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Louisiana History Journal



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SABATIER, George Joseph, physician. Born, December 12, 1862; son of Eugene Joseph Sabatier and Amelie Garrigue. Education: Springhill College, Mobile; Medical Department, Tulane University, M. D., 1889. Interned, Charity Hospital, New Orleans. Married, June, 1897, Gussie Lynette Gayle, daughter of Dr. Augustus Carfield Gayle and Cassie Ruark. No children. Practiced medicine in New Iberia for nearly fifty years. Known for the fact that he did not send his patients a statement of his fees, but relied on their integrity for compensation. An active civic leader and businessman. President of the Attakapas Medical Society and later of the Iberia Medical Society. A member of the American Medical Association. With other businessmen, financed the first oil activity in the New Iberia area during World War I. Died, New Iberia, June 17, 1944; interred St. Peter's Cemetery. M.S.B. Source: Medical Heritage Portraits of Iberia Parish.

SAENGER, Julian Henri
, businessman. Born, Norfolk, Va., 1873. Removed with father, the rabbi of B'Nai Zion Congregation, to Shreveport in 1890. With brother became drugstore clerk; in the late 1890s they established the Saenger Drug Company which became the first twenty-four-hour drugstore in Shreveport. In 1911 the brothers organized the Saenger Amusement Company and operated movie and vaudeville theatres in Shreveport. Together with the Ehrlich Brothers, they built the Strand Theatre of Shreveport. During the 1920s they established the offices of the Saenger Amusement Company in New Orleans and operated over 300 theatres throughout Louisiana, the South, and the Caribbean. The chain was sold to Paramount Publix in 1928. Married; one adopted son. Member of B'Nai Zion Temple. Died, New Orleans, February 6, 1932; interred Hebrew Rest, Shreveport. A.S.T. Sources: Lilla McLure and J. Ed Howe, History of Shreveport and Shreveport Builders (1937); Ben Bicknell Oral History Interview, Louisiana State University-Shreveport Archives; Judd Tooke Oral History Interview, LSU-S Archives; obituary, Shreveport Times, February 8, 1932.

SAGRERA, Isaac Wise, farmer, rancher, trapper, pelt expert. Born, Chênière au Tigre, Vermilion Parish, La., July 22, 1894; son of Dr. Raphael E. Sagrera (q.v.) and Alice Anna White (q.v.). Education: learned locally to read and write English and French. Served in France, 1918, during World War I. With brother, Raphael (q.v.), formed company known as Sagrera Brothers; between 1914 and 1966, farmed rice, cotton, corn, beans, wheat, milo; raised cattle, hogs, sheep; trapped furbearing animals and hunted alligators for their hides. Skilled in the recognition of fine furs and hides. Became a buyer of hides and pelts in the area. Member: American Legion, Veterans of Foreign Wars. Served on several Vermilion Parish committees on soil and water conservation, drainage projects. Received Cattleman of the Year Award from Vermilion Cattlemen's Association, 1967. Married Cecile Trahan, 1927. Children: Mary and Joseph (twins), Nelson Roy, Shirley, Austin Isaac, George Dallas, Hilda Ann. Died, Abbeville, La., August 1, 1968; interred St. James Cemetery, Esther, La. A.S.H. Source: Author's research.

SAGRERA, Raphael E., physician. Born, New Orleans, April 10, 1847; son of Raphael Sagrera, a native of Spain, and Clara Mercedes Martin of Paris, France. Education: University of Louisiana (now Tulane University), M. D., 1869. Served the people of the Gulf Coast chênières from Chênière au Tigre to Cameron as doctor of medicine traveling by boat, on foot and horseback, from 1869-1910. Carried on experiments as a horticulturist with orchard fruits; pioneered in the successful treatment of cattle diseases on the Gulf Coast; was also a cattleman, owning his first herd in 1886. Superintendent of education, Vermilion Parish Schools, 1878-1880, taught school on the chênières. Was a devoted Catholic serving as religious leader on the chênières in the absence of priests. Married (1) Alzina DeFrance in 1880. Married (2) Alice Anna White (q.v.), October 31, 1890. Children: Raphael Semmes (q.v.), Gertrude (Sister Mechtilde), Isaac Wise, Clare Mercedes, Alice May, George Dewey, M. D., Solomon Rex, Margaret Elizabeth, Andrew Jackson, Walter Teurlings, D.D.S., and Seraphine Georgette. Died, Abbeville, La., December 24, 1910; interred family cemetery, Chênière au Tigre. A.S.H. Sources: Letters from Dr. Raphael E. Sagrera to wife Alice White Sagrera; interviews with family members; History of Vermilion Parish (1983); medical journals of Dr. Raphael E. Sagrera.

SAGRERA, Raphael Semmes
, businessman, conservationist. Born, Chênière au Tigre, Vermilion Parish, La., June 25, 1891; son of Raphael E. Sagrera (q.v.) and Alice Anna White (q.v.). Education: Chênière au Tigre and St. Stanislaus, Bay St. Louis, Miss. Owner and operator of health resort on Chênière au Tigre, 1914-1956. Staunch promotor of better education for the youth of the chênières. Business partner with brother, Isaac (q.v.), 1914-1966, law enforcement agent, rancher, conservationist, farmer, trapper of fur and alligators, pioneer in fighting cattle diseases on the Gulf Coast, active in politics, serving on many state agricultural committees. Pioneer in the cultivation and restoration of wastelands; urged the cultivation of rice, soybeans, milo (grain sorghum), wheat on lands that had remained wastelands from timber cutaway. Active in the preservation of the coastal wetlands serving as an authority on the necessity of environmental quality for protection of life and growth. Received the Vermilion Parish Cattleman's Award, December 9, 1964, for service to the cattle industry. Resided on Chênière au Tigre, in Esther, and Bonita, La. Married Mary Zoe Cessac, August 28, 1912. Children: Alice Amanda, Raphael Charles, Anthony Semmes, Mary Zoe, Mary Olga, Lloyd George. Died, Monroe, La., June 23, 1966; interred St. James Cemetery, Esther, La. A.S.H. Sources: Interviews; Abbeville Meridional; Bastrop (La.) Daily Enterprise, November 7, 1960-September 22, 1966; The Bastrop (La.) Clarion, October 29, 1960-November 6, 1960.

SAINT, Percy, attorney, jurist, politician. Born, Franklin, La., May 8, 1870; son of Ellen Jane DuBose and John Davidson Saint, both of Alabama. Education: local private schools; attended University of Alabama, 1888-1890; Tulane University law school, graduated 1893. Married (1) Mary Isabel Thorp, April 12, 1898; no children. Married (2) Cora Lee McCardell, daughter of Lavinia Pelichet and Thomas McCardell, December 7, 1903. Children: Percy DuBose and Mary Isabel. Admitted to the bar, 1893; served two years as a messenger in Congress; began law practice in Franklin; editor of Franklin paper, The Vindicator News, 1898-1900; elected to state house of representatives, 1916; district attorney of Twenty-third Judicial District, 1907-1920; district judge, 1920-1924; assigned to civil district court in New Orleans, 1922; elected state attorney general, 1924; was one of the few state officials elected independently of the Huey Long (q.v.) ticket when elected to second term as attorney general, 1928; ruled that Governor Long should not have sent troops to raid gambling houses in Jefferson Parish without first declaring martial law; ruled that the impeachment proceedings instituted by some legislators against Long were constitutional; retired from politics, 1932. Member, commander, National Attorneys General Association; chairman, national crime commission; member, New Orleans and state bar associations; Elks Club; awarded 50-year membership certificate by the Masons; one of his political speeches was published in the January 1925 Louisiana Historical Quarterly. Died, New Orleans, August 13, 1958; interred Franklin, La. J.B.C. Sources: Who Was Who in America, V, 630; Percy Saint, "Thomas Jefferson and Government by Party," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, VIII (1925), 41-51; New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, August 14, 1958; Morgan City Archives, Morgan City, La.

