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Louisiana History Journal


RACHAL, Pierre, dit St. Denis, soldier, pioneer. Born, Saint-Denis, Isle d'Oléron, France, January 27, 1698; son of Pierre Rachal, Sr., a drummer in the Marine company of Henri Louis de Chavignac stationed at Rochefort, and of Elisabeth Jaguet. Emigrated from Rochefort with a contingent of soldiers dispatched on the Ludlow and the Paon to man Fort Toulouse in present-day Alabama; transferred from that post to Natchitoches in late 1721 or early 1722; spent remaining years as a habitant and a corporal in the reserve company of the marines at Natchitoches. Married, ca. 1722, Marie Anne Benoist (b. 1697), daughter of Michel Benoist who in 1720 had been exiled to the colony, aboard the Mutine, for a period of five years. Children: Louis dit Blondin (b. 1722); Jean Claude (b. ca. 1724); Elisabeth (b. 1729); Barthélémy dit Le Rat (b. 1732); Jacques dit St. Denis (b. 1735); Marie Louise (b. 1737); Marie Jeanne (b. 1739). Died on a military expedition to Natchez, 1756. E.S.M. Sources: Elizabeth Shown Mills, Natchitoches, 1729-1803 (1977); Mills, Natchitoches Colonials (1981); Pierre Heinrich, La Louisiane sous la Compagnie des Indes, 1717 à 1731 (1903; reprint ed., 1970); Rachal family papers, in possession of the author.

RAINACH, William Monroe ("Willie")
, businessman, politician. Born, Kentwood, La., July 31, 1913, as William Odom. Mother died in influenza epidemic of 1917. Invalid father placed him and three brothers in Baptist Orphanage, Lake Charles. Adopted by Mr. and Mrs. Albert M. Rainach of Summerfield. Education: Claiborne Parish schools; passed first through fourth grades in two years; Summerfield High School; attended Southern State College, Magnolia, Ark., 1932-1933; Strayer's Business College, Washington, D. C., 1935-1936; Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge, 1936-1937. Married Mable Justin Fincher, February 11, 1940. Children: William Monroe, Mary Elizabeth, Rex Dean. Methodist. Organizer and general manager, Claiborne Electric Coop., Inc., Homer, La., 1939-1940, first company to bring electricity to farms of Claiborne Parish. Organizer and partner, Claiborne Butane Co., Inc., Homer, 1945-1948, president, 1948-1977. President, Arcadia Butane Co., Inc., 1967. President, Homer Development Co., Inc., 1959. Man of Year, Homer Lions Club, 1974. Recipient, Americanism award, Caddo-Bossier Chapter of the Young Americans for Freedom, 1959. Member, Louisiana Farm Bureau, Louisiana Forestry Association, Louisiana Independent Royalty Owners and Oil Producers Association, American Defense Preparedness Association. Founder, Claiborne Academy. Author, Subversion in Racial Unrest. Member, Louisiana house of representatives, 1940-1948; Louisiana senate, 1948-1960. Chair, Joint Legislative Committee on Segregation, 1954-1959. Founder, White Citizens' Council of Claiborne Parish. Founder, Louisiana Association of Citizens' Councils, president, 1955-1959. Founder, Citizens' Council of America, chair, 1956-1958. Candidate for Democratic nomination for governor, 1959. Finished third with 143,095 votes (17.0%). Endorsed James H. "Jimmie" Davis (q.v.) in second primary; Davis elected. Died, January 27, 1978; interred Arlington Cemetery, Homer, La. G.J. Sources: Glen Jeansonne, Race, Religion, and Politics: The Louisiana Gubernatorial Elections of 1959-60 (1977); Who's Who in the South and Southwest, 16th ed., 1978-79; New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, January 27, 1978; Shreveport Times, obituary, January 27, 1978.

RANALDSON, James A., missionary, educator. Born, Brunswick County, N. C., 1789. Education: classical school of the Scotch-Irish. Became Baptist minister ca. 1812. Married Lydia A. Munkhouse Barton in Fredericksburg, Va., August 16, 1814. Removed to New Orleans, 1817, self-appointed missionary to poor, ignorant, and Indians; travelled alone throughout Indian territory of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana before arriving Feliciana, late 1817. Established Shiloh Church which was received into Mississippi Baptist Association, 1819; taught a Sunday School, taking paying scholars to meet expenses; formalized this into Society Hill Academy, 1818, at request of planters; hired Benjamin Chase, Presbyterian minister lately in New Orleans as assistant, 1819; later associated with Lavinia Calder (q.v.). Established St. Francisville Baptist Church, 1823. Removed to Jackson, La., ca. 1831, and began school; bitterly criticized by Baptist Association for teaching rather than preaching; briefly espoused Campbellism and bought land near Port Hudson, La., which he farmed. Returned to Baptist faith and began church at Port Hudson. Died, near Port Hudson, June 17, 1849. E.K.D. Sources: Virginia L. Jennings, The Plains and the People (1962); William Wister Hamilton, Jr., The Ranaldson Legend (1949); West Feliciana Parish Records.

RANDOLPH, Edward, West Florida revolutionary. Born, Virginia; son of George and Mary Randolph. Married Polly Coleman, daughter of William and Patience Coleman, at Bayou Sara, March 28, 1799. Established store at Pinckneyville, Miss., 1800; author of the Declaration of Independence in abortive Kemper Rebellion of 1804 which was later circulated as the first proposed Code of the Convention which preceded the West Florida Rebellion of 1810. Died, 1821. E.K.D. Sources: Stanley Clisby Arthur, The Story of the Kemper Brothers (1933); Arthur, The Story of the West Florida Rebellion (1935); Diocese of Baton Rouge Church Records, II; West Feliciana Parish Public Records.

RANDOLPH, John Hampden, planter, builder of Nottoway Plantation house. Born, Lunenburg County, Va., March 24, 1813; son of Sallie Cook and Judge Peter Randolph. Removed to Wilkinson County, Miss., with family in 1819. Education: attended Beach Woods, the private school of Lucy Bakewell Audubon (q.v.) in West Feliciana Parish, La., in the 1820s. Married Emily Jane Liddell, daughter of Judge Moses Liddell, December 14, 1837. Children: Algernon Sidney, John Hampden, Jr., Peter Everett, Ella E., Mary Augusta, Emma Jane, Cornelia, Sallie Virginia, Annie Caroline, and Julia Marceline. A cotton planter in Mississippi until coming to Louisiana in December 1841; lived on his plantation, Forest Home, in Iberville Parish, which he purchased in March 1841; planted cotton and corn for a few years; began construction of a sugarhouse in 1843 and was growing and milling sugarcane by 1846; purchased more than 5,000 acres in the parish between 1850 and 1860; also owned land in Texas, Minnesota, and Iowa. Built a new plantation home, Nottoway, 1849-1858; Henry Howard (q.v.) architect. One of the largest plantation houses in the South, it blends Greek Revival and Italianate styles. Although the Civil War caused a drop in the family fortune, his Louisiana land holdings in 1871 comprised over 7,000 acres and four plantations, Forest Home, Nottoway, Blythewood, and Bayou Goula. Made donations of both money and land to St. Mary's Episcopal Church at Bayou Goula; gave a scholarship to Plaquemines Seminary and contributed to an orphan asylum in New Orleans. Died, Nottoway, September 8, 1883; interred St. Mary's Cemetery, Bayou Goula, La. J.B.C. Sources: Paul Everett Postel, "John Hampden Randolph, A Louisiana Planter," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXV (1942); Joseph A. Arrigo and Cara M. Batt, Plantations (San Francisco, 1983), Plate 27; Baton Rouge Daily Capitolian-Advocate, obituary, September 1, 1883.

, planter, congressman. Born, Alexandria, La., October 7, 1858; eighth child of John H. Ransdell and Amanda Terrell. Education: attended public schools; Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., graduated 1882; studied law. Admitted to Louisiana bar, 1883, and practiced law in Lake Providence, La., 1884-1889. Married, November 1885, Olive Irene Powell (d. 1935) of Lake Providence. District attorney for Eighth Judicial District of Louisiana, 1884-1896. A cotton planter and developer of pecan groves. Member, levee board, Fifth Levee District, 1896-1899. Member, state constitutional convention, 1898. Elected as a Democrat to U. S. House of Representatives to fill vacancy caused by death of Samuel T. Baird (q.v.), served from August 29, 1899, to March 3, 1913. Was not a candidate for renomination in 1912, having become a candidate for the U. S. Senate. Elected to Senate in 1912 and served from March 4, 1913, to March 3, 1931. A leader in improving nation's waterways; organizer of the National Rivers and Harbors Congress, which he headed for fourteen years. Instrumental in passage of flood-control act. Sponsored bills which created the National Institute of Health, of which he became executive director, and the United States Public Health Service Hospital for treatment of Hansen's disease at Carville, La. Unsuccessful candidate for renomination, 1930. In 1920, founded Ransdell, Inc., a printing firm in Washington, D. C., and served as a director until 1931. Returned to Lake Providence, engaged in the real-estate business, cotton planting, and pecan growing. Member, board of supervisors, Louisiana State University, 1940-1944. Died, Lake Providence, July 27, 1954; interred Lake Providence Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1971 (1971); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, July 28, 1954.

RAPIER, Thomas G., journalist, business, religious leader. Born, New Orleans, 1847; son of Thomas Gwynn Rapier, a school teacher. Education: family and local schools. Too young to enter service at outbreak of Civil War, taught school in St. James Parish, La. Later in war, made his way on foot to Richmond, Va., where he convinced kinsman Stephen Mallory to let him become a midshipman in the Confederate Navy. Saw no action before war ended. Returned to New Orleans; began work with Daily Picayune doing odd jobs; eventually promoted to counter clerk. Accepted job as business manager of the Catholic newspaper Morning Star. Married (1) Mary Elizabeth McKeough; married (2) Mary Ellen Green. Children: George, Will, Henry, and Mrs. Joseph Sinclair. After George Nicholson (q.v.) and wife, Eliza Jane Nicholson (q.v.), acquired Picayune, subject became business manager of that paper, a position he held until 1914 when he retired because of ill health and failing eyesight. For twenty years a director of the Associated Press. Unceasing advocate of municipal improvements such as municipal dock system, the public belt (railroad), sewerage and water plants, and reclamation of the lakeside. Introduced, 1870s, the building and loan system to New Orleans with the organization of the New Orleans Homestead, followed, in 1882, by Peoples Homestead, of which subject became president, 1888, and served in that capacity until death. Instrumental in forming State Homestead League. An ardent Catholic; strong supporter of St. Vincent de Paul Society, delegate to the Particular Council, the central agency of the Society, served as its president. Dubbed Knight of St. Gregory. Honorary member, Hayden Y. Grubb Camp No. 3, United Spanish American War Veterans. Died, New Orleans, September 27, 1928; interred St. Patrick Cemetery II. G.R.C. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, September 28, 1928; January 25, 1937.

RAY, John, attorney, politician. Born, Washington County, Mo., October 10, 1816; son of Jonas S. Ray. Education: local schools; Augusta College; Transylvania University. In 1835, having made several visits to Louisiana, decided to remain as clerk of Judge L. F. Lamy of Ouachita Parish, and studied law under R. F. McGuire. Admitted to Louisiana bar, April 23, 1839; entered into partnership with McGuire. Also engaged in planting until 1864. Married a Miss Dewitt, March 1840; seven sons and one daughter, also one adopted daughter. Served in state house of representatives, 1844-1850; served in Louisiana senate, 1850-1854. Whig candidate for lieutenant governor, 1854, 1859; defeated. Probably a Unionist at outbreak of Civil War. In 1860 an elector on the Bell-Everett ticket. Elected to Congress in 1865 from Fourth District; denied seat. State senator, 1868-1872; introduced legislation to create Iberia Parish. In 1872 removed to New Orleans, named registrar of land office, served until 1877. In 1873 elected to U. S. Senate by Kellogg legislature, but election contested by William L. McMillan, candidate of the McEnery legislature. Neither man seated. In 1878 named an attorney to prosecute the "whiskey cases" for the U. S. government. Also attorney for Myra Clark Gaines (q.v.). Author of Ray's Digest of the Laws of Louisiana. Suffered a stroke in 1882. Died, New Orleans, March 4, 1888; interred St. Patrick's Cemetery III. J.G.T.*† Sources: E. Russ Williams, Jr., "John Ray: Forgotten Scalawag," Louisiana Studies, XIII (1974); Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, V; New Orleans Daily Picayune, March 5, 1888.

RAYMOND, Gilbert, clergyman. Born, Digueperse, Diocese of Clermont, France, November 4, 1809. Studied under the Sulpicians in his native land; ordained a Sulpician priest, 1834. Remained with the Congregation of Sulpicians until 1851, when he decided to become a missionary among Negroes in Louisiana. Arrived in the state, 1854, with brother J. François. Appointed pastor of St. Landry's, Opelousas, with brother as assistant. Later, served Ville Platte and its environs. Later, became dean of the western portion of the state, from the Atchafalaya River to the Sabine. Advocated the establishment of parishes in Ville Platte, Washington, Church Point, Lake Charles, Lake Arthur, Bois Mallet, and other localities. Secretary of the first (October 1855), second (January 21-29, 1860) and third (January 12-19, 1873) provincial councils of New Orleans. Played an important role in the Fourth Archdiocesan Synod of 1858. Appointed second vicar general of archdiocese; also occupied post of chancellor. Died, Opelousas, April 5, 1889, from tetanus contracted by a thumb crushed and infected while he was personally repairing St. Landry's Church. H.C.B. Sources: Roger Baudier, "Historical Collection," Archdiocesan Archives; and Baudier, The Catholic Church in Louisiana (1939).

RAYMOND, Louise,
see DE LA HOUSSAYE, Sidonie

REAMES, Charles Wesley
, physician, coroner of St. Helena Parish. Born, East Feliciana Parish, La., April 27, 1839; son of James Reames and Elizabeth Reames. Reared on a farm there. Education: Medical College of the University of Louisiana (now Tulane University), graduated 1861. Served as hospital steward for the Sixteenth Louisiana Regiment, CSA. Paroled at Meridian, Miss., May 14, 1865. Married Mary Eliza George, March 28, 1867. Five daughters. Practiced medicine in St. Helena Parish for thirty-five years. Lived mostly in Greensburg. Coroner of St. Helena Parish. Devout Methodist. Upon retirement moved to Kentwood, La., September 18, 1901. Reflecting on the turn of the century in his lifetime, he wrote in his diary on Monday, January 1, 1900: "I have entered this day with a cheerful heart and a determined will to live more observable of every known duty." Died unexpectedly at home on October 1, 1901. Memorialized in the library of the Kentwood United Methodist Church. J.P.M. Sources: U. S. Census reports, 1830-1900; Tulane University records; necrology in New Orleans Picayune, October 3, 1901; private papers in the possession of Ethel Irene R. Morris, Kentwood, La.

RECLUS, Jacques Elisée
, geographer, anarchist. Born, Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, France, March 15, 1830; son of Jacques Reclus and Zéline Trigant. Educated, Moravian school in Neuwied, Germany, Collège de Sainte-Foy-la-Grande; Protestant seminary in Montauban, France; University of Berlin, Germany. Tutor to the children of Septime and Emma Fortier, St. James Parish, La., 1853-1855. Worked for the Hachette publishing house in Paris, 1858-1871. Banished from France in 1872 for taking part in the Paris Commune in 1871. Lived in Switzerland, 1872-1890; France, 1890-1894; and Belgium, 1894-1905. Prolific writer on geographical and political subjects, including a nineteen-volume geographical encyclopedia of the world, Nouvelle géographie universelle (1876-1894). Several articles on Louisiana, the South, and the Civil War in the Revue des Deux Mondes (1859-1864) and Le Tour du Monde (1860). Professor of Geography in the New University of Brussels, 1894-1905. Married (1), December 13, 1858, Clarisse Brian (d. 1869) of Sainte-Foy-la-Grande. Children: Marguerite (b. 1860) and Jeanne (b. 1863). Married (2), 1870, Rosalie ("Fanny") L'Herminez (d. 1874). Married (3), 1875, Ermance Gonini (d. 1918). Died, Thourout, Belgium, July 4, 1905; interred Cimetière Ixelles (suburb of Brussels). G.S.D. Sources: Gary S. Dunbar, Elisée Reclus, Historian of Nature; Gary S. Dunbar, "Elisée Reclus in Louisiana," Louisiana History, XXIII (1982); Reclus Papers in Departement des manuscrits, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris (NAF 22909-22919).

