same year for anti-government activities. Member of Tenth Ward Independent Liberal Club, an organization later affiliated with White League. Died, New Orleans, of Brights disease, August 21, 1876. T.L.J. Sources: Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Gray (1959); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, August 22, 1876 (1955); Stuart O. Landry, The Battle of Liberty Place (1955); Report of the Select Committee on the New Orleans Riots (1867).

HAYWARD, Samuel Ellsworth
, civil servant. Born, May 25, 1918, New Orleans, La.; son of Samuel Ellsworth, Sr., and Nettie Ives Hayward. Education: Dillard University, A.B.; Southern University, M.A.; further study, Louisiana State University Graduate School; Federal workshops, seminars and short courses. Married Olga Loretta Hines (Southern University reference librarian), daughter of Samuel James and Lillie George Hines of Alexandria, La. Children: Ann Elizabeth and Olga Patricia (Mrs. William George Ryer). Served thirty-nine years in the United States Postal Service, including experience in the Washington, D. C., Post Office and the United States Postal Transportation Service in Louisiana and Texas. Supervisor of the Air Mail Department and later Equal Employment Opportunity Counselor in the main post office in Baton Rouge, La., and at the time of his death, Equal Employment Opportunity Investigator for the Southern Region of the United States Postal Service. Member, Central Congregational Church, New Orleans, from birth until 1955 when he joined St. Michael's Episcopal Church in Baton Rouge. Served on St. Michael's Mission Council and as treasurer of the Men's Club. Past president of the National Alliance of Postal Employees, Local 12, Baton Rouge and editor of the monthly publication of that organization. Member, Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Early Risers, Kiwanis, National Association of Postal Supervisors, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Thirty-second Degree Mason, United Supreme Council of Scottish Rites, Prince Hall, Capital City Lodge No. 244, where he served as treasurer. World War II service: Ninety-third Division on Guadalcanal. Died March 11, 1980. O.L.H.H. Source: Author's research.

HAZEL, Arthur "Monk", jazz musician (drums, coronet/mellophone). Born, Harvey, La., August 15, 1903. Began playing in his teens with Emmett Hardy. Played mainly on drums, but doubled throughout his career. During the 1920s worked with many band leaders around New Orleans, Albert "Abbie" Brunies, Tony Porenti, Johnny Wiggs, etc. In the late 20s and early 30s led his own Bienville Roof Orchestra in New Orleans. Was on network radio in 1934 behind singer Gene Austin. Widely recorded. From the 1940s through the 1960s closely associated with Sharkey Bonano and Santo Pecora. Died, New Orleans, March 5, 1968. H.C. Sources: New Orleans States-Item, obituary, March 6, 1968; John Chilton, Who's Who of Jazz (1972); Al Rose and Edmond Souchon, New Orleans Jazz, A Family Album (1984).

HEAD, Octavia, see CLARK, Octavia Head

HEALY, George Peter Alexander
, portraitist. Born, Boston, Mass., 1813; son of Irish sea captain. Largely self-taught, opened first studio in Boston, 1830. Sought professional training, 1834, in studio of Baron Antoine Jean Gros in Paris, France. Studio disbanded 1835 on teacher's suicide. Traveled throughout Europe with minor commissions to 1838. Brought to attention of King Louis Philippe by U. S. Ambassador Gen. Cass. Copied pictures in collections of Queen Victoria (England) for French crown. Married Louisa Phipps (1819-1906), 1838. Several children. Sent to U. S. 1842, by French crown to paint American presidents and statesmen for French national collections (Versailles). Visited New Orleans, 1843, with brother Thomas Cantwell Healy (q.v.). Returned to New Orleans, 1845. Commuted between France and U. S. until 1855. Settled Chicago, Ill., 1855. Commissioned by Congress to paint U. S. presidents at $1,000 each for Executive Mansion. Return visits to New Orleans each year, 1857-1861. Painted many prominent Louisianians including Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard (q.v.). Union sympathizer. Returned to Europe, 1867, first to Italy, later to France. Portraits commissioned by Pope Pius IX and Romanian royal family. Remained in Paris ca. 1874-1892. Returned to Chicago, 1892. Died, Chicago, 1894. Lifetime oeuvre of over 500 portraits. V.L.G. Source: Author's research.