ST. AMANT, Lyle Stanhope
, marine biologist. Born, Gonzales, La., April 10, 1915. Education: Gonzales High School; Louisiana State University, B.S. 1935; M. S., 1938; Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill., Ph. D. During World War II, served in the United States Navy Medical Corps, in the South Pacific theater, where he had been assigned to research insect-borne tropical diseases. His entire last year of military service was devoted to teaching at the Naval Medical Center. On March 1, 1946, joined the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. Engaged as a project leader of a group of biologists taking a census of the wildlife indigenous to Louisiana. Task involved not only making a survey of the different wildlife found in each parish, but also entailed the preparation of data reflecting the specific environment of each creature. A prolific writer, with more than a hundred technical publications credited to his authorship; first survey, however, provided him with the basis for his most important work, Louisiana Wildlife Inventory (1959). Remains the basic wildlife textbook and guide for the state of Louisiana, and it serves as a model for the proper management and preservation of all the wildlife resources of the state. Married Monroe Young of Alabama. Children: Joseph Lyle Stanhope St. Amant, a lawyer; Dr. Catherine Adair St. Amant (McClugage), M. D.; and Dr. William Clark St. Amant, M. D. During his career with the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, St. Amant served in various capacities: project leader of the Wildlife Census, 1946-1955, Oyster, Water Bottoms, and Seafood Division, 1955-1959; chief marine biologist and director of Marine Research Laboratory, Grand Terre Island, 1959-1962, chief, Oyster, Water Bottoms Seafood Division, 1962-1971; assistant director, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, 1971-1976; and assistant secretary of the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries from 1976 until his retirement on June 30, 1980. Recipient of many awards and honors: Governor's Award for Outstanding Professional in Fisheries Conservation, 1964; Alabama Fisheries Association's Outstanding Contributor to Fisheries, 1969; appointment to Federal Marine Affairs Action Group by Walter J. Hickel, secretary of the interior, 1970; chairman emeritus, Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, 1981. Died, December 21, 1981. Wildlife and Fisheries Commission bestowed upon him its greatest honor. In 1985, the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries' Grand Terre Research Facility renamed the "Dr. Lyle S. St. Amant Marine Laboratory." J.E.M. Sources: McFadden Duffy, "Dr. St. Amant," Louisiana Conservationist, (March/April, 1982); Interview with Mrs. Monroe St. Amant, August 1, 1986.

ST. ANGE DE BELLERIVE, Louis
, soldier, administrator. Born, Montreal, Canada, ca. October 16, 1698; son of Robert Groston de St. Ange and Marguerite Crevier de Bellerive. Named to replace Jean-Baptiste Bissot, sieur de Vincennes as commandant of the Wabash River Valley 1736; commandant of Fort Vincennes, 1736-1764; named capitaine reformé, September 1, 1738; commissioned captain, October 15, 1748; replaced Jean-Baptiste Neyon de Villiers as commandant of the Illinois district, June 10, 1764; transferred possession of Fort de Chartres and the portion of Illinois country east of the Mississippi River to British representatives, October 10, 1765; subsequently led migration of remaining French soldiers and most French settlers to St. Louis, Mo.; served as acting commandant of the west-bank territory above the Arkansas Post, 1765-1771; served as a captain in the Spanish garrison at St. Louis during declining years. Adept at Indian diplomacy, he helped Louisiana's caretaker French administration to distance itself from Pontiac's uprising; subject is also credited with keeping upper Louisiana loyal to Spain during the 1768 New Orleans Rebellion. Did not marry. Died, St. Louis, December 27, 1774. C.A.B. Sources: Alphabet Laffilard, folio 71; Etat général et apostillé des officiers entretenus à la Louisiana, 1758. France. Archives Nationales, Archives des Colonies, 50:63vo-64; Howard H. Peckham, Pontiac and the Indian Uprising (1947); Carl J. Ekberg, Colonial Ste. Genevieve (1985); Dictionary of American Biograpy, XVI.

ST. CLAIR, Charles Henry, businessman, mayor of Morgan City, La., historian. Born, Albion, N.Y., August 8, 1836; son of Charles Northrup St. Clair and Elmina Baldwin St. Clair. Education: Albion Academy. Migrated to Louisiana, 1858, pilot and captain on riverboats. Served during the Civil War on Union Army transport and dispatch ships; settled in Brashear City (present-day Morgan City), established steam laundry, 1872, catering to Morgan Railroad and Steamship Line. Appointed city treasurer in 1873; elected mayor in 1874 and re-elected mayor in 1879 serving eight years during which he handled emergency quarantine and organized a board of health, sanitary measures, care of sick, and burial of dead during the 1878 yellow-fever epidemic in Morgan City. Served 1880-1884 in Louisiana legislature; appointed secretary-assessor of Morgan City from 1899 to 1905. Married, at Trinity, La., October 30, 1866, to Mary Alice Johnson of New Albany, Ind. Child: Charles Arthur St. Clair (1873-1915). Master Mason and lifetime member Linnwood Lodge #167, New Orleans. Wrote a five volume genealogy, The St. Clairs in Europe and America, and history of Morgan City, poetry, and sheet music. Died, October 25, 1911; interred Morgan City Cemetery. L.K.L. Source: St. Clair Family Papers in Morgan City Archives.

ST. COSME, see BUISSON DE ST. COSME.

ST. CYR, John Alexander "Johnny," jazz banjoist/guitarist. Born, New Orleans, April 17, 1890. During the years ca. 1905-1923 played with various groups, including Jules Baptiste, Manuel Gabriele, Freddie Keppard, "Papa" Celestin (q.v.), Kid Ory (q.v.), Armand Piron, Fate Marable (on riverboats), etc. Early in his career led his own group, called Consumer's Trio. Settled in Chicago in 1923 and/or recorded with Louis Armstrong (q.v.), King Oliver (q.v.), Charles Cooke, and "Jelly Roll" Morton (q.v.) among others. In New Orleans, 1929-1955. Worked as a plasterer, but played regular part-time with Paul Barnes, Chester Zardis, Steve Lewis, Alphonse Pecou and Paul Barbarin. Winner Record Changer All Time Star poll on banjo, 1951. Also recorded Johnny St. Cyr and His Hot FIve. Settled permanently on the West Coast in 1955. Guested with many bands, played regularly with New Orleans Creole Jazz Band in Los Angeles. Wife, Flora. Eight children. Died, Los Angeles, June 17, 1966. H.C. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune , obituary, June 18, 1966; John Chilton, Who's Who of Jazz (1972); Who Was Who in America, 1961-1968 (1982); Eileen Southern, Biographical Dictionary of Afro-American and African Musicians.

ST. JULIEN, Elie Aurelien, planter, vigilante. Born on father's plantation near Broussard, La., October 8, 1805; son of Louis "Cadet" St. Julien and Anastasie Broussard, pioneers of the Attakapas District. Married Marie Josephine Broussard, January 3, 1828. Children: Marie Aurelie (b. 1830), Julien (b. 1832), Lucille (b. 1834), Marie Celestine (b. 1836), Numa (b. 1838), Lucien (b. 1840), Jules (b. 1841), Marie Louise (b. 1843), Emelie (b. 1845), Marie Estelle (b. 1847), and Eloi Dupré (b. 1849). Became a prosperous planter in Cote Gelée area (Broussard, La., area), but is best known for prominent role in organizing the vigilante committees in the Attakapas to deal with increasing lawlessness and banditry in the area. Assumed leadership of the Committee of Cote Gelée and played an active role in suppressing outlaws. Known by the honorary title of "major." His activities described in classic work of Alexandre Barde (q.v.) on these subjects. Died, Lafayette Parish, La., September 13, 1865. D.C.E. Sources: Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana, 33 vols. (1974-1984); Henrietta Guilbeau Rogers, trans., The Vigilante Committees of the Attakapas by Alexandre Barde (1981); James Roy Ducrest, History of the St. Julien Family.