REDDING, Earl William, singer, academic. Born, December 20, 1919, Moline, Ill.; son of Fearne Chappel Redding and Daniel Parks Redding; brother of Donald Charles Redding., Married Gwendolyn Emel, June 11, 1955. Children: William Charles, Susan Louise, Mark Stephen. Began piano study at the age of 5, violin at 8, and voice at 16. Received Bachelor of Music, Master of Music, and Doctorate in Musical Arts from the University of Missouri. Also studied at the Mannes School of Music in New York City, the American Theater Wing, Juilliard School of Music under such well-known teachers as Fritz Mahler, Peter Wilhousky, and Hans Schweiger. Studied orchestration with Ferde Grofe, voice with Leo Taubman, Frank LaForge, Edgar Schofield, Sydney Dietch and Della Hayward. During World War II directed musical shows and glee clubs for the army. After serving as musical director of Sommers Point Playhouse, Atlantic City, went to New York City and performed in a number of Broadway shows including Brigadoon, Winged Victory, Showboat, Kiss Me, Kate, Annie Get Your Gun, Up in Central Park, Bloomer Girl, and Naughty Marietta. Featured singer on Sid Caesar's nationally televised "Show of Shows"; soloist on the Paul Whiteman Show; leading baritone in New York City Center Opera Company, Connecticut Opera Company, the Pittsburgh Civic Light Opera Company, and the Gateway Musical Playhouse in Atlantic City. Made national tours with Sol Hurok's productions of Die Fledermaus, Brigadoon, and Annie Get Your Gun. Voice professor at Louisiana State University, 1954-1982. Musical director and conductor of the Baton Rouge Little Theatre orchestra for seventeen years; governor of NATS (National Association of Teachers of Singing) for region and State of Louisiana; national vice president of NATS; national chairman of the voice section of Music Teachers National Association. Music director at Ingleside Methodist Church, Baton Rouge, and later for First Methodist Church, Baton Rouge, 1959-1982. Died, Baton Rouge, April 2, 1982; interred Green Oaks Cemetery. M.S.W. Sources: Baton Rouge State Times, April 22, 1966; Baton Rouge, Morning Advocate, September 24, 1961; April 3, 1966; conversation with his widow, April 2, 1986.

REDMOND, John Davis, businessman, politician. Born, Greensburg, La., September 30, 1905; son of Andrew Redmond and Ophelia Perkins. Education: local schools. Married, February 27, 1926, Juanita Havard of Perrytown, Miss., daughter of William Havard, Wilkinson County, Miss., farmer, and Reva Ashely. Children: Virginia (b. 1927), Edward (b. 1928), Hazel (b. 1933). Active in Democratic party; sheriff, St. Helena Parish, 1936-1948. Member: Center Methodist Church. Died, New Orleans, April 25, 1972; interred Greensburg Cemetery. I.B.T. Source: Author's research.

REED, Albert Granberry
, academic. Born near Paducah, Ky., December 28, 1870; son of Pleasant G. and Martha J. Reed. Education: 1 year, Princeton University; Vanderbilt University, B. A., 1895; Yale University, M. A., 1899; scholar, Columbia University, 1897-1898; fellow, University of Chicago, 1904-1905; Austin Scholar, Harvard University, 1906-1907; Harvard University, Ph. D., 1907. Married, December 22, 1898, Margaret McDearmon of St. Charles, Mo. Children: Albert Granberry, Jr. (b. 1899), Frances McDearmon (b. 1901), Mary Barton (b. 1902), John Fielding (b. 1912), and Margaret McDearmon (b. 1914). Engaged in teaching, 1895-1932, at Louisiana State University, 1908-1932, and also at University of Texas, University of Missouri, Washington University in St. Louis, Duke University. Scholar and authority on Shakespeare, Chaucer, English poetry. Author of Rhetoric and Composition (1905) and English Literature: The Romantic Period (1929). Chairman, Graduate Council, LSU, 1930-1931. Reorganized and revised the publication of the LSU catalog. Frequent lecturer and speaker throughout Louisiana, especially at high school commencements, 1920-1932. A founder of Gamma Iota (LSU) chapter of Sigma Chi Fraternity. Member of First Methodist Church, Baton Rouge. Died, Baton Rouge, May 18, 1932; interred St. Charles, Mo. M.R.G. Source: Author's research.

REED, Sarah Butler Towles
, teacher, lobbyist. Born, Ouida Plantation, West Feliciana Parish, La., March 8, 1882; daughter of Daniel Towles and Sarah Butler Ker. Education: privately; Orleans Parish public schools; Newcomb College, B.A. 1904; Tulane University, M. A. 1906; Loyola University of the South, LL. D., 1925. Began teaching career 1905, Jackson, Miss.; taught in three Orleans Parish public schools, 1920-1951; introduced innovative classroom practices and was suspended twice for "insubordination" and "un-Americanism" before being absolved of all charges. As lobbyist for public educators attended every session of Louisiana legislature, 1925-1975. Under her guidance teachers achieved a tenure law, equal pay, and improved retirement benefits. Married Elkanah Reed (d. 1929). Charter member New Orleans Public School Teachers Association, 1924; executive secretary and legislative representative, NOPSTA, 1930-1975; recipient American Legion American Award, 1955; NOPSTA Service Award, 1971; New Orleans Retired Teachers Association Award of Merit, 1975. Died, May 8, 1978; interred Ouida Plantation. E.K.D. Source: Norah Towles Marsh, Sarah Towles Reed (1979).

REES, David, planter, justice of the peace. Born, February 14, 1774, Morgantown, Penn¬sylvania; son of John Rees and Margaret Jones. John served during the Revolutionary War as captain of the Second Battalion, Third Pennsylvania Regiment; David served during the War of 1812 as major in the Fifteenth Louisiana Militia; after war, resumed occupation as planter and justice of the peace. Married, February 9, 1905, Anastasia Guidry, daughter of Pierre Guidry, Grandpoint, St. Martin Parish, La., and Margaret Miller of Pensacola, Fla. Thirteen children of whom the following eight were living in 1835: Margaret (b. 1805), Julia (b. 1807), Charles (b. 1809), Eliza (b. 1816), Henry (b. 1818), John (b. 1825), George Washington (b. 1827), and Mary Anastasia (b. 1832). Active in politics, represented Attakapas County in the first legislature of Louisiana. A justice of the peace from 1805 to 1835. A member of the Episcopal church. Died, Breaux Bridge, 1835; interred St. Martinville Protestant graveyard. G.R. Sources: Ellen M. Beale, Genealogy of David Jones (1903); Tulane Library, David Rees Papers, Manuscript Section, Special Collection; Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); Powell A. Casey, Louisiana in the War of 1812 (1963) John B. Russell, Line Regimental Organization, 1776-1783 (n.d.).

REGGIO, Francisco María de, soldier, member of Spanish cabildo, planter. Born, Comarca, Piedmont, Italy, 1728; son of François Marie, chevalier de Reggio. Educated in France. Served as a lieutenant in Louis XV's Netherlands campaign of 1747. Promoted to captain of a detached company of the Marine in 1748. Assigned to Louisiana in 1750. Held a variety of commands in Louisiana and commanded numerous convoys between New Orleans and the Illinois country. Married, ca. 1751, Hélène Fleuriau, also a native of Piedmont, Italy, daughter of François Fleuriau and Pélagie de Morières. Children: Charles Antoine (Carlos Antonio, b. 1754), Brigida Elena (b. 1758), Louis Charles Emmanuel (b. 1760), Elena (b. 1762), Constanza (b. 1764), Adelaida (b. 1769), Petrona Sophia, Juana. Appointed, 1769, regidor perpetuo and alferez real (royal standard bearer), the highest ranking position on the New Orleans cabildo, a position he maintained until 1786. Joint author with Pedro Francisco Olivier de Vezin (q.v.) of a memorial to the king about the depressed economic conditions in the colony, November 22, 1771. Elected alcalde de primer voto in 1784. Died, New Orleans, October 7, 1787; interred St. Louis Cathedral. B.C. Sources: De Reggio Papers, Louisiana State University Archives; John E. Harkins, "The Neglected Phase of Louisiana's Colonial History: The New Orleans Cabildo" (Ph. D. dissertation, Memphis State University, 1976); Acts of Juan Garic, Book 4, p. 158, Orleans Parish Notarial Archives; New Orleans Genesis, XVI; Alice D. Forsyth, Louisiana Marriages (1977); Jacqueline K. Voorhies, Some Late Eighteenth Century Louisianians (1973).

REIMERS, Frederick W.
, lumber company executive, banker. Born, Rock Island, Ill., October 7, 1877; one of four children of John J. Reimers and Marietta Denkmann; brother of Charles Dietrich Reimers, founder of Fort Worth Star-Telegram. Graduated in first class of electrical engineers, University of Illinois, 1900, B. S. degree. Married Julia Fay Warren, September 20, 1905, in Rock Island, Ill. Children: Warren Denkmann; Marietta Reimers Schneider of Hammond, La.; and Frederick Ray, a submarine officer who was lost at sea in World War II. First employment, manager of People's Power Company, Moline, Ill. In 1914 was to be sent to Atlanta to develop the electric transit system there when the Denkmann family asked him to go to Hammond, La., and manage their southern holdings which included seven sawmills and one railroad in Louisiana and Mississippi. As general manager of Denkmann family lumber operations, was responsible for making them a hallmark of excellence in the lumber industry. Was an advocate and pioneer in the reforestation movement and served as president of the Southern Pine Association, 1927-1928. For overseas trade, organized the American Pitch Pine Export Company which included member mills from Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, and Alabama. Helped form a second export company for lumber, the Caribbean Lumber Company, which traded with Puerto Rico. To attract farming families to cultivate the cut-over lands of his lumber interests, set up a demonstration farm at Genessee. Farmers were attracted from the Midwest to purchase land in the region. In additon to lumbering activities, was a co-founder of the Citizens' National Bank of Hammond, served as president and chariman of the board. Participation in civic work and organizations was considerable. In collaboration with his wife, Fay, raised funds for the salary of Louisiana's first paid music teacher in the public schools in Hammond; took part in the establishment of Zemurray Park in Hammond and donated the baseball field known as Reimers Field to this park; built the Reimers Memorial Auditorium in memory of son Frederick and also the First Christian Church complex, and cooperated in the establishment of the Miller Memorial Public Library. Was a member of President Hoover's Citizens Committee, of the Louisiana Forestry Association, of the Southern Pine Association, of the Oak Knoll Country Club (which he co-founded), was a Thirty-second Degree Mason (Shriner, Knights Templar, and Cross of Constantine), and belonged to the Ambassador Club, the International House, and the Plimsoll Club in New Orleans. Was named Citizen of the Year in Hammond in 1950. Died, July 31, 1958. J.J.J. Sources: Denkmann-Reimers family papers in possession of Marietta Reimers; Who Was Who in America, 1951-1960, vol. 3 (1960); American Lumberman, (March 31, 1928); J. O. Stamps Scrapbook in J. O. Stamps Collection, Southeastern Louisiana University Archives and Special Collections; and Elizabeth Ridgel, "Natalbany, Louisiana: Mill Town, U.S.A.," Southeast Louisiana Historical Association Papers, III (1976).

REINIKE, Charles Henry
, artist, teacher. Born, New Orleans, 1906. Education: Gradham School of Art, New Orleans; Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Married (1), 1932, Vera Hefter (1908-1969) of Hamburg, West Germany, also an artist. Children: Audrey Reinike DeBuys (b. 1935), Gretchen Reinike Rothschild (b. 1940), and Charles Henry Reinike III (b. 1947), all artists. Began the New Orleans School of Art, later renamed the Reinike Academy of Art. Beginning in 1933 the Reinikes conducted summer art classes in the country. World War II interrupted his career. During that time he worked at Higgins Industries in New Orleans, a company that built boats for the armed services. The Reinike Academy closed in 1944. After the war he opened the Reinike Gallery on the old school site, 630 Toulouse St. Concentrated on his art, accepting commissions and short-term teaching positions. Some of his major commissions include: the mosaics and murals in Our Lady of Guadeloupe Chapel, the murals, windows, and stations of the cross at the Mercy Hospital Chapel, and a bas-relief at Lake Lawn Mausoleum. He was president of the New Orleans Art League; president of the Louisiana Society of Etchers; vice-president of the Art Association of New Orleans; and a member of the Arts and Crafts Club. Married (2), 1975, Marianne Greene Cummins. Died, New Orleans, October 27, 1983; interred Greenwood Cemetery. K.W.H. Sources: New Orleans Item, June 7, 1949; Historic New Orleans Collection, Charles H. Reinike Louisiana Watercolors from 1935-1952 (1981); obituary, New Orleans Times-Picayune/States-Item, October 28, 1983.

, businessman, politician. Resident of New Orleans. Married (1) Emily A. Geng; married (2) Marion L. Aiklen. Children: George J., and four daughters. Member of state house of representatives, 1924-1932; state senator, 1932-1946; vice president, Victory Oil Company; Democratic delegate to national convention in Chicago, 1940; vice president and chairman of Delgado board of managers. Member: Fraternal Order of Eagles, Elks, New Orleans Athletic and Choctaw Clubs. Died, New Orleans, November 24, 1946; interred Metairie Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, November 25, 1946; Nicholas Russell Murray, comp., Orleans Parish, Louisiana, 1830-1900 (n.d.).

, author, scientist. Born, 1829; son of Baron Alexander von Reizenstein, the royal chamberlain of Ludwig I of Bavaria. Studied at Freising and Munich, Germany. Joined the corps of "Alemannen"—the student bodyguard of Lola Montez, mistress of Ludwig I. Disowned by his father. Arrived New Orleans, 1849; became a draftsman and civil engineer. Contributed liberally to the '48 refugees, and pursued a venture in writing. First appearance in print was in Der Alligator in 1851 and in Der Pekin Demokrat in 1852. Novel, Die Geheimnisse von New Orleans (The Secrets of New Orleans) published in 1854; influenced by impending visit of Prince Paul of Wurttemberg to New Orleans. Strongly opposed public acceptance of Prince Paul. Began a serial of his "chronique scandaleuse," which was published in Louisiana Staats-Zeitung, a more radical newspaper than the older Deutsche Zeitung. Articles later published in book format in five-volume sets. Realizing his crusade against the unfavorable conduct of physicians during the yellow-fever plagues and landlords, etc., had gone too far, purchased the entire edition to withdraw it from the public. Returned to science as a student of physical science, ornithology, and zoology. Member of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia; collected rare insects. Collection was largest in the state, but in 1862, following a series of public lectures, sold it by lottery. Writings of these later years appeared in English presses, some being published in the New Orleans Daily Picayune; Fauna and Flora of Louisiana ran in the Staats-Zeitung in serial format. Civil War service with First Regiment, Second Brigade, First Division of Louisiana Militia. After Civil War, continued to work as architect, engineer, and draughtsman in New Orleans. Samples of work appeared in the Plan Books of the New Orleans Notarial Archives. Died, New Orleans, 1888; interred Cypress Grove Cemetery II. R.L. Sources: Mary Louise Christovich, et al., New Orleans Architecture, Vol. I, The Lower Garden District (1971); John Frederick Nau, The German People of New Orleans, 1850-1900 (1955); Robert T. Clark, Jr., "The German Liberals in New Orleans (1840-1860)," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XX (1937); Robert T. Clark, Jr., "The New Orleans German Colony in the Civil War," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XX (1937).

RELF, Richard, merchant, banker. Born, Philadelphia, March 12, 1776. Removed to New Orleans in 1792. Married three times, Gertrudes de Quiñones (d. 1807), Anne (d. 1811), and Amelia (d. 1826). Relf and his partner, Beverly Chew (q.v.), were involved in a number of commercial ventures until financial reverses caused by the War of 1812 brought about the bankruptcy of their firm. In 1801 the firm of Chew and Relf entered into a partnership with the prominent New Orleans merchant Daniel Clark, Jr. (q.v.), a partnership that was to remain in effect until the latter's death in August, 1813. Chew and Relf served as executors of Clark's estate thereby propelling Relf into a controversy that was to remain a part of his life until his death. Clark's daughter, Myra Clark Gaines (q.v.), in attempting to prove her legitimacy and thus her right to her father's estate, claimed that Relf had concealed an 1813 will which left the bulk of her father's considerable fortune to her. Relf maintained that no such will ever existed and that Myra's only concern was gaining access to her father's wealth. The case continued for more than half a century with Relf directing efforts to thwart Myra. Although the Gaines case brought Relf a great deal of public attention, he was also a notable figure on the New Orleans scene in his own right. From 1818 until his death, Relf served as a cashier of the Louisiana State Bank and was also closely identified with the establishment of the Canal Bank. Relf also held the position of Steamship Debenture Clerk in the New Orleans customhouse. An Episcopalian, Relf served as vestryman and senior warden of Christ Church. Died, October 22, 1857; interred Girod Street Cemetery. M.W. Sources: Nolan Harmon, Jr., The Famous Case of Myra Clark Gaines (1946); John S. Kendall, "The Strange Case of Myra Clark Gaines," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XX (1937); New Orleans Daily Crescent, obituary, October 26, 1857.

REMAGE, Laura Sherman, pioneer. Born, Olney, Ill., January 20, 1865. Reared Waterloo, Iowa; removed to Jennings, La., 1883, with her parents (J. W. Hulbert), teacher in Calcasieu Parish schools near Elton, La.; became friends with colony members from France who settled north of Elton; she and her mother were among the first Iowa women to arrive in Jennings. Married, November 16, 1886, Dr. George W. Remage (1829-1921) pioneer physician and Civil War surgeon who opened first drug store in Jennings; they were first couple from above the Mason-Dixon line to become permanent residents. Their home, Magnolia, was located beside the drug store, on the corner of Main and West Division streets. Civic minded, Mrs. Remage was charter member of the Woman's Literary Club and Civic League. Died, March 1950; interred Greenwood Cemetery, Jennings. M.H.N.† Sources: Jennings Carnegie Library Historical files; Jennings Daily Times, March 13, 1950; interview, Gertrude W. Townsend.