HEALY, George William
, journalist. Born, Natchez, Miss., September 22, 1905; son of George William Healy and Rosa Lee Longmire; grandson of Thomas Cantwell Healy (q.v.). Education: Natchez Institute; University of Mississippi, 1926. Worked at odd jobs for Natchez newspapers while in school. Began as a reporter for the Times-Picayune, November 17, 1926. Covered the great Mississippi Valley flood (1927), Huey P. Long's political career. Managing editor of Times-Picayune by World War II, editor of Times-Picayune, 1952-1972. Special representative, U. S. Office of Censorship, 1941-1942; consultant, Office of War Information, 1943; director, OWl domestic branch, 1944-1945. Chairman, Associated Press Managing Editors Association, 1944-1945; director, Associated Press, 1957-1966; vice-president, Associated Press, 1965-1966. President, Sigma Delta Chi (later, Society of Professional Journalists), American Society of Newspaper Editors. Treasurer, 1939, vice-president, 1942-1948, and director, 1948-?, Times-Picayune Publishing Corp. Director, WTPS radio station, 1950s. Trustee, Jefferson Military College, 1950-1962. Member: Methodist church, Mason, Recess (president, 1947-1948), Southern Yacht Club, Boston, Louisiana, International House (vice-president, 1964-1967); Circumnavigators (New York City); National Press (Washington); Mount Kenya Safari (East Africa). Married Margaret Alford, September 22, 1927. Children: George W. Healy III (b. 1930); Floyd Alford Healy (b. 1935). Autobiography, A Lifetime on Deadline (1976). Died, New Orleans, November 2, 1980; body donated to Tulane Medical Center. P.D.A. Sources: Obituary, New Orleans Times-Picayune, November 3, 1980; George W. Healy, Jr., A Lifetime on Deadline: Self-Portrait of a Southern Journalist (1976); Who's Who in America, v. 35 (1968-1969).

HEALY, Thomas Cantwell
, portraitist. Born, Albany, N. Y., December 7, 1820; son of William Healy and Mary Hicks. Removed with family to Boston, Mass., 1824. Studied, Paris, France, 1838, with elder brother, George Peter Alexander Healy (q.v.). Returned to U. S., opened portrait studio with brother John Reynolds Healy, 1842. Removed to New Orleans with George Peter Alexander Healy, 1843; established studios in New Orleans, 1845, 1862, 1868. Married, May 30, 1870, Charlotte Roberts of Claiborne County, Miss., daughter of John Roberts and Mahala Jones. Five children: George William (b. 1871), Thomas Burke (b. 1873), Mary Louisa Agnes (b. 1874), Maria Angela (b. 1875), John Roberts (b. 1877). Painted in Mississippi, 1843-1879. Exhibited Athenaeum, Boston, Mass., 1832, 1840; National Academy of Design, N. Y., 1839, 1842. Awarded: Mechanics' and Agricultural Fair, New Orleans, silver medal for head in oils, honorable mention for portraits in oil, with brother, 1868. Died, Claiborne County, Miss., December 10, 1889. R.M. Sources: The Historic New Orleans Collection, Encyclopaedia of New Orleans Artists, 1718-1918; Marie de Mare, G.P.A. Healy, American Artist.

HEARD, William Wright, governor. Born, Union Parish, La., April 28, 1853; son of Stephen S. Heard and Mary Ann Wright. Educated in the common schools and at the academy in Farmerville, La. Married, December 3, 1878, Isabelle Elizabeth Manning, daughter, of James Augustus Manning and Margaret Jane Graham. Children: William Wright, Jr. (died in infancy), Alma Margaret (died in infancy), Eva Augusta Heard (b. 1885), William Allen Heard (b. 1887), Manning Wright Heard (b. 1896), Louisiana Belle Heard (b. 1901), William Wright Heard III (b. 1905). Elected clerk of the district court, 1876, serving as clerk or deputy clerk until 1892. Entered the state house of representatives in 1884 and the state senate in 1888. Elected state auditor of Public Accounts in 1892, reelected, 1896. In 1900 elected governor. While governor ended the state convict lease system; a state board of education and parish school boards were created; state banks were placed on a sound financial basis; a Bureau of Labor Statistics, an Oyster Commission, and a Crop Pest Commission were created. A leprosarium and a black insane asylum were established. Upon retirement returned to the accounting business in New Orleans. Became vice-president of the State Bank of New Orleans in 1904; moderator of Concord Baptist Association in the state; president for one term of the State Baptist Convention; vice-chancellor for two terms, and for one term was grand chancellor of the Knights of Pythias of Louisiana. Died, New Orleans, June 1, 1926; interred Metairie Cemetery. S. R. Sources: Miriam G. Reeves, The Governors of Louisiana (1962); Roy Clashan, American Governors and Gubernatorial Elections, 1775-1975 (1975); letter of May 11, 1983, from Luther E. Hall, Jr., grandson of Governor Heard.

HEARN, Patrick Lafcadio, author. Born on Levkas (then Leucadia or Lefcadia), Greece, June 27, 1850, to an Irish army surgeon, Charles Bush Hearn, and a Greek islander, Rosa Antonia Cassimati. Removed to Dublin, Ireland, with his mother in August 1852. His mother went back to Greece in 1854 never to return. The marriage was annulled in 1856 and both parents subsequently remarried. Lafcadio was left in the care of his father's aunt, Sara Brenane, a staunch Catholic. In 1862, he was sent to the Institution Eccldsiastique, at Yvetot, France. In September 1863, he entered St. Cuthbert's, a Catholic school at Ushaw, near Durham, where he remained till October 28, 1867. It was there that he lost the sight of one eye in a school yard accident. The remaining eye, overstrained, tended to bulge later in life, and, combined with his short stature (5' 3") and dark complexion, gave him a strange appearance. Immigrated 1869 to Cincinnati, Ohio, in search of employment. In 1872 the Cincinnati Enquirer published his review of Tennyson's Idyls of the King. By 1874 he was on the staff of the newspaper for which he wrote sketches of