ST. LAURENT, Madame Roume de
, musician, businesswoman. Born, Dorsianne Monge, Guadeloupe, F.W.I., December 1, 1811; daughter of François Monge (1750-1826). Married Roume (St. Rose) de St. Laurent, from Trinidad, on January 9, 1826. Her brother Ed. Monge, was a prominent judge in the Attakapas. For many years she was the organist at St. Martin of Tours Church in St. Martinville. But she is best remembered for the boarding house and finishing school she ran for young girls, Le Pensionnet de Madame de St. Laurent, at the corner of present-day Main and Gary streets in St. Martinville from 1845-1874. Like others in St. Martin Parish, she suffered extensive losses at the hands of stragglers and foragers during the two Union invasions of 1863. D.C.E. Sources: Teche News, August 17, 1961; Madame St. Laurent v. The United States, No. 483, French and American Claims Commission, National Archives; Henrietta Guilbeau Rogers, trans., The Vigilante Committees of the Attakapas by Alexandre Barde (1981).

ST. MARTIN, Louis, businessman, politician, congressman. Born, St. Charles Parish, La., May 17, 1820; son of Pierre Bauchet St. Martin III and Celestine Perret. Education: St. Mary's College, Mo.; Jefferson College, La. Entered notarial office of H. B. Cenas. Elected, 1846, to state legislature. Married, 1848, Louisa Perret, daughter of Drausin and Louisa Perret. Children: Louis Albert, Joseph Robert, Eusebe (died in infancy), Corinne, Stephanie, Aimée, and Berthe. Appointed register of Land Office, Southeastern District of Louisiana, by President Polk. Elected to state house of representatives, 1846. Elected as a Democrat to Congress, 1851. After one term returned to New Orleans; entered commerce. Appointed registrar of voters in New Orleans. Reelected to Congress in 1866; denied seat on grounds Louisiana had not been readmitted to Union. Elected to Congress in 1868; again denied seat on grounds that election was not valid. Elected, as a Democrat, and seated in Forty-ninth Congress, 1885-1887. Delegate to Democratic conventions in 1852, 1868, 1876, and 1880. After Congress, connected with office of public accounts in New Orleans. Died, New Orleans, February 9, 1893; interred St. Vincent de Paul Cemetery. G.R.C. Sources: New Orleans Daily Picayune, February 10, 1893; Alcée Fortier, Louisiana . . . , 3 vols. (1914); Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (Washington, D. C., 1950), p. 1773; Stanley Clisby Arthur, Old Families of Louisiana (1931; reprint ed., Baton Rouge, 1971).

ST. MARTIN, Pierre Auguste Bauchet jurist, politician. Born, New Orleans, January 26, 1761, son of Pierre Bauchet St. Martin, a merchant of New Orleans, and Charlotte Gallot. Probably privately tutored. On May 19, 1785, in St. Louis Cathedral, New Orleans, married (1) Genevieve Thérèse de Callogne, daughter of Louis Antoine de Callogne and Marie Thérèse Carrière. Children: Aimée, who married Dr. Yves LeMonnier, and Pierre Bauchet St. Martin III, who married Celestine Perret. Married (2), in St. Charles Parish, September 7, 1791, Marianne Perret, daughter of Alphonse Perret, Sr., and Marianne Pujol. In the 1790s, served as syndic in St. Charles Parish. Appointed May 20, 1807, first judge of St. Charles Parish by Gov. William C. C. Claiborne; served as judge until 1811. Upon Louisiana's admission to the Union in 1812, elected from St. Charles Parish to serve in the state's first legislature, which convened in New Orleans. By a vote of 13 to 11 was chosen to be speaker of that assembly. Following his service in the first state legislature, he returned to St. Charles Parish. Died, November 26, 1830; interred Edgard, La. D.J.P. Sources: St. Louis Cathedral, New Orleans, La.; Stanley Clisby Arthur, Old Families of Louisiana (1931; reprint ed., 1971); St. Charles Parish civil records; Moniteur de la Louisiane, May 20, 1807 (Tulane University); Louisiana Archives and Records Service, Baton Rouge, La.; St. John the Baptist Church, Edgard, La.

ST. MARTIN, Thaddeus I.
, physician. Born, Bayou Dularge, Terrebonne Parish, La., September 4, 1886. Education: private and public schools, Houma, La.; Tulane University, medical degree; interned at Charity Hospital. Specialist in radiology. Served abroad in World War I. Published Madame Toussaint's Wedding Day (1936). After World War II, besides medical work, devoted time to developing land and became a realtor. Made gifts of property, rights of way, servitudes, etc. Retired from medical profession, 1955. Married Gladys Davidson. Died, November, 1968. M.C.E. Source: International World Who's Who, 1948-1949.

ST. MAXENT, Gilbert Antoine, merchant, Indian agent. Born, Longy, France, April 1724; son of Gilbert Antoine St. Maxent and Elizabeth Le Cocq. Emigrated to French Louisiana, ca. 1744. Business activities: operated New Orleans mercantile firm, 1749-1794; awarded government monopoly to trade with Illinois Indians, 1763; received land grant covering Chef Menteur area of New Orleans, 1763; sponsored settlement of St. Louis with commercial partner Pierre Laclède (q.v.), 1764. Married, 1749, Elizabeth La Roche, of New Orleans. Children, including Marie Elizabeth, wife of Luis de Unzaga (q.v.), and Marie Félicité (q.v.), wife of Bernardo de Gálvez (q.v.). Government service: named official Spanish Indian Commissioner by Alejandro O'Reilly (q.v.), 1770; fought in the campaigns of Bernardo de Gálvez, 1779-1781; named commander of the Louisiana Militia, 1783. Died, New Orleans, August 8, 1794; interred St. Louis Cemetery. L.T.C. Source: James J. Coleman, Jr., Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent: The Spanish-Frenchman of New Orleans (1968).

ST. MAXENT, Marie Félicité (Felicítas)
, viscountess of Gálvez-Town, countess of Gálvez. Born, New Orleans, December 27, 1755; daughter of Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent (q.v.), prominent New Orleans merchant, and Elizabeth La Roche. Member of one of Louisiana's most illustrious families. Three of her sisters gained prominence through marriage. Her eldest sister, Marie Elizabeth (Isabel) married Luis de Unzaga (q.v.), governor of Louisiana and captain-general of Cuba. Younger sisters Victoire (Victoria) married Juan Antonio de Riaño (q.v.), intendant of Guananjuato, and Antoinette Marie (María Ana) married Manuel de Flon (q.v.), condé de La Cadena, intendant of Puebla. Félicité was first married to Jean-Baptiste Honoré Destréhan, son of the former French treasurer in the colony. Their only child, Adélaïde, married Benito Pardo de Figeroa, who later served as the Spanish minister in St. Petersburg in 1812. Following Destréhan's death, and that of his father, she became an extremely wealthy widow. On November 2, 1777, she married Bernardo de Gálvez (q.v.), newly appointed governor of Louisiana. Three children: Matilda (b. 1778 in New Orleans); Miguel (b. 1782 in Haiti); and Guadalupe (b. 1786 in Mexico City). She followed her husband first to Cuba and later on to Mexico City in 1785, when he became viceroy of New Spain. She became a condesa when Gálvez was raised to the peerage on March 28, 1783. Contemporary Mexican sources describe her as beautiful, cultured, and charming. Following the death of her husband on November 30, 1786, she moved to Madrid and was joined there by her mother, and her widowed sister Isabel. At one of the many tertulias she gave in Madrid certain uncomplimentary things were said about the queen which may have contributed to Félicité's exile from Madrid between 1790 and 1793. Died in Madrid, ca. 1800. B.C. Sources: Eric Beerman, "The French Ancestors of Félicité de St. Maxent," Revue de Louisiane/Louisiana Review, VI (1977); María del Carmen Galbis Diez, "Bernardo de Gálvez," in Virreyes de Nueva España (1968); John Walton Caughey, Bernardo de Gálvez in Louisiana, 1776-1783 (1934); James J. Coleman, Jr., Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent (1968).