RENDON, Francisco
, administrator. Born, Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, ca. 1760. After an advanced education he traveled to Cadiz and entered royal service in 1779. He travelled to Philadelphia as an assistant to the Spanish commissioner to the United States, Juan Morales. When Morales died in April, 1780, Rendon remained as acting commissioner until 1784. In 1786 he was transferred to Cuba before being recalled to Madrid in 1787. He was employed in the Ministry of Finance for Spain and the Indies from 1787 to 1793. Served as intendant of Louisiana, September, 1794, to April, 1796. Intendant of Zacatecas, Mexico, 1796-1810. Intendant of Oaxaca, Mexico, 1817-1821. Major contributions in Louisiana included: aiding the governor in preventing a general insurrection in the colony; preparing a new tariff for imports; increasing sales tax revenues; establishing contacts with an English factor in Michilimakinac, Canada, to encourage upriver pelt trade with New Orleans; lobbying for a reduction of import duties from 15% to 6%; and establishing a new settlement in the Ouachita district. Married with a large family. Died sometime after 1821. B.C. Sources: Relación de los Méritos de Francisco Rendon, Spain. Archivo General de Indias, Caracas 473; AGI, Audiencia de Santo Domingo, 2606; Vidal, "Corregidores e Intendentes de la Provincia de Zacatecas," Memórias de la Academía Mexicana de la Historia, XXIII; Brian R. Hamnett, Politics and Trade in Southern Mexico (1971); Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Americana, Vol. 50.

RESWEBER, Eugene Leonard
, politician, farmer. Born, St. Martinville, La., May 29, 1894; son of Eugene N. Resweber and Noelie Perrilleaux. Education: local schools. Served in France and Germany in World War I. Entered public office as tax collector, St. Martin Parish; served in that capacity, 1924-1932. Elected sheriff, St. Martin Parish, 1932; served in that capacity until retirement, 1964. Member, Louisiana Peace Officers Association, Woodmen of the World, Veterans of Foreign Wars. Roman Catholic. Married, June 1921, Louise Smith of New Orleans. Children, Eugene Leonard, Jr., Goldie Marie, Anna Louise, and Christie Barbara. Died, January 20, 1972; interred St. Michael's Cemetery, St. Martinville. G.R.C. Sources: William E. Skaggs and J. B. Lux, eds., Louisiana Business and Professional Directory (n.d.); St. Martinville Teche News, January 27, 1972.

REY, Octave, politician. Born, New Orleans, 1837. Civil War service: lieutenant, First Louisiana Native Guards Regiment, Confederate militia; captain, First Louisiana Native Guards Regiment, U. S. Army. Captain, New Orleans Metropolitan Police, 1868-1877. State senator. Married; five children. A.W.B. Sources: Rodolphe L. Desdunes, Our People and Our History (1973); Andrew Booth, comp., Records of Louisiana Confederate Soldiers and Louisiana Confederate Commands, 3 vols. (1920), III.

REYER, George, law-enforcement officer. Born, New Orleans, September 25, 1895. Education: St. Henry's Parochial School. Employed as patrolman, September 20, 1918; promoted to detective, April 1, 1921; appointed captain of detectives, July 9, 1925; made supervisor of police, December 19, 1928; appointed chief of police, May 7, 1930; superintendant of police, December 24, 1931. Resigned from police department as superintendant, 1946. Early in career, eliminated the notorious "Terminal Gang". Married, Rosalie (Lillie) Lala. Member: Catholic church; Policemen and Firemen Holy Name Society; president, International Association of Chiefs of Police, 1938; president, Louisiana Peace Officers Association. Died, New Orleans, March 22, 1979; interred Metairie Cemetery. C.A.D. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, March 24, 1979; oral interview, Mrs. George Reyer, June 1, 1983.

RHEA, John, businessman, politician, jurist. Born in Pennsylvania; son of John Rhea and Mary Smith. Established mercantile business on Thompson's Creek, late eighteenth century; named alcalde (magistrate), First Division, New Feliciana, 1802-1810. Married Emeila Rosa Rowell, daughter of James Rowell and Maria Aucoin, May 8, 1805. Elected representative of Feliciana to Convention of West Florida, June 23, 1810; elected president of Convention, September 1810. Appointed senator in West Florida legislature, November 1810. Named by W. C. C. Claiborne (q.v.) first parish judge of Feliciana, January 19, 1811. Died, 18(?). E.K.D. Sources: Diocese of Baton Rouge Records; Stanley Clisby Arthur, The Story of the West Florida Rebellion (1935); Dunbar Rowland, ed., Official Letterbooks of W. C. C. Claiborne (1917).

RIANO Y BARCENA, Juan Antonio de
, naval officer, administrator. Born, Lierganes, Spain, May 16, 1757; son of Juan Manuel de Riaño y Cuetos and Rosa de la Barcena y Velarde. Attended the Guarda Marina, a naval school in Cadiz. After graduation, promoted to ensign and took part in the ill-fated Spanish invasion of Argel led by former Louisiana governor Alejandro O'Reilly (q.v.). Despite disaster, Riaño was promoted to rank of sub-lieutenant in 1778 and assigned to duty in New Orleans. With the outbreak of the war of the American Revolution he acted as a pilot for New Orleans naval forces in the conquest of Mobile and later carried important dispatches between José de Espeleta (q.v.) and Bernardo de Gálvez (q.v.), his most notable action was to accompany Gálvez (on the ship Galveztown) in his ship Valenzuela into Pensacola Bay and thereby demonstrate to reluctant Cuban naval officers that it was possible to enter the bay without being destroyed by British guns. This action on March 17, 1781, contributed to the Spanish defeat of the British. With the end of hostilities Riaño was promoted to rank of lieutenant-commander and returned to New Orleans. Married, October 24, 1784, Victoire de St. Maxent (q.v.), daughter of Gilbert de St. Maxent (q.v.), New Orleans merchant, and sister-in-law of Bernardo de Gálvez, Luis de Unzaga (q.v.), and Manuel de Flon (q.v.). Children: Gilberto, Honorato (b. 1791), Rosa, and Gil. Following his marriage he returned to Spain to settle the estate of his deceased father. While there he requested a transfer to the army, pleading declining health. He was reassigned to the viceregal capital in Mexico City. Arrived there in late 1786 only to learn of death of brother-in-law the condé de Gálvez (Bernardo), viceroy of New Spain. Participated in funeral ceremonies with Manuel de Flon. Received news of his promotion to graduated colonel of the infantry and was named the first intendant of Valladolid (Province of Michoacan) in 1787. As intendant he successfully instituted the new ordinances. After five years in Valladolid he applied for and was named intendant of Guanajuato, New Spain's richest mining province on January 28, 1792. Both contemporary and modern critics view his administration there as a model of enlightened government. His home and family acted as the center of French culture in the region and regular guests included some of Mexico's most notable intellectuals. Among the important public works undertaken during his administration was the building of a new elegant public granary (alhóndiga). Here Riaño was forced to retreat with his eldest son in late September 1810, following the outbreak of the Hidalgo revolt. Died during the fighting on September 28, 1810. B.C. Sources: Eric Beerman, "History and Genealogy of Juan Antonio Riaño, 1757-1810," New Orleans Genesis, XVIII (1979); J. J. Rubio Mañé, "Matrimonios de los Intendentes Flon y Riaño," Boletín del Archivo General de la Nación (Mexico), XV, (1945); James Julian Coleman, Jr., Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent (1968); D. A. Brading, Miners and Merchants in Bourbon Mexico (1971); F. D. Borja Medina Rosas, José de Ezpeleta, Governador de Mobilia (1981); Christon I. Archer, The Army in Bourbon Mexico (1977); Hugh H. Hamill, The Hidalgo Revolt (1966).

RICE, Thomas Dartmouth "Daddy
," minstrel performer. Born, New York City, May 20, 1808. Though not a native of Louisiana, had strong, indirect connection with New Orleans where he visited on at least four distinct occasions in the 1830s and 1840s. Returned to the celebrated St. Charles Theatre in 1842, previously appearing there in 1836 when he performed as part of the skit, "Corn Meal," based upon the activities of an old Negro street vendor/folk singer possibly influential as a prototype for Rice's own blackface routines. Newspaper research has documented his presence in the city again in 1838 and also in 1835, not long after the time when he is alleged to have developed the famous "Jump Jim Crow" routine, raising some question as to whether he copied it from George Nichols, reported to have stylized the routine earlier as a blackface clown in the 1820s and 1830s with the Purdy Brown Circus which wintered in New Orleans. Married Charlotte B. Gladstone, an English national, June 18, 1837. Died, New York City, September 19, 1860; interred Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn. C.D.J. Sources: Dictionary of American Biography, vol. XV; Curtis D. Jerde, Research Notes, Ph. D. candidate in American History, Tulane University; Henry Kmen, Music in New Orleans: The Formative Years, 1791-1841 (1966); "Old Corn Meal: A Forgotten Urban Folksinger," Journal of American Folklore, LXXV (1962); Edward LeRoy Rice, Monarchs of Minstreley (1911); Robert C. Toll, Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth Century America (1974); Carl F. Wittke, Tambo and Bones: A History of the American Minstrel Stage (1930).

RICHARD, Ellis, quarterhorse breeder and trainer. Born near Bosco, St. Landry Parish, La.; son of Maurice Richard. Community leader and proprietor of Tee Maurice Dance Hall and race track between Bristol and Bosco. Important oral history informant. Died, near Bosco, November, 1982. B.J.A. Source: Author's research.

RICHARD, Eugenie Louise
, educator, postmistress, pharmacist. Born, Bayou Goula, La., September 26, 1880; daughter of Joseph Richard and Florestine Lambremont. Education: Newcomb College, New Orleans; Spencer Business College, New Orleans. Taught children of Bayou Goula from the early 1900s to 1938. Removed to Baton Rouge to become head of English Department, Spencer's Business College. Continued to teach at Spencer's until 90 years old. Died, 1980, at age 99. E.N.E. Source: Author's research.

RICHARDS, Adele (Mrs. Ed Adrion)
, civic leader. Born, New Orleans, 1886; daughter of Louis A. Richards and Emily D. Nelson. Education: New Orleans public schools; City Normal School of New Orleans; New Orleans College of Pharmacy, graduated 1904. Was one of the state's first three women graduates in pharmacy. Married Edwin L. Adrion, March 1905. Children: E. Lester, Vernon R. Civic service: president of Mother's Club, 1907-1911, 1914-1917; executive secretary of Home Service Division, A.R.C.; founder and president of Y.W.C.A. Patriotic League; founder and president of home for working girls; member, Council of Defense; liaison officer with Camp Beauregard; president, Alexandria B.P.W.C.; campaigned for the establishment of the State Industrial School for Girls and the State Colony and Training School; organized annual Christmas tree party for underprivileged children, annual Doll and Toy Fund parties, Matinee Musical Club, the Poets' Circle, and the Alexandria Service League. For her civic leadership, she was named "woman of the year" in Alexandria. Died, Alexandria, April 16, 1962; interred Greenwood Memorial Park, Pineville, La. C.A.B. Sources: Ellis Arthur Davis, ed., The Historical Encyclopedia of Louisiana, II (1937); New Orleans Times-Picayune, April 17, 1962; New Orleans States-Item, April 17, 1962.

RICHARDSON, Francis DuBose
, planter. Born, Woodville, Miss., 1812; son of Col. John G. Richardson of Sumpter District, S. C., and Margaret DuBose (d. 1826) of the same place. Education: at home; University of Virginia. Removed with father to a plantation on Bayou Teche in 1829. Married (1) Bethia F. Liddell (d. 1853) of Wilkinson County, Miss., daughter of Judge Moses Liddell. Children: Frank Liddell, Margaret, and Bethia, who married Donelson Caffery (q.v.). Married (2) Lizzie Dunbar Holmes. Children: Eveline, Daniel D., Kate, Eloise, Helen, Annie, and Mary Louisa. Served in the state legislature during the 1840s; introduced legislation to provide for the erection and maintenance of the Chalmette monument. A founder of the Asylum for the Blind, Baton Rouge. Before Civil War was a frequent contributor to the New Orleans Daily Picayune. Author of "The Teche Country Fifty Years Ago," which appeared in Southern Bivouac (January, 1886). Acquired Bayside Plantation in cooperation with his father-in-law, Judge Liddell. Built Bayside Plantation house, 1850. Acquired sole ownership of Bayside before the Civil War. Plantation passed to his son, Frank L., and daughter, Bethia, in 1867. Removed to Missouri, 1874, but spent six months each year visiting family in Louisiana. Died, Franklin, La., June 15, 1901; interred family cemetery, Bayside Plantation, Jeanerette, La. G.R.C. Sources: New Orleans Daily Picayune, June 16, 1901; "Memoirs of Francis D. Richardson Written December 1, 1895"; St. Mary Parish Conveyance Records.

RICHARDSON, Henry Hobson
, architect. Born, Priestly Plantation, St. James Parish, La., September 29, 1838, eldest of four children; son of Henry Dickson Richardson and Catherine Caroline Priestly. Father a Bermuda-born New Orleans cotton and iron merchant; mother a grand-daughter of English chemist Joseph Priestly. Education: public and private schools of New Orleans, where he displayed an aptitude for drawing and mathematics. Attended University of Louisiana (now Tulane University), 1855, before entering Harvard to study civil engineering. Graduated 1859 with a desire to study architecture. Father died in 1854, but stepfather, John D. Bein, agreed to finance studies at Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. Studied under Louis Jules André and worked for a French architectural firm. At start of Civil War, Boston friends, including fiancée Julia Gorham Hayden, daughter of a Boston physician, persuaded Richardson to remain in France and not fight for the Confederacy. After the war, despite the protests of his family, Richardson settled in New York City (autumn, 1865) and sought work as an architect. First commission, November 1866, was a Unitarian church in Springfield, Mass. Two more commissions—another church and a railroad office—followed within a year. Married in January 1867. Entered partnership with Charles D. Gambrill, 1867-1868, but both men worked independently of each other. Many early commissions came from New England, including Trinity Church, Boston, 1872, which earned Richardson a national reputation. Removed to Brookline, Mass., in 1874, and opened own office there in 1878. Richardson's most important early works were ecclesiastical, but his mature designs were secular, including private residences, libraries, public buildings, commercial buildings, and railroad stations. Although most of his commissions came from New York and Massachusetts, other important works were built at Pittsburgh, Chicago, Washington, D. C., Detroit, St. Louis, Cincinnati, New Orleans, and Baton Rouge. Noted for treating his designs as artistic wholes, in which he lavished attention on decoration of interiors and artistic texture of exteriors. Frequently inspected his building projects and incessantly tinkered with details, even during construction. Greatest artistic achievement was almost single-handed revival of the Spanish-French Romanesque style. "Richardsonian" architecture, characterized by the "Richardson arch," dominated architectural fashion in the eastern and midwestern United States until the neo-classical revival ushered in by Chicago's World Fair (1893). Richardson's use of materials and ideal of artistic unity in architectural design profoundly influenced young architects like Charles McKim, Stanford White, John Wellborn Root, and Louis Sullivan. Member: American Institute of Architects, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Archaeological Institute of America, and Royal Institute of British Architects. Died, Brookline, April 27, 1886, of Bright's disease; interred Boston. Survived by wife and six children. D.S.* Sources: Mariana Griswold Van Rensselaer, Henry Hobson Richardson and His Works (1888); Henry-Russell Hitchcock, The Architecture of H. H. Richardson and His TImes (revised 1961); Henry Hobson Richardson as a Victorian Architect (1966); Dictionary of American Biography.

RICHARDSON, John B., businessman, soldier. Born in Alabama, April 23, 1833; son of John M. Richardson of Virginia and Tennessee. Engaged in cotton and sugar business. Joined Washington Artillery as a private, 1859. In Civil War, saw action at First Manassas, Hall Hill, and Munson's Hill. Promoted to rank of captain, 1862. In battles of Mechanicsville, Rappahannock Station, Second Manassas, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Williamsport, Fort Stephens, Drury's Bluffs, Seven Days Campaign, Chicahominy and Petersburg. At Appomattox refused to surrender; disbanded his battery, ordered his men to bury their guns, and made his way to Greensboro, N. C., to accept the inevitable. Returned to New Orleans and cotton business. Reorganized Washington Artillery and commanded the battalion from February 23, 1880, to January 31, 1906. Became associated with the Opelousas and Western Railroad then with Morgan Railroad and Steamship Co., treasurer of Southern Pacific Co., and secretary-treasurer of Southern Bridge and Railroad Company. Married, 1867, Nanie Pugh of Petersburg, Va. Four children: Ada, Cora, John, and W. C. Died, New Orleans, January 31, 1906; interred tomb of the Army of Northern Virginia, Metairie Cemetery. TAG, LA Sources: Military records, Jackson Barracks Library, compiled by Mary B. Oalmann, Military Historian.

RIDDELL, John Leonard, physician, botanist, chemist, inventor, postmaster. Born, Leyden, Mass., February 20, 1807; son of John Riddell and Lephe Gates. Reared Preston, N. Y. Education: Rensslelaer School, Troy, N.Y., B.A., 1828, M.A., 1832; Ohio Reformed Medical College, M. D., 1836. Traveling lecturer on Chemistry, 1830-1832; adjunct professor of Chemistry and professor of Botany, Ohio Reformed Medical College, 1832-1834; professor of Chemistry, Medical College of Louisiana (now Tulane University) 1836-death; catalogued Louisiana plants, identified several new species; conducted extensive geological survey in Texas, 1838; melter and refiner of the U. S. Branch Mint, New Orleans, 1839-1848; researched sedimentation of the Mississippi River, 1846; served on Geological Committee of Louisiana, State Flood Prevention Committee, and Sanitary Commission of New Orleans which studied causes and prevention of yellow fever; participated in expedition up the Mississippi and down the Atchafalaya rivers for the levee committee of the Louisiana senate, 1850; devised binocular microscope, 1851; postmaster, New Orleans, 1860-1863, serving the Confederate government though a Union sympathizer; president of Union Association, 1864. Wrote widely on scientific subjects; member, New Orleans Academy of Sciences; charter member, American Association for the Advancement of Science. Married (1) Mary Elizabeth Knocke (d. 1839; also known as Mary Bone, Mary Schrager), an orphan from New Orleans, in Newport, Ky., June 20, 1836. Married (2) Angelica Eugenia Brown of New Orleans, 1846. Twelve children: John Schrager Riddell (April 1837-June 1837), Sanford Schrager Riddell (b. 1838), Edward Henry Riddell (b. 1841), John William Riddell (b. 1844), Lephe Eugenia Riddell Woodward (1848-1902), Mary Angelica Riddell Hogsett (1850-1870), Susan Adelaide Riddell House (b. 1851), Gaen Leonard Riddell (1853-1858), Robert Brown Riddell (b. 1853), Peter Gaes Riddell (1858-ca. 1912), Jefferson Davis Riddell (b. 1861), Hugh Gawn Riddell (b. 1865). Died, New Orleans, October 7, 1865; interred Protestant (Girod Street) Cemetery, New Orleans; later reinterred Metairie Cemetery. F.M.J. & J.P.M. Sources: Karlem Riess, John Leonard Riddell; Dictionary of American Biography; Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography; John Leonard Riddell Collection, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library, Tulane University; obituary, New York Times, October 22, 1865; Louisiana Collection, Louisiana State University Archives; Rudolph Matas Medical Library, Tulane University Medical Center; Dictionary of American Biography, XV; John P. Dyer, Tulane: Biography of a University (1966); John Duffy, Tulane University Medical Center (1984); John Duffy, ed., The Rudolph Matas History of Medicine in Louisiana, II (1962).

RIEHL, Frances Anderson, Louisiana Mother of the Year, 1957. Born, Washington, La., March 22, 1888; daughter of Appolonaire Bayliss Anderson and Mary Elizabeth Mudd. Education: Academy of the Sacred Heart, Grand Coteau, La. Married Robert Lee Riehl in Washington, 1905. Children: Joseph Anthony and Vincent Lee Reihl. Member: Daughters of American Revolution, United Daughters of Confederacy, Catholic Daughters of America. Recipient of several civic honors. Died, December 16, 1971; interred Cedar Hill Cemetery, Washington, La. M.A.F. Sources: Quintilla Morgan Anders, Early Families of Lafayette, Louisiana (1970); Riehl Family Papers; Lafayette Daily Advertiser, December 17, 18,, 1971.

RIGAUD, Jacques
, pioneer planter and first known settler of Grand Isle. Born ca. 1750 in Normandy, France. Rigaud removed to Grand Isle to take up a 1781 Spanish land grant. He and his son François successfully developed specialized farming techniques for this marginal land and may have been associated with Jean Lafitte. Died ca. 1812. F.S. Source: Evans, Stielow, and Swanson, Grand Isle on the Gulf (1979).

, journalist, insurance executive, author. Born, New Orleans, January 18, 1870; son of Nicolas Henry Rightor (q.v.) and Louise Justine Scudday. Education: preparatory department, Tulane University; U. S. Naval Academy, 1885-1887. Married Ella B. Ernest. Three daughters, one son. Joined staff of New Orleans Times-Democrat, wrote column "By-the-Bye." Left newspaper work, 1897, entered insurance business as agent of Employers' Liability Assurance Corp., Ltd. Remained in insurance business until death. Founder and first president, New Orleans Press Club; president, Insurance Federation of Louisiana; general chairman, Gulf Coast Naval Training Association; member, Louisiana Lodge 102, F. & A.M.; Episcopalian; avid sportsman. Author of Harlequinade (1900); Standard History of New Orleans (1900); Moons and Marshes (1905), a book of poems. Also wrote plays, notably The Military Maid (1896) and The Striped Petticoat (1898). Died of heart attack, New Orleans, June 23, 1922; interred Metairie Cemetery. G.R.C. Sources: Who Was Who in America, 1897-1942; New Orleans Times-Picayune, June 24, 1922.

RIGHTOR, Nicholas Henry
, jurist. Born, Donaldsonville, La., March 16, 1832; son of Abraham Rightor, who removed to Louisiana from New York in the early nineteenth century to serve as U. S. surveyor general for Louisiana, and Elizabeth Conway. Educated at West Lynn University, Conn.; studied law at University of Louisiana (now Tulane University). Admitted to Louisiana bar, 1853; practiced law in Terrebonne Parish; twice elected district attorney. At outbreak of Civil War, joined Confederate army with rank of captain in Dreux's Battalion. Commanded battalion after Dreux's (a classmate [q.v.]) death. Married, August 20, 1863, Louise Justine Scuday of Thibodaux, La. After war, resumed law practice in New Orleans. Commanded one of the companies of the White League during the events of September 14, 1874. Appointed by Governor Nicholls (q.v.) one of the judges of civil district court of Orleans Parish and reappointed by succeeding governors, serving until death. Survived by his widow and six children, three daughters and three sons, among whom were Henry (q.v.) and Edward. Died, New Orleans, August 11, 1900; interred Metairie Cemetery. G.R.C. Source: New Orleans Daily Picayune, August 12, 1900.

RILLIEUX, Norbert, engineer, inventor, scientist. Born, New Orleans, March 17, 1806, the natural son of Vincent Rillieux and Constance Vivant. Norbert's freedom resulted either from his mother being a free woman of color or his being manumitted by his father. Educated in Paris which became his permanent home. He showed rare aptitude for engineering and at age 24 was an instructor in applied mechanics at L'Ecole Centrale in Paris. Developed the theory of the multiple effect evaporator with particular reference to sugar refining. His first vacuum evaporator patented in 1843, was followed by a greatly improved multiple effect evaporator, patented 1846. The acclaim was immediate and widespread, and the Rillieux apparatus was promptly recognized as revolutionizing the manufacture and refining of sugar. The picturesque but wasteful "Jamaica Train" in which the juice was evaporated in a series of open kettles by Negro slaves with long ladles gave way to one workman manipulating a few valves. Rillieux was the most sought after engineer in Louisiana. Sugar mill owners were proud of their new equipment and financial reports carried the notation "Rillieux System" after production statistics. Thirteen sugar houses were thus designated in De Bows reports of 1849. While in Louisiana Rillieux developed a plan for draining the lowlands around New Orleans. It is believed that the authorities rejected the plan because of the inventor's color. As the Civil War approached, living conditions became more difficult for free persons with Negro blood. He returned to Paris. In 1881 he patented a system for heating juice with vapors in multiple effect which is now universal practice in cane and beet sugar factories. This innovation was credited with reducing fuel consumption in beet sugar houses by fifty percent. Died, October 8, 1894; interred Père La Chaise Cemetery. Because of the continuous efforts of Edward Kippeschaar, a Dutch sugar specialist, a bronze plaque honoring Rillieux is now housed in the Louisiana State Museum. J.W.F. Sources: Freret Papers; Encyclopedia Americana, XXIII; George P. Meade, "A Negro Scientist of Slavery Days," Scientific Monthly, LXII (April 1946).

RIPLEY, Eleaser Wheelock
, attorney, planter, politician. Born, Hanover, N. H., April 15, 1782; son of Sylvanus Ripley, professor of Divinity at Dartmouth College. Education: Dartmouth, graduated 1800; studied law and began practice in Waterville, Me. Served in Massachusetts house of representatives, 1807 and 1811, speaker in latter term. Commissioned lieutenant-colonel and rose to rank of brigadier general in War of 1812. Resigned from army, 1820, after supervising construction of defenses in Old Southwest. Settled in Jackson, La.; resumed practice of law. Married, July 29, 1830, Airelia Smith, daughter of Louis and Ann Smith of Locust Grove Plantation and widow of Dr. Benjamin Davis. Entered state politics, elected state senator. Served as a Democrat in Congress, 1835-1839. Died, West Feliciana Parish, March 2, 1839; interred "God's Acre", Locust Grove Plantation, near St. Francisville. G.R.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950); Alcée Fortier, Louisiana . . . , 3 vols. (1914).

RIPLEY, Eliza Moore Chinn McHatton
, author. Born, Lexington, Ky., February 1, 1832; tenth of twelve children of Judge Richard Henry Chinn and Betsy Holmes. At the age of three, removed with family to New Orleans, where father continued his law practice until his death in 1847. Religion: attended the Reverend Theodore Clapp's First Church, a Presbyterian affiliated group, of which her father was a prominent member. Married (1) James Alexander McHatton in Lexington, Ky., August 24, 1852. Lived the life of a Southern planter's wife at Arlington Plantation on the Mississippi River a few miles below Baton Rouge for ten years. In 1862, after the appearance of Union gunboats, fled with her husband and a consignment of cotton across Texas and into Mexico. Made this journey in converted army ambulances. Of two sons and a daughter later mentioned in From Flag to Flag (her memoirs of this period published in 1889) one son died and was buried in Houston and the daughter was born in Mexico during this difficult odyssey. In February, 1865, sailed from Mexico to Cuba where her husband owned and operated a large sugar plantation "Desengano." Although accepted into the social elite of Cuba, returned to the U. S. after the death of her husband. Married (2), July 9, 1873, Dwight Ripley of Norwich, Conn., and New York City, N.Y. Lived the remainder of her life in the North. Wrote two books which recounted her life experiences: From Flag to Flag (1889), and Social Life in Old New Orleans (1912). The former covered the Civil War years and described her hasty departure from Arlington and the arduous wanderings which ended in Cuba. The latter recalled her childhood in New Orleans. It contains priceless portraits of early Canal Street, the French Market, early Protestant church activities, the French Opera, and Southern "mammies" as she remembered them. The manners and social amenities of New Orleans gentlewomen are captured with powerful clarity in this book. Negotiations for publication of this work were only completed the day before her death. Died, Brooklyn, New York, July 13, 1912; interred Lexington, Ky. J.J.J. Sources: Lina Mainiero, ed., American Women Writers: A Critical Reference Guide from Colonial Times to the Present (1979); Eliza Ripley, From Flag to Flag (1889); Social Life in Old New Orleans (1912); New Orleans City Guide (1938); New York Times, July 14, 1912.

RITCHIE, David C., pioneer rice farmer, businessman. Born, Kilkenny, Fife, Scotland, February 18, 1868; son of David and Marjory Calley Ritchie. Emigrated to Mayville, N.D., February 18, 1888. Removed to Jennings, La., 1896. Married (1), 1891, Serena Boyum (1872-1948) in Mayville, daughter of Sevath and Caroline Johnsdatter Boyum. Children: Ivy C. (1892-1938) and Gladys Gertrude (Mrs. Charles Burchenal, 1894-1979). Married (2) Ida Andrus Carter (1880-1972). Pioneer in the development of Old Lacassine Farms, now Niblett Farms; owner and manager of Riverside Irrigation System, Jennings Norwood Irrigation Co., Jennings Norwood Canal Co., and Ritchie Insurance Co. Member of Congregational Church (later became Presbyterian Church), clerk of the session over forty years; member Jennings Masonic Lodge #249 over fifty years; Jennings Elks Club; Jennings Rotary Club, thirty-three years. Died, Jennings, November 18, 1953; interred Greenwood Cemetery. E.H.C. Sources: Hazel Boyum; Jennings Daily News, November 18-19, 1953, obituary, burial notice and editorial by Franklin Hildebrand; 1900 United States Census, Calcasieu Parish; Greenwood Cemetery Records; Franklin Hildebrand, As I Remember (1977).

RIVAS, Francisco, soldier, administrator. Lieutenant in Grenadiers of the Regiment of Louisiana; commandant of the post of San Gabriel de Manchac, 1788-1792; interim-commandant at Pointe Coupée, 1792-1794. Directed the laborers on the Carondelet Canal, 1794-1796; appointed to supervise the construction of Fort Bourbon at Plaquemines, December 26, 1796; transferred to Fort Carlos III de Arkansas, February 19, 1797. Operated a tavern in New Orleans and at Fort Bourbon, Plaquemines; regarded as "troubleshooter" for Governor Carondelet (q.v.). D.N.K. Sources: Hébert-Kirkland Papers, Special Collections, Tulane University; Favrot Collection; M-47, no. 25, December 26, 1796, Special Collections, Tulane University; ibid., M-55, no. 32, February 19, 1787.

RIVERS, Pearl, see NICHOLSON, Eliza Jane Poitevent Holbrook

ROBB, James, banker, railroad executive, politician, art collector. Born, Brownsville, Pa., April 2, 1814; son of James Robb and a Miss Meetkerk. Employed as a bank cashier in Virginia, removed to New Orleans, 1837, began his career in a brokerage office, successful in the post-1837 depression, helped found the firm of Robb and Hoge, private bankers in 1840, and later established the Bank of James Robb (branches in Liverpool, London, San Francisco, St. Louis, and New York). Served as president, 1842-1856, of the New Orleans Gas Light and Banking Company (predecessor of the present New Orleans Public Service Inc.); president, New Orleans, Jackson, and Great Northern Railroad. Involved in reform, Whig, and nativist politics in New Orleans and Louisiana; successful People's party candidate for city alderman in 1845. Elected state senator in 1851. 1854, elected alderman on Independent Reform ticket, prominent Know-Nothing founder and politician. Forced by Panic of 1857 to sell stock in the Bank of James Robb and New Orleans, Jackson, and Great Northern Railroad to satisfy his creditors, accused of profiteering at the expense of the railroad; however, no wrong-doing ever proved. Sold his house and much of his art to John Burnside (q.v.), New Orleans businessman, and moved to Chicago in 1858. Involved with Midwestern railroads before returning to New Orleans in 1866 to establish the Louisiana National Bank. Unionist sympathies hampered him socially and economically, and Robb left for New York in 1869. Retired in 1871, Cincinnati, Ohio, and remained there until his death, July 30, 1881. Robb married three times. Four children by first marriage: three daughters and son, John Hampden. Second marriage to Elizabeth Church Craig. Third wife a Mrs. Stannard of Richmond, Virginia. M.C. Sources: Harry Howard Evans, "James Robb, Banker and Pioneer Railroad Builder of Ante-Bellum Louisiana," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXIII (1940); Merl E. Reed, New Orleans and the Railroads: The Struggle for Commercial Empire, 1830-1860 (1966); New Orleans Daily Crescent, March 12, July 2, September 1, December 14, 1858; August 2, 3, 7, 1881.

ROBERI, Hyacinthe, physician, businessman. Born, Ceva, Piedmont, Italy, 1804; son of Batiste Roberi and Pauline Guedi. In 1840, departed Italy for Le Havre, France; arrived in New York City, September 1, 1840. Arrived in Louisiana in 1841; became a naturalized citizen in 1852. Married, July 18, 1844, Celesie Vidrine, of St. Landry Parish, daughter of Florentin Vidrine and Celise Lafleur. Children: Marius (b. 1847), Pauline, Jean Baptiste F. (b. 1851). Active in the Athénée Louisianaise, a nineteenth-century Louisiana French literary society, delivered literary papers to the society in 1877, 1878, and 1881. Member of the St. Landry Parish Medical Association; practiced medicine and had a general mercantile business in the Catero section of old Grand Prairie, St. Landry Parish. Died, old Grand Prairie, St. Landry Parish, May 13, 1883; interred old Grand Prairie Cemetery. K.P.F. Sources: Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Louisiana (1892); St. Landry Parish Marriage Record, 1844, #143; St. Landry Parish Naturalization Record, #103; St. Landry Parish Conveyance Record, S-1, p. 255, 1860.

ROBERTS, John H., businessman, politician. Born in Ohio. Served in Union Army during Civil War. After war removed to New Orleans, then to Jennings, La. Married Minna Freeman Everts and adopted her two children, Charles and Maude Marie. Jennings postmaster, 1888-1894. First mayor of Jennings, 1888. Member: Grand Army of the Republic; Congregational Church. Instrumental in getting a Carnegie library for Jennings. Died, 1904; interred Greenwood Cemetery. M.W.D. Source: Author's research.

, academic. Born, Elizabeth, N. J., May 12, 1919; son of Luke Robertson and Elizabeth Silvers. Education: Union Junior College, Cranford, N.J.; University of New Mexico, B. A., 1942; Yale University, M. A., 1944; Ph. D., 1956; U. S. Army Asiatic Area Language Trainee, Yale University, 1942-1943; also attended Mexico City College and New York University Institute of Fine Arts. Taught at Queens College, Pomona College, University of Texas, and University of Kansas. Faculty member of Newcomb College Art History, 1947-1984. Won many prestigious fellowships: Social Science Research Council, 1958, 1964-1965; American Council of Learned Societies, 1960, 1961; Guggenheim, 1964-1965; Fulbright-Hays, 1964-1965; National Endowment for the Humanities, 1975; and Fellowship in Residence for College Teachers, 1976-1977, among others. Contributing editor of Spanish American Art, Handbook of Latin American Studies. Consultant: Hispanic Foundation, Library of Congress, National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, U. S. Department of the Interior; Advisory Committee for Pre-Columbian Studies, Dumbarton Oaks Research Library (Harvard University); vice president for Colonial Art, Association for Latin American Art. An internationally recognized scholar on pre-Columbian and colonial Mexican art. He was the author of Mexican Manuscript Painting of the Early Colonial Period (1959); Pre-Columbian Architecture (1963); and numerous scholarly articles in major publications in the United States, Mexico, Costa Rica, Venezuela, England, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, and Spain. A leading figure in the development of Tulane's renowned Latin American Studies program. Married, November 24, 1956, Martha Barton of Washington, D. C., daughter of Walter E. Barton, attorney-at-law, and Martha Ringgold Browning. Children: Walter Lewis-Frederick (b. 1959), Martha Rebecca Elizabeth (b. 1960). Died, New Orleans, October 18, 1984. R.L.W. Sources: Personal papers of Donald Robertson in possession of his wife, Martha B. Robertson, and records in Latin American Library, Tulane University; Elizabeth Hill Boone, ed., Painted Architecture and Polychrome Monumental Sculpture in Mesoamerica: A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks, 10th to 11th October 1981 (1985).