ST. ROMES, Joseph Charles, journalist. Born, Port-au-Prince, Saint-Domingue, 1790 or 1791. Removed to New Orleans before 1815; fought in Battalion of Orleans during Battle of New Orleans, 1815; edited and published Courrier de la Louisiane, 1815-1843; published Donaldsonville Creole (probably published in New Orleans), 1816. Served as state printer, 1817-1823, 1839, 1842; also served as printer of the city of New Orleans. Married Marie Therese Vion (d. 1882), his niece, 1822. Died, New Orleans, August 21, 1843. F.M.J. Sources; Samuel Joseph Marino, "The French-Refugee Newspapers and Periodicals in the United States, 1789-1825" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1962); Ronald R. Morazan, Biographical Sketches of the Veterans of the Battalion of Orleans, 1814-1815 (1979); obituary, New Orleans Commercial Bulletin, August 22, 1843.

SAINTE CROIX, Marie Fourant
, religious, photographer. Born, Clermond Ferrand, France, April 1, 1854. Entered the Ursuline Convent at Beaujeu, February 1873. Took the habit a few months later, at age 19, under the name Marie de la Ste-Croix. Arrived New Orleans, November 1873. Took her final vows a year later in the Chapel of Our Lady of Prompt Succor. Studied photography with Rev. Albert Bievier, S. J., and E. Claudel, a local optician and amateur photographer. Photographed mainly between 1880 and 1912, though she continued working into the 1920s, documenting the life in the second Ursuline Convent (at Poland Avenue and the River), and after 1912, the new convent on State Street. Taught photography as well as French, embroidery, and the making of wax flowers and fruits. Her photographs were exhibited at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, Mo. Died, July 15, 1940, New Orleans. M.A. Sources: D. Eric Bookhardt, "The Mysterious World of Mother St. Croix," New Orleans Times-Picayune, Dixie Magazine, October 31, 1982; Anne E. Peterson, "Louisiana Photography: An Historical Overview, 1880-1940," in A Century of Vision: Louisiana Photography, 1884-1984, ed. by Herman Mhire (1986).

SALAZAR Y MENDOZA, José de
, portraitist. Born, Mérida, Yucatán, mid-eighteenth century; son of Salvador de Salazar and Feliciana Ojeday Basquez. Married in Yucatán, Maria Antonia Magana, daughter of Antonio Magana y La Cerda and Francisca Xaveria de Hollos Conejo. Removed to New Orleans, 1782. Children: Francisca Salazar y Magana, José Salazar (b. 1781), José Casiano Salazar (b. 1784-d. 1793), Ramón Rafael de la Crus Salazar (b. 1791); family was living on St. Philip St., 1791. Wife died June 24, 1793; Salazar himself died August 15, 1802, in New Orleans; left will dated March 4, 1801. His portraits are rare surviving works from eighteenth-century Louisiana; some important subjects among his signed portraits: Andrés de Almonester y Roxas (q.v.), 1796, and Bishop Luis Ignacio María de Peñalver y Cardenas (q.v.), 1801. P.O. Sources: Spanish census of New Orleans, November 6, 1791; Louisiana State Museum, José Salazar, Louisiana's Eighteenth-Century Portrait Artist, October, 1981; The Historic New Orleans Collection, Encyclopaedia of New Orleans Artists, 1718-1918 (1987).

SALCEDO, Manuel Juan de, governor. Believed to have been born in Spain ca. 1743, and entered the army at about age 16. Approximately fifty-six years old when a royal order appointed him governor of Louisiana in November 1799. He was then king's lieutenant on Tenerife, in the Canary Islands. His journey to Louisiana took from August 1800 to July 1801, during which time his wife died in Cuba. The last Spanish governor of Louisiana, his term lasted from July 14, 1801, to November 30, 1803. Faced numerous problems as governor of Louisiana during the era when Spain resolved to return the colony to France. Shortages of funds and troops worked to prevent vigorous programs to strengthen Louisiana. Salcedo, moreover, sought to profit from his post, acting with his son Manuel María and Nicolas María Vidal. He quarreled frequently with the cabildo, Lt. Col. Carlos Howard, commandant of the Louisiana Regiment, Intendant Juan Ventura Morales (q.v.), lawyer Joseph Martínez de la Pedrera, and Prefect Pierre Clément, baron de Laussat (q.v.). Many contemporaries, including the captain general of Cuba, regarded him as incompetent. For better or worse, he remained alone as governor for two years, checked only by the captain general of Cuba, his immediate superior. In May 1803, the marqués de Casa Calvo (q.v.) arrived to assist in turning the colony over to France and, in many ways, assuming responsibility. Salcedo spent much of his time in Louisiana requesting promotions for himself and his two sons as well as a transfer to the Canaries. Upon the United States assuming control of Louisiana, Salcedo departed with the rank of brigadier, a 3,000 peso annual pension, and posts for his sons in the Canaries. It is believed that he died there. G.C.D. Sources: John Edward Harkins, "The Neglected Phase of Louisiana's Colonial History: The New Orleans Cabildo, 1769-1803" (Ph. D. dissertation, Memphis State University, 1976); Spain. Archivo General de Indias, Papeles de Cuba, legajos 1553, 1554ab, 1555, 1556.

SALLIER, Charles, also known as Carlos Salia and Charles Savoyard, pioneer. Born ca. 1773 in the Diocese of Chambery, Savoy, France; son of Michel Sallier (Salia?) and Jeanne Monmayor. Married (1) Angelica Fontenot, January 13, 1792. One child: Philonse (b. 1794). Migrated to western Louisiana and settled in what is now Calcasieu Parish. Reputedly first white settler of Lake Charles. Lake came to be called "Charles' Lake" and then "Lake Charles." Married (2) Marie Catherine LeBleu, daughter of Barthélémy LeBleu and Maria Josepha Lamirande, August 9, 1802. Children: Joseph Charles (b. 1805), Ozite (b. 1812), Sidalise (b. 1810), Anselm (b. 1814), Severine (b. 1816) and Denise (b. 1819). Date of Sallier's death is unrecorded, but estate succession was opened in Opelousas, July 23, 1825. T.S. Sources: Lake Charles American Press; Records of estate successions, St. Landry Parish Courthouse.

SALMON, Edme Gatien, administrator. Served in French Louisiana from 1732 to 1744; shared authority over agriculture and commerce with Bienville (q.v.); attempted to improve the morals of the colony; was active in efforts to encourage the colonists to improve their economy; offered incentives and subsidies to small planters to encourage production of indigo; attempted to locate or devise a successful cotton gin by urging the minister of marine to offer grants to inventors; sought to initiate trade with the Spanish by sending André Fabry de la Bruyière (q.v.) on an expedition to follow the Canadian River from the Arkansas Post westward toward Santa Fé. After his departure the colony entered a period of neglect by the French crown. J.B.C. Souces: Jack D. L. Holmes, "Indigo in Colonial Louisiana and the Floridas," Louisiana History, VIII (1967); Daniel H. Thomas, "Pre-Whitney Cotton Gins in French Louisiana," Journal of Southern History, XXXI (1965); Martha Royce Blaine, "French Efforts to Reach Santa Fé: André Fabry de la Bruyère's Voyage Up the Canadian River in 1741-42," Louisiana History, XX (1979).