ROBERTSON, Edward White
, attorney, soldier, congressman. Born, Davidson County, Tenn., July 13, 1823. With parents, removed to Iberville Parish, La., 1825. Education: local schools; Centenary College; entered Augusta College, Ky., 1842; transferred to Nashville University, but left in 1844 before graduation. Studied law in Iberville; interrupted studies to join army during Mexican War, serving as sergeant. Married Mary J. Paple. At least one son, Samuel Matthews (q.v.). Represented Iberville in Louisiana house of representatives, 1847 and 1849; advocated good levee system. Entered University of Louisiana (now Tulane University), received law degree, 1850. Reelected to legislature in 1853 from Iberville. Elected, as a Democrat, state auditor in 1854 and 1858. During Civil War, raised Company for Twenty-seventh Louisiana Regiment; served at Vicksburg. After war, resumed practice of law in Baton Rouge. Elected as a Democrat to Congress and served 1877-1883 and 1887 until his death; served as chairman of Committee of Rivers and Harbors; originated idea of Mississippi River Commission. Died, Baton Rouge, August 2, 1887; interred Magnolia Cemetery. G.R.C. Sources: Baton Rouge Daily Capitolian-Advocate, August 3, 1887; Alcée Fortier, Louisiana . . . , 3 vols. (1914); Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950).

ROBERTSON, Samuel Matthews
, attorney, congressman. Born, Plaquemine, Iberville Parish, La., January 1, 1852; son of Edward White Robertson (q.v.) and Mary J. Paple. Education: attended Magruder's Collegiate Institute, Baton Rouge, La.; Louisiana State University, graduated 1874; studied law. Admitted to the bar in 1874 and practiced in Baton Rouge. Married G. B. Sanford of Rapides Parish, December 27, 1875. Elected a member of the state house of representatives in 1879. Member of the faculty of Louisiana State Univerity in 1880; filled the chair of Natural History in that institution and the position of commandant of cadets. Elected as a Democrat to Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of his father; served in Congress from December 5, 1887, to March 3, 1907. Unsuccessful candidate for renomination; resumed the practice of law in Baton Rouge; superintendent of the Louisiana School for the Deaf and Dumb, 1908-1911. Died, Baton Rouge, December 24, 1911; interrred Magnolia Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950); Nicholas R. Murray, Rapides Parish, La., 1865-1900.

ROBERTSON, Thomas Bolling
, congressman, governor, jurist. Born, Prince George County, Va., 1773; son of William Robertson, a Petersburg merchant who later became a vestryman, warden, and deputy of Bristol parish, Va. (1779-1789), member of the Council of Virginia and its secretary for many years, and of Elizabeth Bolling Robertson, a direct descendant of Pocahontas; brother of John Robertson, attorney general and chancellor of Virginia and of Wyndham Robertson, governor of Virginia (1836). Graduated from William and Mary College in 1795 and practiced law in Virginia until his appointment by President Jefferson on August 12, 1807, as secretary of the Territory of Orleans. While retaining his office as secretary, he also served as federal land commissioner and briefly as attorney general from March 8 to September 3, 1808. Bitter clashes with Gov. W. C. C. Claiborne (q.v.) marked Robertson's service in the Territory, but he remained in the good favor of Jefferson and President Madison and retained his post until Louisiana's admission as a state in 1812, when he became its first member of the national House of Representatives, where he served until his resignation in 1818. During his congressional tenure he visited Europe, from which he dispatched a series of letters to the Richmond Enquirer which eventually appeared in book form as Journal of Events in Paris (1815). Elected governor of Louisiana in 1820. Stimulated programs of internal improvements, such as the opening of the Pearl and Red rivers to navigation and construction of the state's portion of the national road from Madisonville to Nashville. Commercial facilities were expanded with creation of the Bank of Louisiana in 1824, and the Collège d'Orléans and the state Charity Hospital were favored with increased funding derived from licensing of gambling houses in New Orleans. His veto of a "Usury Bill" in 1823 on the ground that government control of business was unwarranted invasion of property rights brought a storm of oposition against him, heightened by a growing eccentricity in his personal behavior which climaxed in his careless depositing of state election returns uncounted in the bed of his hound bitch. Term in office also blighted by serious and frequently violent clashes of the "French" and "American" elements struggling for political control of the state, a conflict which in the 1823-1825 period verged on actual civil war. Resigned from the governorship in November, 1824, to become United States judge for the District of Louisiana. Married in the mid-1820s to Lelia Skipwith of Baton Rouge, daughter of Fulwar Skipwith (q.v.), who had once been American consul in Paris and governor of the short-lived Republic of West Florida. No children. Died, White Sulphur Springs, Va., October 5, 1828; interred there. J.G.T. Source: Author's research.

ROBIN, C. C., scholar, naturalist; possibly Charles César Robin, identity not verified. Born, France. His writings indicate that he normally lived in Paris. Resided in Lorraine during the winter of 1793-1794. Not politically active, but probably supported Napoleon. Wrote a book of observations following a voyage to Louisiana and the Caribbean: Voyages dans l'intérieur de la Louisiane, de la Floride Occidentale, et dans les isles de la Martinique et de Saint-Domingue, pendant les années 1802, 1803, 1804, 1805 et 1806 (Paris, 1807). Later translations: C. S. Rafinesque (1817); Stuart O. Landry, Jr. (1966). Reported to have purchased property in St. Martinville area at sheriff's sale, September 1804, but no evidence of this found in local courthouse. Member of first grand jury that sat in Attakapas. Widower before his journey to America. One known son who accompanied him on his voyage; son died of yellow fever. Other vital information, unknown. P.D.A. Source: Stuart O. Landry, trans., Voyage to Louisiana by C. C. Robin, 1803-1805 (1966).

ROBIN DE LOGNY, Robert Antoine
, administrator, planter. Son of Laurent Robin de Logny. Married Jeanne Dreux, daughter of Maturin Dreux and Claudine Françoise Harant (Harang?), in New Orleans, Febru¬ary 17, 1759. Children: Jeanne Marie, who married Bernard Bernoudy; Marie-Claudine-Eléonor, who married Jean-Noël Destréhan (q.v.); Jeanne Eulalie, who married Bartholémé LeBreton des Chapelles; and Pierre-Paul-Guy, who married Jeanne Marguerite Cabaret. Served as commandant of the Second German Coast (St-Jean-Baptiste des Allemands) from his appointment by Alejandro O'Reilly (q.v.) until his resignation on December 14, 1782. Reasons for resignation included age and infirmities and also his removal downriver to the First German Coast to a plantation less susceptible to flooding than his St. John plantation. On January 3, 1787, he contracted with the free black Charles to build the house now known as Destréhan Manor. Died on his plantation, December 4, 1792; interred St. Charles Borromeo Cemetery, Destrehan, La. F.L.* & G.R.C. Sources: Glenn R. Conrad, St. Charles. Abstracts of the Civil Records of St. Charles Parish, 1770-1803, ; Seville, Spain. Archives of the Indies, Papeles procedentes de Cuba, Legajo 195, folio 176; Henry E. Yoes, A History of St. Charles Parish (1973); Last will and testament, St. Charles Courthouse No. 1122, October 12, 1792; New Orleans Genesis, V, No. 18 (March, 1966); New Orleans Times-Picayune, August 15, 1982.

ROBINSON, Elrie, printer, historian. Born, Alvarado, Texas, May 17, 1883; arrived New Orleans 1906. Married (1) May E. Leake, editor and publisher of the St. Francisville True Democrat which she and W. W. Leake founded in 1893, in 1908 and joined her in publishing newspaper. World War I service with American Red Cross in Russia, made honorary officer in White Russian Army and Chevalier in Order of Stanislaus, 1918-1919. Became sole editor and publisher at wife's death, 1925. Married (2) Margaret Wood (q.v.) in Chicago, 1927; unsuccessful candidate Louisiana legislature, 1928. Changed name of newspaper to St. Francisville Democrat, December 1, 1928, saying "True" was redundant. Delegate to Democratic National conventions, 1928-1944. Was recognized expert on old fonts, a consultant on reproduction of old type faces, and published examples of collection, 1939. Collection now in New York Public Library. Author of several pamphlets dealing with early West Feliciana history. Member American Institute of Graphic Arts and the Society of Typographic Arts; remained editor and publisher of newspaper until his death on the sixty-third anniversary of its founding, February 3, 1955; interred Grace Episcopal Cemetery, St. Francisville. E.K.D. Sources: St. Francisville Democrat, February 11, 1955; Papers of Elrie Robinson.

ROBINSON, Margaret Wood, newspaper publisher, community leader. Born, San Francisco, Calif., August 20, 1890. Education: Pasadena public schools; Friends School, New York state; Glen Ridge High School, New Jersey; Smith College, Northampton, Mass., Phi Beta Kappa, 1912; University of Chicago, B. S. Education, 1915. During World War I (1917-1918) served with Smith College Relief Unit of American Red Cross in European combat zones. Upon return taught kindergarten in Minnesota and Chicago, 1919-1922; staff, demonstration nursery school of School of Education, University of Chicago, 1925-1927. Married Elrie Robinson (q.v.) in Chicago, 1927, and joined him in editing and publishing the St. Francisville (La.) Democrat, becoming co-publisher with son James M. Robinson, 1955. Organized and chaired West Feliciana Health Council, 1946, which saw establishment of first health unit in parish. Volunteered during World War II teacher shortage to teach Spanish and the Shakespeare plays in local high school. Producer of historical pageants and authority on local history and wildlife. Member Grace Episcopal Church. Died, St. Francisville, August 4, 1964; interred Grace Church Cemetery. E.K.D. Sources: St. Francisville Democrat, August 6, 1964; papers of Margaret W. Robinson.

ROBINSON, Nathan "Big Jim," jazz trombonist. Born, Deer Range Plantation, south of New Orleans, December 25, 1890. Began playing the trombone during World War I. Returned to New Orleans and took a job as longshoreman, but continued playing. In 1922 he joined Isaiah Morgan's Band (later Sam Morgan's Band). He played with the Morgan Band throughout the 1920s and participated in its famous series of recordings for Columbia in 1927. Played with Bunk Johnson's (q.v.) band and recorded on most of Johnson's records in the 1940s. Member of the George Lewis Band during the 1950s and traveled with them on European tours. Joined in 1961 Preservation Hall Jazz Band. He was in a concert at Lincoln Center in New York and at Boston's Symphony Hall just a month before he died. Died, New Orleans, May 4, 1976. H.C. Sources: New Orleans States-Item, obituary, May 5, 1976; Second Line (Winter, 1983); Noel Rockmore, Preservation Hall Portraits (1968).

ROCHEBLAVE, Philippe-François de Rastel de, soldier, politician. Born, Savournon, Diocese of Gap, France, March 3, 1727; son of Jean-Joseph de Rastel de Rocheblave and Diane Elizabeth Dillon. French officer in French and Indian War (present at Braddock's defeat); arrived in Illinois country, ca. 1760. Married at Kaskaskia, April 11, 1763, Marie Michel Dufresne, daughter of Jacques Michel Dufresne, officer in Kaskaskia militia, and Marie-Françoise Henry. Nine children born at Kaskaskia and Ste. Geneviève: Marie-Adélaïde (b. 1764); Jean-Philippe-François (b. 1765); Marie-Louise (b. 1766); Noël (b. 1767); Pierre (b. 1770); Rosalie (b. 1772); Pierre (b. 1774); Marie Thérèse (b. 1777); Rosalie (b. 1778). Commandant in Ste. Geneviève, 1766-1770; commandant in English Kaskaskia, 1776-1778; captured by George Rogers Clark, 1778; escaped from Williamsburg and rejoined British forces. Removed to Quebec and became active in provincial politics. Died, April 26, 1802; interred Quebec. C.J.E. Sources: Edward G. Mason, "British Illinois—Philippe de Rocheblave," in Edward G. Mason ed., Early Chicago and Illinois (1890); Katherine Seineke, The George Rogers Clark Adventure (1981); Carl J. Ekberg, Colonial Ste. Genevieve (1985).

ROCHEMORE, Vincent Gaspard Pierre de, colonial administrator. Born, Nîmes, France, 1713; son of the marquis de Rochemore. Studied for the priesthood but never entered an order; served, 1731-1757, in the Ministry of Marine; graduated from the University of Avignon, 1738. Was promoted to commissary general in 1758 and sent to Louisiana as ordonnateur; engaged in a power struggle with Governor Kelérec (q.v.) and was reported for insubordination in 1759; recalled to France in 1762; inquiry into the persistent rivalry between civil and military power became known as "The Louisiana Affair". Died before proceedings were closed in 1769; Madame de Rochemore was given a pension for herself and the children. J.B.C. Source: Marc de Villiers du Terrage, The Last Years of French Louisiana, trans. by Hosea Phillips, ed. by Carl A. Brasseaux and Glenn R. Conrad (1982).

ROCHON, Victor, businessman, politician. Born, possibly Bayou Chêne, La., March 23, 1843; son of Steril Rochon and Eliza Castille. Studied law at Straight University (now Dillard), New Orleans. Married, September 14, 1874, Katie McKay in New Orleans. Children: Beatrice (b. 1875), Anita (b. 1877), Althea (b. 1879), Etnah (b. 1881), Daisy (b. 1889). Member of the St. Martin Parish School Board, 1875; sugar inspector for St. Martin Parish; mercantile clerk; postmaster of St. Martinville; clerk of custom houses; Louisiana state representative, 1872 to April 20, 1875, and 1888-1890; succeeded in promoting a bill to permit blacks to incorporate Roman Catholic churches; spoke out against segregation on railroads. Member, St. Martin of Tours Catholic Church. Died, November 15, 1892. M.V.J. Sources: Charles Vincent, Black Legislators in Louisiana (1976); Donald Hébert, comp., Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); U. S. Census, 7th 1850, microfilm copy, St. Martin Parish.

ROFFIGNAC, Joseph, mayor of New Orleans. Born, Angoulême, France, 1766; arrived New Orleans early 1800s as member of French military force preparing for restoration of Louisiana to France. Married Solidella Montegut, daughter of Dr. Joseph Montegut (q.v.) of New Orleans, royal surgeon of Louisiana during Spanish domination; discarded title as Count Louis Philippe Joseph de Roffignac to become simple republican Joseph Roffignac and remained in new American Territory of Orleans after 1803. Member of Louisiana legislature, then city alderman, 1817. Elected mayor May 1, 1820, over J. B. Gilly 537 to 388; tempestuous administration highlighted by bitter Gallic-Anglo-American ethnic conflicts, with Roffignac assailed as champion of corrupt, "aristocratic" and "backward" French community, climaxing in near civil war 1823-1825; term marked by destruction of Louisiana State House by fire, 1828, founding of the New Orleans PhysicoMedical Society and a Free Library, 1820, building of the American Theatre in Camp Street, 1823, and the Bank of Louisiana, 1824. Reelected without opposition, 1822, 1824, and 1826; resigned May, 1828, and returned to France. Died there, 1846, from accidental self-inflicted pistol shot during epileptic seizure. J.G.T. Sources: Henry Castellanos, New Orleans As It Was (1895; reprint ed., 1979); John S. Kendall, History of New Orleans, 3 vols. (1922); New Orleans Argus, December 22, 1826; January 30, 1827; New Orleans Louisiana Advertiser, January 9, 1828.

ROGERS, Elizabeth Schlosser Cousins, political activist, author. Born, Aurora, N. Y., April 9, 1891; daughter of Henry Schlosser, a Presbyterian minister, and Mary Louisa Banks. Education: Local schools, St. Peter, Minn., and Englewood, N. J.; Smith College, Northampton, Mass., graduated 1913. Married (1), November 25, 1920, William Schuyler Cousins, an aviator from New Orleans who later studied painting. Divorced, July 18, 1927. One child, Mary Ann (b. 1923). Married (2), July 16, 1940, Walter Rogers, union organizer. Served on the editorial staff of Vogue Magazine, 1913-1918; enlisted through the Y.M.C.A. to serve as canteen worker for U. S. Army in France; resided in France, 1922-1929; editor of Girl Scout publications, ca. 1930s; affiliated with New York WPA Writers' Project, contributor to New York City Guide; Who's Who in the Zoo; taught labor journalism and editor of newspaper at Commonwealth College, Ark., 1939-1940. During her residence in New Orleans, 1941-1985, produced and distributed hundreds of leaflets referred to as "Street Journalism" on diverse subjects including union organizing, civil rights, opposition to Vietnam War, aid to victims of Hurricane Betsy; organized meetings to protest and petition against ongoing social and political conditions. In 1983, instrumental in placement of a permanent monument in New Orleans dedicated to the first black students who integrated New Orleans public schools in 1960. Author of Songs for the Sidewalk; These Were Our Homes. Co-author, with Walter Rogers, Big Wheels Rolled in Texas; John Donar: Common Man; and Revolution: Left Out of School Books. Member of the Communist Party of the United States for many years. Died, New Orleans, February 18, 1985; body donated to science. B.R.O. Sources: Federal Writers' Project, New York City, New York City Guide (1939); -----, Who's Who in the Zoo (1939); Elizabeth Rogers Collection, Archives and Manuscripts/Special Collections Department, Earl K. Long Library, University of New Orleans; Elizabeth Rogers, Songs for the Sidewalk (1981); -----, These Were Our Homes (1955); Walter Rogers and Elizabeth Rogers, Big Wheels Rolled in Texas (1972); -----, John Donar: Common Man (1945); -----, Revolution: Left Out of School Books (1970); obituary, New Orleans Times-Picayune, February 21, 1985.