SALOOM, Mrs. Kaliste Joseph, businesswoman. Born, Deir El Kamar, Lebanon, November 1, 1892; daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Michael Frem Boustany. Arrived in Lafayette, La., 1907 as bride of Kaliste Saloom (d. February 3, 1925). With husband, established clothing store, 1910. In 1960 store cited by Lafayette Chamber of Commerce as oldest home-owned retail establishment in continuous operation for 50 years. Honored by Lafayette Business and Professional Women's Club for her outstanding career as a businesswoman and widowed parent. Donated land for Kaliste Saloom state highway, for establishment of Lafayette's Kaliste Saloom Fire Station, and for other civic purposes. Active in League of Women Voters, St. Mary's Orphanage Guild, and American Legion Auxiliary. Charter member of Lafayette Azalea Trail and supported efforts of Lafayette Ladies Garden Club. Sustaining member of University of Southwestern Louisiana Foundation for many years. Children: Alice Marie (b. 1909), Clarence Joseph (b. 1910), Beatrice (b. 1915), Mary Agnes (b. 1916), Kaliste J., Jr. (b. 1918), Isabelle (b. 1920), Richard G. (b. 1924). Died, Lafayette, September 8, 1979; interred St. John's Cathedral Cemetery. R.S. Sources: "The First Families of Lafayette"; Lafayette Daily Advertiser, September 9, 1979.

SAMUEL, David B.
, attorney, jurist, politician. Born, Little Rock, Ark., 1874. Education: Peabody High School, Little Rock; University of Arkansas Law School. Removed to Shreveport, 1900. Married Blanche Daniel, of Lonoke, Ark. One daughter. Active in Democratic party; member of Louisiana legislature, 1908-1916; Shreveport city judge, 1916-1937. Member: B'Nai Zion Jewish congregation, Shreveport; Louisiana Bar Association; American Bar Association; El Karubah Shrine Temple, Shreveport; Shreveport Elks Lodge #122; Shreveport Masonic Lodge #115; Knights of Pythias; Woodmen of the World. Died, May 24, 1937; interred Stoner Avenue Jewish Cemetery, Shreveport. A.S.T. Sources: Lilla McLure and J. Ed Howe, History of Shreveport and Shreveport Builders (1937); J. Ed Howe, comp., Shreveport Men and Women Builders (1931); Shreveport Times, obituary, May 25, 1937; Shreveport Journal, obituary, May 24, and 25, 1937.

SAN MALO, Juan, leader of the most notorious band of runaway slaves to terrorize Louisiana during the Spanish regime. Living in the swamp region east of New Orleans, the maroons made their headquarters at Gaillard; from 1780 to 1784, the Spanish mounted a thorough campaign to eradicate this menace to the settlers; finally captured in 1783 along with more than 100 maroons, San Malo was condemned to "death by hanging" by alcalde ordinario Mario de Reggio and executed on June 19, 1784. D.N.K. Sources: Laura L. Porteous, "Index to the Spanish Judicial Records of Louisiana," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XVI (1933); XX (1937); "Records of the Cabildo," Book 2; Book 3, I; Book 3, II; Bouligny-Baldwin Papers, Document A3, Bouligny to the King, July 26, 1784, Special Collections, Tulane University; Caroline Burson, The Stewardship of Don Esteban Miró, 1782-1792 (1940); Gilbert C. Din, "Címarrones and the San Malo Band in Spanish Louisiana," Louisiana History, XXI (1980).

SANDERS, Albert Godfrey
, academic. Born, Georgetown, Tex., September 17, 1885. Education: local schools; Southwest University (Texas); Yale University, and Oxford. Married, 1918. Four children. Professor of Romance Languages, Millsaps College, Jackson, Miss. Academic specialties: the age of Louis XIV and Spanish fiction since 1890. With Dunbar Rowland (q.v.), he edited and translated the Mississippi Provincial Archives: French Dominion (5 vols.), also translated documents concerning the impeachment of Bienville (q.v.) in 1708, the African slave trade in Louisiana, 1718, and the Crozat regime which appeared in the Louisiana Historical Quarterly. Member: Modern Language Association, Association of American Rhodes Scholars, and South Central Modern Language Association. Died, 1974, Jackson, Miss. M.S.L. Sources: Directory of American Scholars: A Biographical Directory, 5th ed. (1969); Harry P. Dart, "Editor's Chair: The Splendid Work of Rowland and Sanders in the French Archives of Louisiana," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XII (1920).

SANDERS, Jared Young
, attorney, journalist, politician, governor, congressman. Born near Morgan City, La., January 29, 1869; son of Jared Young, II, and Elizabeth Wofford. Education: schools of Franklin, La.; St. Charles College, Grand Coteau; Tulane University Law School, LL. B., 1893. Editor and publisher of the weekly Franklin paper, St. Mary Banner, 1890-1893. Began the practice of law in Franklin in 1893; firm later included his cousin, former governor Murphy J. Foster (q.v.). Married (1), May 31, 1891, Ada Veronica Shaw, of Fouke, Ark., daughter of Rev. J. F. Shaw. One child: Jared Y., Jr. (q.v.). Divorced, 1912. Married (2), 1914, Emma Dickinson, of New Orleans. Active in Democratic party; member, Louisiana house of representatives from St. Mary Parish, 1892-1896; 1898-1904; speaker, Louisiana house of representatives, 1900-1904; delegate Louisiana constitutional convention, 1898; lieutenant governor, 1904-1908; governor, 1908-1912. First Louisiana governor elected under the state's new primary law; known as "the father of the good-roads movement in Louisiana" to his followers. U. S. senator (Louisiana legislature elected him to finish the term of Samuel D. McEnery (q.v.), July 5, 1910, but resigned to remain in office as governor in unsuccessful effort to secure New Orleans as the site for the World's Panama Exposition). Resumed law practice, 1912-1914; naval officer of the Port of New Orleans, 1914-1916. Removed to Bogalusa, La., 1916, member U. S. Congress, Sixth Congressional District, 1917-1921. Delegate Louisiana constitutional convention, 1921; delegate Democratic National Convention, 1924. Unsuccessful candidate for U. S. Senate, 1926. Bitter opponent of the Huey Long (q.v.) administration. Member: Presbyterian church. Died, Baton Rouge, March 22, 1944; interred Franklin. W.D.P. Sources: Roy R. Glashan, American Governors and Gubernatorial Elections, 1795-1978 (1979); Mary E. Sanders, "The Political Career of Jared Young Sanders, 1892-1912" (M.A. thesis, Louisiana State University, 1955); Miriam G. Reeves, Governors of Louisiana (1980); Robert Sobel and John Raimo, Biographical Directory of the Governors of the U.S. (1978).

SANDERS, Jared Young, Jr.
, politician, civic leader, congressman. Born, Franklin, La., April 20, 1892; son of Jared Y. Sanders (q.v.), governor of Louisiana, and Ada Shaw Sanders. Education: public schools; Dixon Academy, Covington, La.; Louisiana State University, graduated 1912; attended Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va., 1912-1913; Tulane University, LL. B. 1914. Admitted to the bar, and began practice of law in Bogalusa. Removed to Baton Rouge. Served in army in France, 1918-1919, as captain. Married, October 5, 1921, Mary Briggs, of Little Rock, Ark., daughter of C. H. and Eugenia Tate Briggs. Daughter: Mary Elizabeth. Active in Democratic party; elected to Louisiana house of representatives for term beginning 1928; elected to state senate for term beginning 1932. Active as opposition leader to Huey P. Long (q.v.). Long was accused in the impeachment proceedings brought against him as governor of involvement in a plot to kill Sanders. Elected to the United States House of Representatives to fill a vacancy in 1934, re-elected to a full term in 1934, and served from May 1, 1934, to January 3, 1937. Defeated for renomination in 1936. Attended meetings in 1935 to plan anti-Long ticket for state elections. Long accused him of involvement in a plot to assassinate him. Although their political conflict was bitter, there is no evidence that either ever plotted to murder the other. Sanders was again elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1940; defeated for renomination in 1942. Attended Democratic National conventions, 1940 and 1944. Practiced law in Baton Rouge. Unsuccessful candidate for presidential elector on States' Rights ticket in 1960. Active Mason, served as Deputy Grand Master of Grand Lodge of Louisiana, 1960. Member: Church of Christ, Scientist. Died, Baton Rouge, November 29, 1960; interred Roselawn Memorial Park. W.R.S. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1971 (1971); Official Congressional Directory, 77th Congress, 1st Session (1943); Henry E. Chambers, A History of Louisiana: Wilderness-Colony-Province-Territory-State-People (1925); Encyclopedia of American Biography, New Series, Volume XXXVII; T. Harry Williams, Huey Long (1969); Jared Y. Sanders Family Papers, Louisiana State University; New York Times, obituary, November 30, 1960.

SANDERS, Nelson, evangelist, social leader. Born a slave in Virginia, ca. 1810. Sanders was sold south to New Orleans in 1833, and later managed to purchase his freedom through the "hiring out" system. Sanders immediately began to revive the all-black Baptist congregation originally begun by his black predecessor Asa C. Goldsbury (q.v.). With the help of six other black evangelists, he organized New Orleans' second all-black church. His congregation of slaves and free coloreds was frequently harassed by local authorities in the late 1830s. Eventually Sanders was permitted to conduct weekly meetings under the careful supervision of a police officer, who was paid two dollars an hour for witnessing the afternoon worship ceremony. In 1844, Sanders purchased a lot in the vicinity of Howard Avenue and Cypress Street for the construction of a permanent church building. New Orleans' "First African Baptist Church" was the only black religious establishment in Louisiana to actually own property. Sanders' congregation numbered perhaps more than 300 persons, or three times the number of Baptists attending the city's single white church. As an antebellum Louisiana black leader, Sanders is generally ranked second to "Father" Joseph Willis (q.v.) of the Opelousas region. Died, ca. 1870. T.F.R. Source: Timothy F. Reilly, "Religious Leaders and Social Criticism in New Orleans, 1800-1861" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Missouri at Columbia, 1972).

SANDERS, O. L.
, physician. Son of Mr. and Mrs. O. L. Sanders, Sr. of Pleasant Hill, La. Associated with Allen Sanitarium, 1936-1961; highly respected in the medical field for his diagnostic abilities; nephew of Dr. W. G. Allen, founder of the hospital. Married Rita M. Sanders. Children: Sidney Sanders and Elsie Rita Sanders Crapanzano; brothers include retired chief justice of Louisiana Supreme Court Joe W. Sanders, Frank Sanders, Fred Sanders; sisters: Ozie Lee, Lola Mae Sally. Died, January 20, 1961; interred Pleasant Hill Cemetery. J.H.P. Source: Sabine Index, January 27, 1961.

SANDERS, Thomas Inglo, sheriff of Tangipahoa Parish. Born, Amite, La., January 29, 1913; son of Newton Augustus Sanders and Syrena Watson. Educated in local schools, Louisiana State University, FBI National Academy. Military service, captain, U. S. Army, 1942-1946. Married Mary Eva Stewart; two children, Thomas Stewart and Mary Margaret. Sheriff, Tangipahoa Parish, 1948-1968. Died, Amite, La., March 20, 1983. F.K. Source: Author's research.

SANDIDGE, John Milton
, congressman. Born near Carnesville, Ga., January 7, 1817. Removed to Louisiana and became a planter; served as colonel in the Mexican War. Member of the state house of representatives, 1846-1855, and served two years as speaker. Served in U. S. Congress from March 4, 1855, to March 3, 1859. Served throughout the Civil War as colonel of Bossier Cavalry; surrendered the archives of the state to the federal authorities in the absence of Gov. Henry W. Allen (q.v.). Died, Bastrop, La., March 30, 1890; interred Christ Church Cemetery. J.B.C. Source: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950).

SANDLIN, John Nicholas, congressman. Born near Minden, La., February 24, 1872; son of Irene McIntyre and Nicholas J. Sandlin, a native of North Carolina. Education: public schools; Minden Normal School and Business College; studied law privately and was admitted to the bar in 1896. Commenced practice in Minden; prosecuting attorney for the Second District, 1904-1910; judge of the same district, 1910-1920. Married (1) Ruth Reems (d. 1911). One son, John N., Jr. Married (2), 1913, Mrs. Emma Lou (Palmer) Crichton. Delegate to the Democratic National Convention at St. Louis in 1916; elected to Congress as a Democrat and served from March 4, 1921, to January 3, 1937. Was not a candidate for renomination in 1936, but was an unsuccessful candidate for nomination as U. S. senator; engaged in the practice of law. Died, Minden, La., December 25, 1957; interred Minden Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1971 (1971); Henry E. Chambers, A History of Louisiana (1925).

SANDOZ, David François, master carpenter. Born, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, April 24, 1802; son of David François Sandoz and Marianne Mauley. Married, July 10, 1833, at St. Martinville, La., Claire Christine Labbé of St. Martin Parish, daughter of Vincent Labbé and Claire Ozenne. Children: Cesaire (b. 1834), Marie Amélie (b. 1842), Hilaire David (b. 1842), David Charles (b. 1843), Joseph Sevigne (b. 1846), Marguerite Mathilde (b. 1854). Built Belle Cherie, 1850 (destroyed by fire, 1985), his home La Maison Duchamp (1876), home of his daughter Amélie and her husband Eugène Auguste Duchamp in St. Martinville, La. Died December 4, 1877; interred St. Michael's Cemetery, St. Martinville. J.G.B. Sources: St. Martin de Tours archives and author's research.

SANDOZ, Joel Henri, journalist. Born, Dombresson, Canton of Neuchâtel, Switzerland, December 13, 1817; son of Jean Henri Sandoz and Susanne Amez-Droz. The family immigrated to America in 1829, to St. Martinville, La. Married Anne Wilburn of Perry's Bridge, present-day Vermilion Parish, La., in 1842, daughter of John Wilburn and Sarah Ward, at Lafayette, La. Children: Gabriel Leonce (b. 1844); Louis Adolphus (q.v.); Walton Alphonse (b. 1848). Founder (1852) of Opelousas Courier (French-English) a consolidation of Opelousas Gazette (founded 1826) and St. Landry Whig (1844) which published continuously until 1910; associate editor of Opelousas Gazette, first in St. Landry Parish with George Addison. During Union occupation of Opelousas in 1863, the Courier plant was confiscated, senior Sandoz and son Leonce jailed at Opelousas; in the same year, Joel Sandoz was re-arrested as "traitor" and sent to prison in New Orleans. Sandoz relinquished control of the Courier to his two eldest sons in 1870 who alternately were editors until suspension in 1910 after 58 years in the same family. Died January 5, 1878; interred St. Landry Catholic Cemetery, Opelousas. M.S.B. Sources: W. J. Sandoz, "History of the Sandoz Family, 1353-1929"; Sandoz Newspaper Files at Louisiana State University, University of Southwestern Louisiana, Loyola of the South; unpublished "History of the Sandoz Family" by Lelia Sandoz, granddaughter of subject; David C. Edmonds, Yankee Autumn in Acadiana (1979).