ROGERS, Stephen Walter, clergyman, writer. Born in North Carolina ca. 1825. He reputedly published a religious booklet of about fifty pages when still a slave. Rogers's Compositions (New Orleans?, 1850) contained extracts from his own sermons, Bible narratives, and hymns for Sunday-school instruction of slaves and free colored individuals. Rogers' theology and social commentary were said to be strictly orthodox. No copies found. At the time of publication, Rogers was superintendent of Sunday-school of 300 black students. Besides preaching regularly in New Orleans' black churches during the 1840s and early 1850s, he worked as a cotton sampler, collector, and outdoor runner for banks and steamboats. He was granted his freedom in 1852 and survived into the post-Civil War period. T.F.R. Source: Nathan Willey, "Education of the Colored Population of Louisiana," Harper's New Monthly Magazine, XXXIII (1866).

ROLFE, Charles Gilman, businessman, politician. Born, Oak Ridge, Morehouse Parish, La., October 31, 1901; son of Joe Sam Rolfe and Gertrude Cooper. Education: Oak Ridge High School; Louisiana Polytechnic Institute; Louisiana State University; Cumberland University Law School, LL.B. degree, 1925. Married, October 5, 1925, Sterling Greer of Alexandria, daughter of William Erastus Greer and Missourah Mitchell. Children: Charles Thomas (b. 1934), Mary Sterling (b. 1939). Active in Democratic party; served two terms as representative in Louisiana legislature; Morehouse Parish Democratic Executive Committee, thirty-nine years; Morehouse Parish School Board, twenty-four years, fourteen years as president. Cotton planter and ginner for forty-two years. Member: Methodist church, steward, trustee, teacher; National Rifle Association (life); Oak Ridge Lions Club, president; Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity. Died, November 14, 1978; interred Oak Ridge Episcopal Cemetery. M.N.N. Sources: Bastrop Daily Enterprise, obituary, November 14, 1978; Rolfe family papers.

ROMAN, Alfred, attorney, writer. Born, St. James Parish, La., May 24, 1824; son of Gov. A. B. Roman (q.v.) and Aimée Parent. Education: Jefferson College; read law in office of Etienne Mazureau (q.v.); admitted to Louisiana bar, 1845, practiced in St. James Parish. Married (1), 1849, Felicité Aime, daughter of Valcour Aime (q.v.). After death of first wife in France, married (2), in Charleston, S. C., Sallie Rhett, daughter of Robert Barnwell Rhett, the so-called "Father of Secession." Founder of a St. James French weekly newspaper, L'Autochtone, in support of the Know-Nothing party. With outbreak of Civil War, raised military company; elected lieutenant colonel, Eighteenth Louisiana Infantry, October 5, 1861; inspector general on staff of Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard, 1862-1865. Planter and lawyer in St. James Parish after war. A district judge. Assisted in writing Military Operations of General Beauregard (2 vols., 1884). Died, New Orleans, September 20, 1892. A.W.B. Sources: Arthur W. Bergeron, Jr., ed., Reminiscences of Uncle Silas: A History of the Eighteenth Louisiana Infantry Regiment (1981); Edward Larocque Tinker, Les Ecrits de langue français en Louisiane aux XIXe siècle (1932).

ROMAN, André Bienvenu, governor. Born, Opelousas District of Spanish Louisiana, March 5, 1795; son of Jacques Etienne Roman and Marie Louise Patin Roman. Soon after birth removed with family to sugar plantation in present-day St. James Parish. Married, 1816, Aimée Françoise Parent. Eight children, two of whom, Judge Alfred Roman (q.v.) and Charles Roman, were especially prominent in later Louisiana social circles. Education: graduated from St. Mary's College, Baltimore, 1815. Later settled on his own sugar plantation in St. James Parish. Political career: elected to the Louisiana house of representatives, 1818; served 1818-1826; speaker of the house, 1822-1826; judge, St. James Parish, 1826-1828; speaker of the state house of representatives, 1828-1830; elected governor, 1830; administration noted for establishment of innovative penitentiary system at Baton Rouge, transfer of state capital from Donaldsonville to New Orleans, increased state support for elementary and secondary education, the establishment of Jefferson College and Franklin College, levees, roads and bridges were improved, the number of banks more than doubled, and the Louisiana Agricultural Society was incorporated; became a partisan of Henry Clay and the Whig party; lost bid for election to U.S. Senate to Alexandre Mouton (q.v.); reelected governor, 1838; administration noted for abolition of imprisonment for debt; delegate to state constitutional conventions of 1845 and 1852; delegate to state's secession convention, 1861; opposed secession. Sent by Confederate government with John Forsyth and Martin J. Crawford to seek peaceful compromise with United States, but mission failed when Seward refused them an audience. Financially ruined by Civil War; appointed recorder of deeds and mortages in New Orleans, 1866, but died on January 26, 1866, before taking office; interred family plantation, St. James Parish. J.G.T. Source: Author's research.

ROMAN, Jacques Telesphore, planter, builder of Oak Alley Plantation house. Born, Opelousas, La., May 22, 1800; son of Jacques Etienne and Marie Louise Patin Roman; brother of André B. Roman (q.v.), governor of Louisiana. Married, June 14, 1834, Marie Thérèse Célina Joséphine Pilié of New Orleans, daughter of Thérèse Deynaut and Gilbert Joseph Pilié (q.v.), émigrés from Saint-Domingue. Children and their ages in 1850: Louise, 15; Octavie, 13; Henry, 11; Marie, 7. Career: acquired land near Vacherie, St. James Parish, La.; hired George Swainey, architect, to build Bon Séjour plantation house, 1830-1839; now called Oak Alley because of twenty-eight live oak trees, now over 250 years old, that lead from the Mississippi River levee to the house; a corresponding number of columns of Doric design surround the house and there originally were that number of slave cabins. Antoine, a slave gardener, first successfully grafted pecan trees at Bon Séjour in the winter of 1846-1847; his work resulted in the variety, Centennial, and the first commercial pecan orchard; in the 1850 census Célina Roman is listed as a widow; Bon Séjour remained in the Roman family until after the Civil War. In 1925, the Andrew Stewarts of New Orleans purchased Oak Alley and hired Richard Koch (q.v.) to restore it. J.B.C. Sources: J. Wesley Cooper, Louisiana: A Treasure of Plantation Homes (1961); Jacqueline P. Vals-Denuzière, The Homes of Planters (1984); Stanley Clisby Arthur, Old Families of Louisiana (1931; reprint ed., 1971); St. James Parish, Louisiana, 1850 & 1860 census reports; Elton J. Oubre, comp., Marriages and Marriage Contracts from Old Newspapers (1983); Mrs. F. O. James and Hewitt L. Forsyth, comps., New Orleans Genesis, I (1962).

ROMANSKI, Harry R., artist, lithographer, engraver, amateur musician. Born, Zytomir (Russian occupied), Poland, 1861. Education: seven years, semi-military school, Jena, Germany; government school, Lwów (Austrian occupied), Poland. Cadet, lieutenant, Austrian Lancer Regiment At death of father, manager of family estate, Szumbany, near Halicz. Attended Galician Agricultural College, Dublany, and also took charge of family estate in Lwów. Following business reverses, became bank-clerk, Lwów, for a year. About 1888 emigrated to United States. Entered photography business. Married Bertha Owens of Buffalo, N.Y. Removed to New Orleans about 1893. Worked briefly as photo-engraver and was hired by the Daily States as staff artist, also became a writer. Later formed the Romanski Photo Engraving Co. An extraordinary amateur musician he was a member of New Orleans Artists' Association Died, December 25, 1944; interred Garden of Memories. L.S. Sources: May Mount, Some Notables of New Orleans ll New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, December 26, 1944; Stefan Nestorowicz, Travel Notes (translation from Notatki z Podrózy by Marion Moore Coleman).

RONDEAU, William, missionary. Born in England, ca. 1800. In 1826, Rondeau helped to establish the "First African Church of New Orleans," which had an all-black congregation led by a free Negro. Rondeau's association with black communicants eroded support of his white congregation, and he left the city in 1828. T.F.R. Source: Timothy F. Reilly, "Religious Leaders and Social Criticism in New Orleans, 1800-1861" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Missouri at Columbia, 1972).

RORDAM, Ragnvald B., engineer, soldier. Born, New Orleans, 1912; son of Ragnvald Paul Rordam and Laura Fry. Education: Louisiana State University. Enlisted in National Guard, 1930; commissioned second lieutenant in Washington Artillery, 1937. January, 1941, given command of Battery A, 141st Field Artillery, and as a major in 1943 went overseas with Second Batallion of Washington Artillery. Saw combat in North Africa, Italy, Southern France, and Germany. After war, engaged as a cadastral engineer in land and marine surveys. After reactivation of Washington Artillery, became executive officer of 935th Field Artillery and in 1948 became commanding officer of 141st Field Artillery. In 1959, commanded 141st Field Artillery of Washington Artillery. Served in this capacity until death. At the time of death was serving as chief of the training and education division, Louisiana Civil Defense. A Thirty-second Degree Mason; member, Military Order of the World Wars; member, St. Charles Avenue Presbyterian Church. Married Audrey Bastian. Children, son and two daughters. Died, New Orleans, July 30, 1967; interred Greenwood Cemetery. TAG, LA Sources: Military Records, Jackson Barracks Library, compiled by Mary B. Oalmann, military historian; New Orleans Times-Picayune, July 31, 1967.

ROSATI, Joseph, clergyman, prelate. Born Sora, Kingdom of Naples, January 12, 1789; son of Giovanni and Vienna (Soresi) Rosati. Education: Seminary of Naples and Vincentian House of Studies, Rome, where ordained a priest of the Congregation of the Missions (Vincentians), February 10, 1811. Early ministry as a missioner in the Papal States, 1811-1815. Persuaded to join the Louisiana Mission. Arrived in United States, 1816, and was, for two years, on faculty of St. Thomas Seminary, Bardstown, Ky. Appointed superior of the Seminary of St. Mary of the Barrens, Missouri, 1818, and superior of the American Vincentians, 1820 (a position he held for the next ten years). Elected by the Holy See to the titular bishopric of Tanagra on August 13, 1822, and designated vicar apostolic of Mississippi, Alabama, and the Floridas, an honor he declined May 6, 1823. Two months later, on Bishop DuBourg's (q.v.) insistence, named co-adjutor bishop of Louisiana and the Floridas with right of succession. The bull of appointment stipulated that after three years this vast diocese would be divided with Rosati becoming bishop of St. Louis unless New Orleans should by then be vacant, in which case he would have the option of occupying it instead. Consecrated bishop by DuBourg at Donaldsonville, La., March 25, 1824 (the first episcopal consecration in Louisiana). Entrusted with the administration of the northern portion of the diocese (St. Louis and area) which DuBourg had left in 1823 in order to take up residence in New Orleans. Dissented with DuBourg's plan to build a seminary at Bayou Lafourche because of the drain it would entail on the faculty of St. Mary of the Barrens. Upon DuBourg's resignation of the diocese of Louisiana and the Floridas and return to France in 1826, Rosati appointed administrator of the now two dioceses and urged by the Roman authorities to accept the see of New Orleans. Consecrated Rev. Michael Portier vicar apostolic of Alabama and the Floridas at St. Louis, November 5, 1826. In New Orleans early in 1827; made a general visitation of the diocese. Established an episcopal council to govern the New Orleans diocese in his absence and appointed Fr. Antonio de Sedella (q.v.) as presiding officer. Diffused attempt by the church wardens (marguilliers) of St. Louis Cathedral to have the state legislature invest them with the right to appoint clergy to the Cathedral by advising the legislators that this would be a violation of the U. S. Constitution. Expended much effort to reduce the heavy debts incurred under DuBourg's administration. Having won Roman approval for his choice of St. Louis as his own diocese he urged the Holy See to appoint Leo Raymond de Neckère (q.v.) to New Orleans. De Neckère appointed on August 4, 1829, but not consecrated until June 24, 1830. Rosati's administration of the Diocese of New Orleans ceased with De Neckère's consecration. Appointed apostolic delegate to Haiti in 1842. Died in Rome, September 25, 1843; interred St. Louis, Mo. J.E.B. Sources: Roger Baudier, The Catholic Church in Louisiana (1939); J. B. Code, Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1964); L. Callan, Philippine Duchesne (1957); F. J. Easterly, The Life of Rt. Rev. Joseph Rosati (1942); J. Rothensteiner, History of the Archdiocese of St. Louis, I (1928); C. L. Souvay, "Rosati's Election to the Co-adjutorship of New Orleans," Catholic Historical Review, II (1917-1918); C. L. Souvay, "Rosati's Elevation to the See of St. Louis," Catholic Historical Review, II (1917-1918).

ROSELIUS, Christian, attorney. Born near Bremen, Germany, August 10, 1803; son of Johann Conrad and Anna Marie (Walker) Roselius. Poor parents, age 16 went to Bremen and by sale of future services secured passage on Dutch brig Jupiter to New Orleans. Served as printer's apprentice, started a shortlived magazine, The Halcyon. Studied English, Latin and French. Studied law in the office of Auguste Davezac (q.v.) with Alexander Dimitry (q.v.) and developed keen interest in French civil law and its history and acquired knowledge of its practice peculiar to Louisiana. Married the head of a school for girls and taught while establishing his legal practice. Admitted to the bar in 1828 and practiced law for the remainder of his life. 1840 elected to state legislature, 1841 appointed attorney-general for two-year term. Served as delegate to the constitutional convention, 1845. Aided in drawing up and executing the will of John McDonough (q.v.). A Whig in politics, as a delegate to the secession convention in 1861 he opposed secession. Refused to serve as chief justice of the supreme court in 1863 because the military might interfere. Member of the Colonization Society in 1847, member of the board governing the University of Louisiana (now Tulane University), he was professor of Civil Law in that institution, 1847-1855; served as dean of the Law Department, 1865-1872. Known for clear, concise lectures and briefs. Died, September 5, 1873; interred St. Louis Cemetery I. Of his three children one daughter survived him. W.H.A. Sources: Dictionary of American Biography, XVI; Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXIII (1940).

ROSENWALD, Edith, see STERN, Edith.

ROSS, Henry Clay, educator, clergyman. Born, Terrebonne Parish, La., September, 1871; son of Charlie and Becky Ross. Education: local schools; Howe Institute, New Iberia; Baton Rouge College; Hampton Institute (Va.); and Leland College. Married (1) Eliza Castello, 1900. Children: Charles Wesley and Jeannette. Married (2) Louise Burrell, 1936. Active in educational and religious circles, first principal and teacher of public school for blacks in Crowley. Served as principal until 1942. Member and pastor of Morning Star Baptist Church; secretary of the district Sunday School Convention; executive secretary of the Louisiana Baptist Convention; president, Seventh District Baptist Association; member, board of trustees of Leland College. Ross Street (formerly North Avenue) and H. C. Ross High School named for subject. Ross Community Center also named for subject. Died, April 28, 1945; interred Morning Star Baptist Church Cemetery, Crowley. C.V. Sources: Interview with Mrs. Jeanette Ross May, Spring, 1985, Crowley, Louisiana; Crowley Daily Signal, April 30, May 2, 1945; research paper by Marcella Melancon, Spring, 1977, in author's possession.

ROST, Emile, attorney, jurist, planter. Born in France, June 17, 1839; son of Pierre Adolphe Rost (q.v.) and Louise Odile Destréhan. Educated in local schools; Georgetown University, Washington, D. C., B. A., 1853; Harvard University, law degree,1859; postgraduate work, Tulane University During Civil War, served as father's secretary during his mission to France and Spain. Upon returning to New Orleans after war, joined James B. Eustis (q.v.) in a law partnership. After Eustis appointed ambassador to France, Rost, upon death of elder brother, became manager, 1869, of Destrehan Plantation in St. Charles Parish. Sold the plantation in 1910. Became deeply involved in the production and distribution of Louisiana sugar. Served as third president of the Louisiana Sugar Planters' Association. In 1888 elected judge of the district court for St. Charles, St. John, and Jefferson parishes; served until resignation in 1903. Served as vice-president of Athénée Louisianaise and was a member of L'Union Française, in addition to many other professional and social organizations. Never married. Died, New Orleans, January 2, 1913; interred St. Louis Cemetery II. G.R.C. Sources: New Orleans Daily Picayune, January 3, 1913; Henry Rightor, Standard History of New Orleans (1900).