SANDOZ, Louis Adolphus
, journalist. Born, Opelousas, La., September 9, 1846; son of Joel Henri Sandoz (q.v.) and Anne Wilburn. Married Susanne Alice Lelia Gil, daughter of William Gil and Ameline Boutté. Children: William Joel; Ada Marie, married Joseph A. Sabatier; Louis Stuart; Mabel Louise, married George Devaughn Wright; Gordon Adolphus; Gertrude Pearl; Lelia Alice; Bayard James; Ralph Henry; George Ellis; Robert E. Lee Hilton. With brother, Gabriel Leonce (b. 1844), published the Opelousas Courier, 1870-1910. Upon retirement engaged in critical translation of French legal documents in St. Landry Parish recorder's office. Died, Opelousas, September 25, 1915; interred St. Landry Catholic Cemetery. M.S.B. Sources: Unpublished history of Sandoz family; Lelia Sandoz, daughter of subject; Sandoz newspaper files; W. J. Sandoz, "History of the Sandoz Family."

SATTERFIELD, Richard, evangelist. Assisted Rev. Nelson Sanders (q.v.), another black clergyman, in founding New Orleans' "First Baptist Church" in 1844. T.F.R. Source: Timothy F. Reilly, "Religious Leaders and social Criticism in New Orleans, 1800-1861" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Missouri at Columbia, 1972).

SAUCIER, Corinne Lelia, folklorist. Born in Avoyelles Parish, 1890. Education: Louisiana State Normal School (now Northwestern State University), teacher's diploma, 1914; taught, 1914-1918, and served as principal, 1918-1922, in Avoyelles Parish school system. Attended George Peabody College for Teachers, B. S., 1922; M. A. (French), 1923 (thesis: "Louisiana Folk Tales and Songs in French Dialects, with Linguistic Notes"); diplôme d'études, Université de la Sorbonne, 1929. Taught French and Spanish at College of St. Scholastica, Duluth, Minn., summer session, University of Chicago, 1929; attended Columbia University, 1930-1931; taught French and Spanish at Northwestern State University of Louisiana, 1931-1955; Ph. D. (folklore), Université Laval, 1949 (dissertation: "Histoire et traditions de la paroisse des Avoyelles en Louisiane"); published several works on Louisiana culture and history, including History of Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana (1943); Traditions de la paroisse des Avoyelles en Louisiane , Memoirs of the American Folklore Society, no. 47 (1956); Histoire et géographie des Avoyelles en Louisiane (1956); and Folk Tales from French Louisiana (1962). Contributed to Pioneer Women Teachers of Louisiana (1954); member, American Association of University Women, American Association of University Professors, Delta Kappa Gamma Honor Society, Modern Language Association, American Folklore Society; listed in Who's Who in American Education (1955-1956). Died, Natchitoches, La., February 1, 1960. B.J.A. Sources: Author's research; Irene Wagner, "Introduction" to Folk Tales from French Louisiana (1962).

SAUNDERS, Lafayette
, attorney, jurist, politician. Born in North Carolina, ca. 1790; son of Col. William Saunders, Revolutionary aide to General Lafayette (q.v.). Married Mary Smith, a niece of Mrs. Andrew Jackson. Arrived Feliciana, ca. 1815 and began practice of law. Removed to Jackson, La., 1817, and Clinton, La., 1824; served as judge of first parish court of East Feliciana, 1824-1834; member, first board of trustees, College of Louisiana, Jackson, 1825; member, Louisiana legislature 1840s; contractor, East Feliciana Courthouse, 1839-1841; member Louisiana constitutional convention, 1844-1845; would have been named to Zachary Taylor's (q.v.) cabinet had he lived. Died, 1848; interred Clinton, La. E.K.D. Sources: East Feliciana Public Records, Elrie Robinson, Early Feliciana Politics (1936); Ann Reiley Jones, Baton Rouge, La.

SAUNIER, Adias, civic leader, politician. Born, Delcambre, La., May 20, 1915; son of Rodolph Saunier and Lezida Suarez. Education: local schools; McNeese State University, Lake Charles, La.; Radio and Television Institute, Chicago, Ill. Removed to Sulphur, La., 1916. Married Lenore Owens, Lake Charles, daughter of Amos Owens and Edna Franklin, of Slagle, La. Children: John (b. 1937), James (b. 1942), Lenora (b. 1950). Active in Democratic party; Sulphur mayor, 1950-1962, 1966-1978; member, past vice-president, Louisiana Municipal Association (LMA), Seventh District; LMA Distinguished Service Award; LMA Mayor of Distinction, 1958; with Louisiana Department of Highways, 1962-1966. Member, Pentecostal church. Imperial Calcasieu Regional Planning and Development Commission; Civil Defense; West Calcasieu Association of Commerce; past president, Rotary Club (twenty-five years perfect attendance); Sulphur Lodge 424 F. & A.M. and Habibi Shrine; Woodmen of the World. Died, Sulphur, May 11, 1984; interred Mimosa Pines Cemetery, south of Sulphur. G.S.P. Sources: Lake Charles American Press, May 12, 1984; The Southwest Builder News, May 13, 1984; Saunier Family Papers.

SAUVOLE, M. de, explorer, commander. Born, France; identity of parents unknown. Held dual ranks of ship's ensign and lieutenant in Bellecourt's company of marines, 1699. Sailed to Louisiana aboard the Marin in Iberville's (q.v.) first expedition to Louisiana, 1699. Accompanied Iberville and Bienville (q.v.) on their exploratory forays along the Mississippi and Alabama coasts, February, 1699. Participated in Iberville's ascent of the Mississippi River, February-March, 1699; assumed command of the expedition when Iberville set out to investigate the Manchac-Amite-Lake Pontchartrain route to the gulf, March 24, 1699. Ordered by Iberville to take soundings at mouth of Mississippi while returning to French ships anchored near Ship Island, but was unable to comply because of bad weather. Appointed commandant of Fort Maurepas by Iberville, May 2, 1699. After assuming command of the post, devoted most of his time to fostering good relations with neighboring Indian tribes, to organizing small expeditions to explore the Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama coastal areas, and to maintaining the rapidly deteriorating wooden fort, 1699-1701. Died, Fort Maurepas, August 22, 1701. C.A.B. Sources: Jay Higginbotham, "Who Was Sauvole?," Louisiana Studies, VII (1968); Carl A. Brasseaux, trans. and ed., A Comparative View of French Louisiana, 1699 and 1762: The Journals of Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville and Jean-Jacques-Blaise d'Abbadie (1979); Jay Higginbotham, trans. and ed., The Journal of Sauvole: Historical Journal of the Establishment of the French in Louisiana by M. de Sauvole (1969).

SAVOY, Cora May Segura
, chemist, educator. Born, New Iberia, La., December 11, 1912; daughter of Jacob Smith Segura, Sr., and Eula Lucille Taylor. Education: local schools, Southwestern Louisiana Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana); Newcomb College; University of Texas; University of Wyoming; University of London. Married, May 9, 1942, Ives A. Savoy. Children: One adopted daughter, Sylvia. Professor of Chemistry for forty-seven years at the University of Southwestern Louisiana. Member, Methodist church. Died, Lafayette, September 22, 1979; interred Rosehill Cemetery, New Iberia. P.M.S. Source: Author's research.