ROST, Pierre Adolphe, attorney, jurist, planter. Born Department of Lot-et-Garonne, France, 1797. Educated at Lycée Napoléon and Ecole Polytechnic in Paris. A staunch Bonapartist, served in the defense of Paris, 1814. Applied for commission in army after Napoleon's return from Elba; had not received it by time of Waterloo. Emigrated to the United States, 1816, settling in Natchez, Miss., where he taught and studied law under Joseph E. Davis (brother of Jefferson Davis). Admitted to Louisiana bar, began practice in Natchitoches. Elected to state senate, 1826. Nominated to Congress, 1830, defeated. Removed to New Orleans, 1830, continued law practice. Married, 1830, Louise Odile Destréhan, widow of Pierre Edmond Foucher, daughter of John N. Destréhan (q.v.) and Céleste Robin de Logny. Children: four sons, one of whom was Emile (q.v.), and two daughters. Appointed to Louisiana Supreme Court, 1839, served four months and resigned to pursue agricultural interests, becoming a leader in Louisiana's sugar industry. Delivered the eulogy at funeral of Valcour Aime (q.v.). After adoption of constitution of 1845 and reorganization of supreme court, named associate justice, March 19, 1846, and served through the court's session of 1853. Resigned, returned to law practice and agricultural pursuits. Remodeled Destrehan Manor giving it Greek Revival appearance. Upon formation of Confederate government, President Davis named Rost as Confederate commissioner to France. Was unsuccessful in winning French support for Confederate cause. Transferred to Spain, March 1862, but met with little success. Retired to Fumel, France, May, 1862, where he remained for duration of war. Returned to New Orleans and St. Charles Parish after war. Died, New Orleans, September 6, 1868. G.R.C. Sources: Henry Rightor, ed., Standard History of New Orleans, Louisiana (1900); Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vol. V; William W. White and Jospeh O. Baylen, "Pierre A. Rost's Mission to Europe, 1861-1863," Louisiana History, II (1961); David C. Roller and Robert W. Twyman, eds., The Encyclopedia of Southern History (1979); The National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vol. XI.

ROUDANEZ, Louis Charles, physician, newspaper owner, civic leader. Born, St. James Parish, La., June 12, 1823; son of Louis Roudanez, a French merchant, and Aimée Potens, f.w.c. A Creole of Color, reared in New Orleans and educated in France. Roudanez, who could read, write and speak three languages fluently, graduated with honors from the Faculty of Medicine, University of Paris, 1853. He received a second medical degree from Dartmouth College in 1857. The following year he married Celie Saulay—with whom he would have eight children—and began to practice medicine in New Orleans. Enjoyed a lucrative practice among both blacks and whites. Following the occupation of New Orleans by Federal forces, Roudanez founded and was principal owner (with his brother, Jean-Baptiste) of L'Union, a triweekly published from September 1862 until July 1864 which sought to gain civil rights for free persons of color. Within weeks of the failure of L'Union Roudanez established La Tribune de la Nouvelle Orléans and, with the help of his editor, a white radical from Belgium named Jean-Charles Houzeau (q.v.), he urged pre-war free persons of color to close ranks with freedmen to seek the granting and protection of civil rights for blacks. The failure of this plan and, by 1868, of La Tribune greatly discouraged Roudanez. When his efforts in the Louisiana Unification Movement of 1873, for which he helped draft the Manifesto, came to naught, he withdrew from the political arena. His philanthropic ventures included paying for the foundation of Providence Asylum, an orphanage; his civic service included membership on the Examining Committee of Straight (Dillard) University. Died, New Orleans, March 11, 1890. D.W.M. Sources: Finnian P. Leavens, "L'Union and the New Orleans Tribune and Louisiana Reconstruction"; L'Abeille, March 13, 1890; David Rankin, "The Impact of the Civil War on the Free Colored Community of New Orleans"; John Blassingame, Black New Orleans (1973); Roger Fischer, The Segregation Struggle in Louisiana (1974).

ROUGEOU, Clyde Lee, academic. Born near Lecompte, La., September 22, 1915. Attended LeCompte High School, graduated 1932; enrolled Southwestern Louisiana Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana), B. S. degree, 1935; Texas A & M, M. S., 1937. Appointed instructor in Agriculture at Southwestern Louisiana Institute (SLI) in 1937; received Ph. D. from University of Minnesota, 1949. Rose in rank at SLI from instructor to assistant, associate, and then professor and head, Department of Animal Husbandry. Named vice-president of the New Iberia Education Center in 1965; named acting president of USL, January 1, 1966; assumed the presidency on July 1, 1966. Guided university through a critical period of rapidly rising enrollment and curtailed budgets, adding several new graduate degree programs to the curricula leading to Masters, Specialist in Education, and Ph. D. Under his guidance USL embarked on a building project involving more that $34 million in new construction. He requested and was granted a one-year leave of absence, effective July 1, 1973, at the termination of which he officially retired on June 30, 1974. Married, August 20, 1940, Ruth E. Houston of Park Rapids, Minn. Children: Patricia Eileen (Mrs. J. W. Plauché III, b. 1942); Marie Louise (Mrs. George Bennett, b. 1943); Benjamin Charles (b. 1944); Clyde Lee, Jr. (b. 1946); Ruth Anne (Mrs. Richard Hargett, b. 1952); Randolph Warner (b. 1954); Carole Jeanne (b. 1956); Elizabeth Antoinette (Mrs. James Barnett Harp, b. 1958); and Nancy Jo (Mrs. James Hunt Simon, 1960). Subject served on the board of directors of the Lafayette Chamber of Commerce from 1966-1969; Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital; Bayou Girl Scouts Council (third vice-president); Louisiana Gulf Coast Oil Exposition (honorary); board of stewards, First Methodist Church, Lafayette; Home Savings and Loan Association; and Council of Trustees, Gulf South Research Institute. Director, 1958-1961, of the American Jersey Cattle Club and president, 1961-1964. Named Progressive Farmer Magazine "Man of the Year in Louisiana Agriculture" (1965); Outstanding USL Alumnus, College of Agriculture, 1966; and presented the Air Force ROTC "Outstanding Service Award." Held membership in the Louisiana Society for Horticultural Research (honorary), Council for the Development of French in Louisiana; Lafayette Rotary, Hope Lodge F &AM, Evangeline Shrine Club, Phi Kappa Phi Honor Society, Kappa Delta Pi, Alpha Zeta (honorary), Blue Key, Omicron Delta Epsilon (honorary), Theta XI and Demeter. He is listed in Who's Who in America (37th ed.); Who's Who in the South and Southwest; American Men of Science; Leaders in Education; Outstanding Educators of America; The Blue Book (Leaders of the English Speaking World), and Personalities of the South. Died, Lafayette, December 31, 1980; interred Masonic Cemetery. M.M. Source: Author's research.

ROUQUETTE, Adrien Emmanuel, clergyman, poet, missionary. Born, New Orleans February 26, 1813; son of Dominique Rouquette and Louise Cousin. After father's death in 1819 raised by his mother and her mother's family, the Carrières, who owned extensive lands in St. Tammany Parish and on Bayou St. John. In these areas he first encountered the Choctaw to whom he became strongly attached. The Indians gave him the name Chahta-Ima ("Like a Choctaw"). In France for studies 1829-1833 and again (for legal studies) 1834-1837. On return to Louisiana, sat for his bar exam which, to his great joy, he failed in 1839. Came under influence of Abbé Napoléon Joseph Perche (q.v.) and seriously considered vocation to priesthood. Les Savanes, a major work of poetry was published in Paris and New Orleans, 1841. Ordained a priest by Bishop Blanc (q.v.), July 2, 1845. Appointed secretary to Bishop Blanc. Returned to France, 1847, for about a year. From 1848 to 1859 sought various ways and means of being released from duties in New Orleans. In 1859 allowed to establish himself at Bayou Lacombe where he could devote his ministry to the Choctaw. Literary publications continued, the most noteworthy being La Thébaïde (1852), L'Antoniade (1860), and La Nouvelle Atala (1879). Fiercely proud of America and of being a native American. Supported both the American (Know-Nothing) Party and the Union cause. Close friend of Admiral Farragut (q.v.). After an illness of two years, died, New Orleans, July 15, 1887, interred St. Louis Cemetery II. J.E.B. Source: D. R. Lebreton, Chahta-Ima: The Life of Adrien Emmanuel Rouquette (1947).

ROUQUETTE, François Dominique, poet. Older brother of better known Adrien Emmanuel Rouquette (q.v.); son of Dominique Rouquette, a native of France, and Louise Cousin (b. 1810), a Creole. Educated at New Orleans' Collège d'Orléans and in France at the Royal College of Nantes in Brittany. Failing in the practice of law in Philadelphia, he returned to Bayou Lacombe where he renewed his ties with the nearby Choctaw Indians who helped to inspire many of his poetic writings. During his many visits to France, Rouquette managed to publish several poems and won praise from the likes of Béranger, Barthélémy, and Hugo. His works included Les Meschacébéennes (1839) and Fleurs d'Amérique: Poésies nouvelles (1857). The Arkansas (1850) was his only English verse. In addition, he wrote poems and articles for New Orleans' L'Abeille and Le Propagateur Catholique. Married, 1846, Laura Verret, who died prematurely of tuberculosis. Two sons, both of whom were placed in the care of Dominique's nephew, Cyprien Dufour, because of their father's repeated failures in commercial business and school teaching. For the remainder of his life, Dominique lived among relatives in genial vagabondage; in old age he tottered about the city's streets attired in patched clothing—a wrinkled blanket serving as his artist's cape. Though something of a nuisance to both residents and passersby, the eccentric poet was nonetheless affectionately regarded as a kind of aging trouba¬dour¬ —a relic of a bygone era. Died, May 10, 1890. T.F.R. Sources: "François Dominique Rouquette," Appleton's Cyclopedia, V (1900); "François Dominique Rouquette," Dictionary of American Biography, XVI (1935); E. L. Tinker, Les Escrits de Langue Française en Louisiane au XIX Siècle (1932).

ROUSSEAU, Lovell Harrison, soldier; politician, congressman. Born, Lincoln County, Ky., August 4, 1818. Locally educated, construction worker as youth, law student in Lexington. Admitted to bar, Bloomfield, Ind., 1840; Indiana legislator, 1844-1846; volunteer captain, Mexican War, 1846-1848; Indiana senate, 1847-1849. Removed to Louisville, Ky., 1849. Kentucky senate, 1860-1861. Volunteer officer, U. S. Army, 1861-1865 (brigadier general, October 1, 1862; major general, October 12, 1862). Brigade, division commander, 1862-1863; military commander, districts of Nashville and Tennessee, 1863-1865. Kentucky congressman, 1865-1867; reappointed brigadier general in U. S. Army, 1867; received Alaska from Russian authorities same year. Married; two sons and two daughters. A Kentucky Democrat, friend of President Andrew Johnson and opponent of Republican Reconstruction policies, General Rousseau was predictably lenient with opposition Democrats during his brief tour of command in Louisiana. During the presidential campaign of 1868 Rousseau "relaxed his supervision nearly to the point of negligence," enabling Louisiana Democrats to repress black Republican voters with sufficient violence to carry the state for Horatio Seymour, the Democratic candidate. After General Rousseau unexpectedly died in New Orleans two months later, the city's sympathetic population gave him "one of the largest funerals ever held in the community." Died, New Orleans, January 7, 1869; interred Arlington National Cemetery. M.T.C. Sources: E. J. Warner, Generals in Blue (1964); J. G. Dawson, III, Army Generals and Reconstruction: Louisiana, 1862-1877 (1982); New Orleans Daily Picayune, January 10, 1869.

ROUSSEAU, Pierre Georges, naval officer. Born, La Tremblade, Saintonge, France, June 3, 1751; son of Pierre Rousseau and Marie Estelle Daniaud. Father, a merchant ship captain from La Rochelle, frequently sailed to seaboard American colonies, especially Charleston, S.C., where he had relatives. After the death of his wife, father moved to America. Pierre Georges became a resident of New Orleans in 1764. At beginning of Revolution, enlisted in the Continental Navy; appointed lieutenant; 1779 ordered to report to New Orleans to serve under Gálvez (q.v.). As second in command of the Morris (Capt. William Pickles), played a major role in the capture of the English sloop, the West Florida. Accompanied Gálvez in the capture of Manchac and Baton Rouge, 1779, as well as Mobile, 1780, and Pensacola, 1781. Married Margarethe Catherine Milhet, daughter of Joseph Milhet (q.v.) and Margarethe Catherine Wiltz, August 28, 1783, in New Orleans. Children: Marie-Anastasie-Hortense, Pierre-André-Antoine, Laurence, Felipa, Joséphine, Adèle, Jean-Baptiste, Rodolphe, Etienne, Octave-Sebastien, Gustave-Sebastien, Aimée-Ameline. Commanded the Galveston until 1785 when he was given permission to go to France on family business. Appointed commandant at Natchitoches, April 6, 1785; relinquished command March 1, 1787. Resumed his command, 1788. 1792, participated in the first capture of adventurer William Augustus Bowles whom he conveyed to Havana. Appointed commandant of the galleys, a post he retained until 1803. From January 5 to March 25, 1793, sailed La Flèche from Natchez to Arkansas Post and New Madrid to map the river. 1795 established Fort San Fernando at Ecores à Margot, negociating an agreement with the Chickasaw for 3,000 arpents of land. Commissioned commandant at New Madrid by Gayoso, remained there until 1799. 1802, captured again William Augustus Bowles. 1803, retired from the Spanish service. Died, New Orleans, August 8, 1810. M.A. Source: Raymond J. Martinez, Pierre George Rousseau, Commanding General of the Galleys of the Mississippi (1964).

ROUSSEL, Christophe Joseph, businessman, politician, restauranteur. Born, Grand Point, St. James Parish, La., 1867; son of Maximilien Roussel and Louise Bourgeois. Married (1) Elmire St. Pierre and (2) Edith Villière. Children: Martha, Genevieve, Laurence, Warren, and Ferrel. Educated in local schools and privately. Established the Louisiana Perique Tobacco Co. of Lutcher, La. Known as "king," because he introduced perique tobacco to the tobacco industry. Parish assessor and owner of Roussel's Restaurant, LaPlace, La. Died, Paulina, November 10, 1939; interred St. Joseph Cemetery. M.D. Source: Author's research.

ROUSSEL, Elmore Louis, educator. Born, Paulina, La., July 9, 1903; son of Optime Roussel and Olympe Poché. Education: local schools, Louisiana State University. Active in local politics. Teacher and principal: Paulina Elementary School, 1924-1930; superintendent of schools, St. James Parish, 1937-1968. Introduced first hot lunch program in schools, 1944; began summer school program for World War II veterans of St. James Parish, 1946. Built two new schools in the parish, 1956. Constructed new school board office, 1956. Promoted voter support of one-cent sales tax to be used for teachers, 1965. Charter member of the Lutcher-Gramercy Lions Club; Third and Fourth degree Knight of Columbus. Died, January 5, 1972, Paulina; interred St. Joseph's Cemetery. M.D. Source: Author's research.

ROUSSELON, Etienne-Jean-François, clergyman, educator, administrator. Born, Lyons, France, September 10, 1800; son of François Rousselon and Antoinette Deloune. Ordained to priesthood, Lyons, April 14, 1827. Director of minor seminary at Lyons, ca. 1833. Migrated to Louisiana as missionary, 1837; U. S. citizenship, April 30, 1845. Chaplain to Ursuline Convent and School, 1837-1838, and St. Claude Street Chapel, 1838-1840, 1840-1841; pastor of St. Landry Parish in Opelousas, February-April, 1840; founding pastor of St. Augustine Parish in New Orleans, 1841-1842. August 8, 1842, appointment as pastor of St. Louis Cathedral touched off bitter jurisdictional confrontation between Bishop Antoine Blanc (q.v.) and churchwardens; resigned from St. Louis Cathedral, September 15, 1842. Pastor, St. Augustine Parish, 1842-1843, 1844-1845; rector, St. Mary Church (archbishopric), 1845-1866; vicar general of Archdiocese of New Orleans, 1839-1866; administrator on several occasions including period, 1860-1861, after Archbishop Blanc's death. Priest superior of Sisters of Mount Carmel, 1838-1866; instrumental in foundation, 1842, and development of Holy Family Sisters. Assisted Archbishops Blanc and Jean Marie Odin (q.v.) with administration of expanding diocese and recruitment of priests and religious from Europe. Extensive correspondence collection with colleagues in Europe and North America, a major source of antebellum and Civil War Catholic history. Died, New York City, November 16, 1866; interred St. Louis Cemetery. C.E.N. Sources: Étienne Rousselon Papers and Sacramental Record Collection in Archives of the Archdiocese of New Orleans; Charles Nolan, Bayou Carmel: The Sisters of Mount Carmel of Louisina, 1833-1903 (1977).

ROUSSEVE, Ferdinand Lucien, architect, educator. Born, New Orleans, July 18, 1904; son of Barthélémy Abel Roussève and Valentine Mansion. Education: Preparatory Department of Xavier University in 1918 after attending St. Louis School; Xavier University Preparatory School, 1922; Coyne Trade and Engineering School of Chicago in Mechanical Drawing, 1924; Massachusetts Institute of Technology with a B.S., 1930; University of Chicago, M.A. in History of Art, 1940; Harvard University, Ph. D. in Architecture, 1948. The first person to complete a Harvard Ph. D. program in four years. Married Elise Mirault Clarke, September 1, 1930. Children: Yvonne Elise (Mrs. Clayton Hanson). Angela Rose (Mrs. Joseph Parris), Marie Valentine (Mrs. James Fabio). Membership and awards: Civic Unity Committee, Cambridge, Mass., 1949-1956; Catholic Interracial Council of Boston, 1958; Massachusetts Committee on Public Health, 1950-1953; Advertising Council Cambridge Civic Association 1955-1957; Cambridge Planning Board, 1951-1956; Cambridge Community Services, 1953-1955; member of the Executive Council, Catholic Committee Cultural & Intellectual Affairs, 1949-1952; board of directors, New Orleans Family Service Society; New Orleans Council Social Agencies, 1944-1958; Catholic Family Counsel. Bureau, Boston, 1959; National Catholic Conference Interracial Justice, 1961; Family Service Bureau of Newton. Awards: Opportunity Magazine Recognition Award, 1947; New York Interracial Council's James J. Hosey Award for Interracial Justice, 1948; Gold Medal Award, National Urban League of Greater Boston, 1962. Architecture projects were St. Peter Claver's Catholic Elementary School,Tyler, Tex.; St. Jude's Catholic Hospital, Montgomery, Ala.; Beecher Memorial Congregational Church parish house, New Orleans; Central Congregational Church and parish house, New Orleans, 1947; Holy Ghost Catholic Church convent; St. Raymond's Catholic convent; Our Lady of Perpetual Help, St. Martinville, La.; McDonald Dental Clinic, New Orleans; Rhodes Funeral Home, New Orleans. Registered architect in Alabama, Louisiana, Massachusetts; private practice, 1933-1948, in New Orleans. Social and professional organizations: AAUP, Alpha Phi Alpha; Sigma Pi Phi. Positions held: teacher at Gregg Shorthand and Typing, evening division, public school of District of Columbia, 1931-1933; business manager, Southern University, 1933-1934; instructor, associate professor, chairman of the Department of Fine Arts, Xavier University, New Orleans, 1934-1948; professor of Fine Arts, Boston College, 1948-1965. Delegate to the Governor's Conference on Housing, Boston, 1962; delegate to the New England Regional Urban Renewal Institute in Boston, 1962. Catholic. Democrat. Listed in Who's Who in America. Died, July 18, 1965; interred Newton Center, Mass. F.B. Sources: Who Was Who in America, IV, 1961-1968; manuscript materials, Amistad Research Center.

ROUSSEVE, Numa Joseph, educator, artist. Born, New Orleans, December 20, 1908, son of Barthélémy A. Roussève and Marie Valentine Mansion of New Orleans. Religion: Catholic. Education: Catholic schools of New Orleans; Xavier Univeristy of Louisiana, B.S., M. Ed.; studied at the Ridge Technical School of art in Chicago; Allied Art Center in Boston; Ohio State University and the University of Indiana. Served on the Art faculty at Xavier for more than forty years where he attracted countless students of art, many who were exposed to the artistic offerings of the city of New Orleans. Educated two generations of art teachers in New Orleans and Louisiana. Xavier served as a mecca for black students of art, prominent among them were John Scott and William Pajeaux. Married, 1938, Evelyn Brown, daughter of Veazey and Selika Brown. Children: three sons and three daughters. Numa was the product of an old distinguished Creole of Color family, including, brother, Ferdinand (q.v.), the first black licensed architect in Louisiana; brother, Charles, noted historian, educator,and concert pianist. President of the New Orleans Urban League, Knight of St. Gregory, Knight of St. Peter Claver, and Alpha Phi Kappa. Died, New Orleans, February 23, 1979; interred St. Louis Cemetery II. R.C. Source: Personal research.

ROUXEL, Gustave Augustin, clergyman, prelate. Born, Redon, France, February 2, 1840; son of Jacques Rouxel and Scholastique Brecha. Educated at Eudist College in Redon and Grand Seminary at Rennes. Arrived in New Orleans on Sainte Geneviève, the "floating seminary" that brought many priests and clerical students to New Orleans in 1863; completed studies at Bouligny Seminary in New Orleans. Ordained to priesthood in New Orleans, November 4, 1863. Assistant pastor, St. Landry in Opelousas, 1863-1864; pastor of St. John the Evangelist Parish in Lafayette, 1864-1872; administrator of St. Louis Cathedral, 1872-1885; pastor of Annunciation Parish in New Orleans, 1885-1908. Vicar general, 1878-1888, administrator, 1887-1888, 1897-1898, 1905-1906, and chancellor, 1879-1880, of Archdiocese of New Orleans. Consecrated titular bishop of Curium at St. Louis Cathedral, April 9, 1899; auxiliary bishop of New Orleans, 1899-1908. Died, New Orleans, March 17, 1908; interred St. Louis Cathedral. C.E.N. Sources: Baudier Historical Collection in Archives of the Archdiocese of New Orleans; Roger Baudier, Annunciation Parish: A Century of Parish Activities, 1844-1944 (1944); Roger Baudier, The Catholic Church in Louisiana (1939); Catholic Action of the South, July 29, 1943.

ROWLAND, Dunbar, historian, lawyer, archivist. Born, Oakland, Miss., August 25, 1864; son of William Brewer and Mary (Bryan) Rowland. Education: Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College, University of Mississippi. Married, December 20, 1906, Eron Moore, daughter of Maj. Benjamin B. and Ruth Stovall (Rowland) Moore. No children. First director of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History. Published the Mississippi Territorial Archives, 1798-1803; Mississippi Provincial Archives; Official Letter Books of W. C. C. Claiborne; and Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist, His Letters, Papers, Speeches. Member: Democratic party, Episcopal church, American Historical Association, Mississippi Valley Historical Association, Mississippi Historical Society. Died, Jackson, Miss., November 1, 1937. M.S.L. Sources: Richard Aubrey McLemore, ed., A History of Mississippi (1973); National Cyclopaedia of American Biography; Who Was Who in America, 1897-1942 (1942); "Memorial," Journal of Southern History, IV (1938).

ROWLEY, Charles N., planter, soldier. Born, North Granville, Washington County, N. Y.; son of Mehitable Needham and Samuel Rowley. Christened Calvin but changed his name to Charles when he began practicing law in Troy, N. Y. Removed to Louisiana to enter sugar business. Purchased extensive acreage near Vidalia, where he also began military career by joining the Sparrow Volunteers. Became paymaster of the Fourth (Montezuma) Regiment of the Louisiana Militia. Became a colonel on June 4, 1844, and an aide to Governor Mouton (q.v.). On February 15, 1846, he was appointed adjutant and inspector general by Gov. Isaac Johnson (q.v.). He was reappointed on March 13, 1850, by Gov. Joseph Marshall Walker (q.v.) and was confirmed on March 24, 1846, by the Louisiana senate. Rowley married (1) Jane Kemp, widow of Francis S. Girault, and upon her death married (2) Eugenia M. Soria of Natchez, Miss. Died, Rio de Janerio, Brazil, July 10, 1869. E.J.C. Source: Author's research.

ROY, Victor Leander, educator. Born, Mansura, La., June 18, 1871; son of Leandré François and Adélaïde Cailleteau Roy. Education: local schools; received scholarship to Louisiana State University, graduated 1890; attended University of Chicago; Tulane University, M.A. 1925. Taught in Mansura, Marksville, Southern University, and Southwestern Louisiana Industrial Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana); superintendent of schools of Avoyelles and Lafayette parishes, where he organized the national Corn Clubs for boys. President of the Louisiana State Normal School (now Northwestern State University), Natchitoches, 1911-1929. In 1931 he held administrative positions at LSU, and from 1935 until retirement in 1936 he worked for a federal program. His hobbies included astronomy and gardening. He was active in the Baptist church, was a member of the Schoolmasters' Club, Kappa Sigma Fraternity, Free Masons F and AM. Married, August 6, 1896, Josie Tabieth Sanford. Children: Lucile (b. 1897), Reuben Sanford (b. 1899), Earl Hubert (b. 1900), John Overton (b. 1904), Victor Leander, Jr. (b. 1910). Died, Denham Springs, La., September 7, 1968. C. W. Source: Douglas C. Westbrook, "Victor Leander Roy: Louisiana Educator," Louisiana Studies, (Spring, 1972).

ROZIER, Joseph Adolphus, attorney, politician. Born, Ste. Genevieve, Mo.; son of Ferdinand Rozier, a native of Nantes, France, and Constance Roy, a descendant of French pioneers in Missouri. Studied law under Judge Nathaniel Pope in Kaskaskia, Ill.; completed law studies in Paris, France. Removed to New Orleans in 1839 and was admitted to the bar in 1840. In the next twenty years, established a flourishing law practice. Political affiliations varied over the years—was a Whig before the Civil War, a conservative Unionist during Reconstruction, and a Democrat in the late nineteenth century. Served as one of the New Orleans representatives to the Louisiana secession convention in Baton Rouge in 1861 and was one of seventeen representatives to vote against the secession ordinance. After the capture of New Orleans and its occupation by Federal troops, became one of the chief spokesmen for the conservative Unionists in the city. Was instrumental in getting the death sentence commuted to imprisonment for three men found guilty of spying and was appointed by Union Army General George F. Shepley (q.v.) in 1863 to the board of administrators of Charity Hospital in New Orleans. Served as mayor of New Orleans for two days (March 19-20, 1866) when Gen. Edward R. S. Canby (q.v.) barred John T. Monroe (q.v.) from assuming the mayoral office following his election to that post. In 1867, became legal advisor to Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock (q.v.) when that officer took command in Louisiana. In later years served as president of the New Orleans Bar Association. Married, 1847, Clothilde Vallée of Ste. Geneviève, Mo. Six children, three of whom survived him: Judge Thomas R. Rozier, Kate Rozier, and Clothilde Rozier. Died December 14, 1896; interred New Orleans. J.J.J. Sources: "Administrations of the Mayors of New Orleans, 1803-1936" (typescript compiled and edited by Works Progress Administration, New Orleans, 1940, manuscript in main branch, New Orleans Public Library); Edwin J. Jewell, ed. and comp., Jewell's Crescent City Illustrated (1874); Peyton McCrary, Abraham Lincoln and Reconstruction: The Louisiana Experiment (1978); New Orleans Daily States, December 15, 1896.

RUMMEL, Joseph Francis, clergyman, prelate. Born, Steinmauern, Baden, Germany, October 14, 1876, son of Gustave Rummel and Teresa Bollweber. Immigrated with family to New York City, 1882; naturalized U. S. citizen, February 2, 1888. Education: St. Boniface Elementary School, New York City; St. Mary's High School and College, North East, Pennsylvania; St. Anselm's College, Manchester, N. H., B.A., 1896; St. Joseph Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y.; North American College, Rome, Italy, S.T.D., 1903. Ordained to priesthood, Rome, May 24, 1902. Pastoral work and administration in Archdiocese of New York, 1903-1928; executive secretary, German Relief Committee, 1923-1924; consecrated bishop of Omaha, Neb., in New York City, May 29, 1928; transferred to Archdiocese of New Orleans, March 9, 1935. Established forty-eight new parishes; with support from Youth Progress Program, 1945, guided expansion program for Catholic education that included approximately seventy new school buildings; expanded parish and charitable facilities and programs. Served on numerous national Catholic boards and committees: episcopal chairman of Catholic Committee on Refugees, 1936-1947; board of trustees, National Catholic Community Services-USO, 1940-1944; board of trustees, Catholic University of America. Vigorous promoter of lay organizations: established in archdiocese Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, 1935; Archdiocesan Council of Catholic Women, 1936; Catholic Youth Organization, 1936; Catholic Physicians' Guild, 1936; Archdiocesan Council of Catholic Men, 1950; Christian Family Movement, 1953; Young Christian Workers, 1954, and numerous other organizations. Promoted frequent public expressions of faith including Eighth National Eucharistic Congress, 1938, and Family Rosary Crusade, 1952. Held Seventh Archdiocesan Synod, June 28, 1949, to revise archdiocesan policies and procedures. Vigorous supporter of rights of labor; worked patiently for over quarter century to achieve integration of Catholic parishes, schools, organizations, and institutions; pastoral letter, "Blessed Are the Peacemakers," ordered desegregation of all Catholic parish activities and organizations, March 15, 1953; ordered all Catholic school classes desegregated, March 27, 1962. During his tenure, Diocese of Baton Rouge established, July 20, 1961. Pastoral visits and letters were characteristic throughout active years. Recipient of numerous national and international awards including Ad Altare Dei medal for work with Catholic Scouting. Turned over administration of archdiocese to Archbishop John P. Cody (q.v.), June 1, 1962. Died, New Orleans, November 8, 1964; interred St. Louis Cathedral. C.E.N. Sources: Joseph Francis Rummel Papers and Baudier Historical Collection, Archives of the Archdiocese of New Orleans; taped interviews with Msgr. Charles J. Plauché and Bishop Joseph G. Vath of Birmingham, August 30 & October 11, 1980; Catholic Action of the South, May 16, 1935; July 29, 1943; May 14, 1953; May 20, 1962; Clarion Herald, November 12, 1964.

RUSS, Robert Edwin, founder of Ruston, La., civic leader. Born, Holmes Valley, Washington County, Fla., August 27, 1830; son of Robert and Sarah Gillam Hodges Russ. Attended school, Maury County, Tenn. Migrated with mother and stepfather Sion D. Smith to Henry County, Ala., Hinds County, Miss., and in 1852 to Jackson Parish, La. Married Mary Elizabeth Randle, 1855. Thirteen children. Purchased land redistricted to Lincoln Parish, 1873. In 1883 provided land to Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific Railroad for site of town of Ruston named for Russ. Active in Democratic party; Lincoln Parish sheriff, 1877-1880. Trustee of Ruston College that was forerunner of Louisiana Tech University; one of two lay organizers of First Baptist Church, Ruston. Died, January 9, 1902; interred Greenwood Cemetery, Ruston. B.H.G. Sources: William Wayne Wilson, "Robert E. Russ: A Study of His Influence on North-Central Louisiana as Reflected in His Writings" (M. A. thesis, Louisiana Tech University, 1969); Russ (Robert Edwin) Collection, Prescott Memorial Library, Ruston, La.

RYAN, Abram Joseph, poet, journalist, educator, lecturer, clergyman. Born, Hagerstown, Md., February 5, 1838; son of Mathew Ryan and Mary Coughlan. Education: Christian Brothers' Cathedral School in St. Louis; St. Mary's Seminary, Perryville, Mo.; Our Lady of Angels Seminary in Niagara Falls, N. Y. Joined Vincentian Order; ordained to priesthood in St. Louis, 1860. Parish missionary, educator, and pastor, 1860-1864. Ardent Confederate; transferred to Diocese of Nashville, 1864, where he served as unofficial chaplain to Confederate troops and pastor; transferred to Diocese of Savannah, 1868, where he edited Banner of South, transferred to Diocese of Mobile, 1870, where he engaged in pastoral work and edited The Morning Star, 1871-1875, while residing at Mobile. Retired to Biloxi, Miss., October, 1881. Published works include Father Ryan's Poems (Mobile, 1879); Poems, Patriotic, Religious, Miscellaneous (1880); A Crown for Our Queen(1882). "The Conquered Banner," written at Knoxville after Battle of Appomattox, was published in New York Freeman's Journal (June 24, 1865) and contributed to reknown as Poet of Confederacy. In addition to editing newspaper of Archdiocese of New Orleans, lectured and preached often in New Orleans; honored in stained glass window at New Orleans' Confederate Memorial Hall, October 21, 1950. Died, Louisville, Ky., April 22, 1886. C.E.N. Sources: "Father Ryan, Editor," address by Roger Baudier, Confederate Memorial Hall, New Orleans, October 21, 1950; text in Baudier Historical Collection, 10:5, in Archives of the Archdiocese of New Orleans; I. Dillard, "Father Ryan, Poet-Priest of the Confederacy," Missouri Historical Review, XXXVI (October, 1941); E. A. Egan, "Abram Joseph Ryan," New Catholic Encyclopedia.

RYAN, John Jacob, planter, stockraiser, businessman, politician. Born, Perry's Bridge, present-day Vermilion Parish, La., February 14, 1816. Removed to Lake Charles, 1817. Married (1), 1835, to Rebecca Gaines Bilbo, of Lake Charles, daughter of Thomas Bilbo, Lake Charles surveyor, and Ann Lawrence. Children: Asa (b. 1836), Anne (b. 1837), Isaac (b. 1839), Margaret (b. 1841), Joseph (b. 1842), Martha (b. 1844), George (b. 1846), Jacob (b. 1848), Laura (b. 1850), Ira (b. 1852), Frank (b. 1854), Minerva (b. 1855), Puella (b. 1857), William (b. 1859). Married (2) Emma Platz of Germany. Children: Daisy (b. 1877), Inez (b. 1880). Known as "father"of Lake Charles. Sheriff of Calcasieu Parish for six years during Civil War era; represented Calcasieu in the state legislature, 1866-1867; tax collector of Calcasieu, 1874-1878. Active in the Democratic party. Member: Catholic church. Ryan Street in Lake Charles named for subject. Died, Lake Charles, December 17, 1899; interred Bilbo Cemetery. D.J.M. Sources: William Henry Perrin, ed., Southwest Louisiana Biographical and Historical (1891; reprint ed., 1971), II, 185-85; Lake Charles Daily American, obituary, December 18, 1899; Ryan family papers.

RYAN, Mother M. Agatha, missionary, educator. Born, Mary C. Ryan, October 5, 1876; Philadelphia, Pa.; daughter of John Ryan of County Waterford, Ireland, and Mary Sullivan of Philadelphia. Educated in parish schools and the Catholic University of America. Joined, 1897, the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament for Indians and Colored People which Katharine Drexel founded in 1891. Taught at Indian missions in New Mexico, Arizona, and Nebraska, 1901-1912. Principal, St. Cyprian's School for the Colored in Columbus, Ohio, 1912-1918. Served on the Council General of her congregation from 1912-1952, and as the Directress of Studies from 1921-1952, supervising the preparation and teaching of Sisters in some 50 schools for Indians and blacks in some twenty states, including sixteen parochial schools in New Orleans and Southwest Louisiana. Also had overall responsibility for lay teachers in some twenty rural schools in Southwest Louisiana and the Delta region. President, Xavier University in New Orleans, 1931-1955, directed its expansion from a small liberal arts college of 247 students to a fully accredited university of over 1,000. Died, Torresdale, Pa., October 26, 1968. S.P.L. Sources: Archives, Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament, Bensalem, Pa.


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