SAXON, Elizabeth Lyle, writer, suffragette. Born, Greenville, Tenn., December 2, 1832; daughter of Clarissa Crutchfield and Andrew Lyle. Education: tutored in Tuskegee, Ala., by author Caroline Lee Hentz. Married Lydall A. Saxon of Laurens District, S. C., January 4, 1849, in Wetumpka, Ala. Children: Walter Lyle, Hugh A., Lyle, and Ina. Grandmother of author Lyle Saxon (q.v.). Began writing poetry at age twelve; her poems, short stories, and sketches were published in various newspapers, 1853-1857; wrote A Southern Woman's War Time Reminiscences which was privately printed in 1905; Poems of Elizabeth Lyle Saxon, a small book of poetry collected by her son Lyle, was published after her death. One of the "Southern Mothers" who raised money, sewed, and nursed soldiers during the Civil War. President, Ladies Physiological Association which won fame for their work during the New Orleans yellow-fever epidemic of 1878. Her letters and articles on behalf of woman's suffrage, published in 1878 and 1879, were far in advance of those times; her speech before the Louisiana constitutional convention was published in the June 11, 1879, New Orleans Times; addressed the United States Senate Judiciary Committee during her tour of the eastern states with Susan B. Anthony in 1880; organized fifty societies of the Women's Christian Temperance Union in 1882; became state president of the Tennessee Suffrage Association in 1885; delivered the opening address to five thousand women of the International Council of Women in Washington, D. C., 1882; returned to New Orleans and in September, 1892, led a successful protest against the Harman Ordinance, which proposed the licensing of prostitutes; was editor of the New Orleans Item's labor department in the late 1890s. One of the first women in the South to speak and write on work reforms for women and children; in 1900, was president of the Portia Club, a New Orleans suffrage group founded by Caroline Merrick (q.v.). Member, Century Club, Seattle; First Congregational Church, Memphis. Died, Memphis, Tenn., March 14, 1915. J.B.C. Sources: Carmen Lindig, The Path from the Parlor, Louisiana Women, 1879-1920 (1986); The National Cyclopedia of American Biography, XVI, 207; New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, March 16, 1915.

SAXON, Lyle, author, journalist, bon vivant, raconteur. Born, Billingham, Wash., September 4, 1891; son of Hugh Allan Saxon and Katherine Chambers; grandson of Elizabeth Lyle Saxon (q.v.), New Orleans suffragette and newspaperwoman, and Michael Chambers, Baton Rouge bookstore owner and city treasurer. Education: Baton Rouge schools; attended Louisiana State University, 1908-1912. Salesman, Mobile, Ala., 1912-1913; teacher, Pensacola, Fla., 1913-1914; free-lance writer, Baton Rouge and New Orleans, 1914-1917; reporter, Chicago Daily News, 1917; reporter, New Orleans Item, 1918-1919; director of Personal Service, Federal Board of Education, 1919; reporter, feature writer, columnist, New Orleans Times-Picayune, 1919-1924, 1926; commissioned by Century Magazine to cover Mississippi flood, 1927; state director, Louisiana Federal Writers' Project, Works Progress Administration, 1935-1942; principal social economist, Research and Statistics Division, Works Progress Administration, 1943; writer-researcher, Louisiana Library Commission, 1944. Author, Father Mississippi (1927); Fabulous New Orleans (1928); Old Louisiana (1929); Lafitte the Pirate (1930); A Walk Through the Vieux Carré and a Short History of the St. Charles (1935); Children of Strangers (1937); The Friends of Joe Gilmore (1948). Editor, New Orleans City Guide (1935); Louisiana: A Guide to the State (1941). Compiler, with Edward Dreyer and Robert Tallant, Gumbo Ya-Ya (1945). First short story, "Cane River" (The Dial, 1926), received O. Henry Memorial Award (1926). Contributor to The Dial, New Republic, Century Magazine, Saturday Review of Literature, New York Herald Tribune Books. Member: P.E.N.; New Orleans Arts and Crafts Club. Known as "Mr. New Orleans" for life-long championship of Mardi Gras and the Vieux Carré. Died, New Orleans, April 9, 1946; interred Baton Rouge Magnolia Cemetery. A.C.L. Sources: Cathy Chance Harvey, "Lyle Saxon: A Portrait in Letters, 1917-1945" (Ph. D. dissertation, Tulane University, 1980); Ronnie W. Clayton, "A History of the Federal Writers' Project in Louisiana" (Ph. D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1974); Joe W. Kraus, "Lyle Saxon's Footnotes to History: A Bibliography," Louisiana Library Association Bulletin, XIII (Winter, 1950).

SCANLAN, Michael W., farmer, politician. Born, Pitreville, near Church Point, Acadia Parish, La., October 28, 1883; son of Michael C. Scanlan and Mary Lynch. Married, November 29, 1922, Lela Andrus, of Maxie, La., daughter of Jesse Andrus and Jane Young. Two sons: Michael, Jr. (b. 1924) and Carl Dean (b. 1939). Known as "Mr. Mike". Member of the Acadia Parish Police Jury, 1916-1960, serving as president for thirty-four years. Organized a five-parish rural electric co-op (SLEMCO) in 1937 that became the world's largest by 1960; served as its president from that time until his death. Vice-president of the Louisiana Rural Electric Association; vice-president of the Farmers Bank and Trust Company of Church Point; organizer and chairman of the board of the Acadia Soil Conservation District for twenty years; board member of the Southwest Louisiana Fair Association; chairman of the Louisiana Warehouse Commission; president of the Bayou Plaquemine-Wikoff Drainage Board for forty years; member, director, and vice-president of the Sweet Potato Association and selected king of the Yambilee in 1956; named as one of twenty men in the U. S. to serve on Natural Resources Advisory Committee by President-elect John F. Kennedy in 1960; Progressive Farmer Magazine's "Louisiana Man of the Year in Agriculture" for 1960. Member: Our Lady of the Sacred Heart Catholic Church. Died, December 23, 1960; interred Our Lady of the Sacred Heart Cemetery. A.M. Source: Author's research.

SCHAEUBLE, Paul, O.S.B., clergyman, first abbot of Saint Joseph Abbey. Born, Segeten, Baden, Germany, February 13, 1863; son of James Schaeuble and Mary Matt. Baptized on same day, Franz Joseph. Educated, local schools, then apprenticeship at mercantile establishments in Kehl and Speyer. Determined at eighteen to come to the United States and was directed, while at Einsiedeln Abbey in Switzerland on pilgrimage, to go to Saint Meinrad Archabbey in Indiana. Finished four-year course in two years and entered novitiate at archabbey. Made first profession, July 19, 1885, and took name of Paul. Ordained a priest at Saint Meinrad, June 15, 1889. Served as professor of Latin during the following year. For health reasons sent to New Orleans to Saint Boniface Parish, a foundation of Saint Meinrad, as assistant pastor, 1890. Made pastor, 1893. Appointed prior in 1902 of Saint Joseph Priory, Benedictine community at Gessen, near Ponchatoula, founded by Saint Meinrad Archabbey. Supervised its move to Saint Benedict, La., present location. Under his leadership new buildings were completed. Appointed first abbot when priory was raised to status of abbey, 1903, by Pope Leo XIII. Blessing, November 15, 1903, at Saint Boniface Church, New Orleans. Directed reconstruction after monastery, seminary and college destroyed by fire November 30, 1907. Resigned as abbot, 1931, and became chaplain, 1932, at United States Marine Hospital (National Leprosarium), Carville, La.. Resigned, June, 1948, at age of 85 to become chaplain of Saint Gertrude Convent of Benedictine Sisters at Ramsay until November 3, 1951. Died, Saint Joseph Abbey, September 20, 1955; interred abbey cemetery. D.R.B. Sources: Placid Pierce, O.S.B., A History of Saint Joseph Priory; Albert Kleber, Biographical Sketches of Abbot Paul, written from personal interview.

SCHANZ, George, businessman, civic leader. Born Darmstadt, Germany, July 12, 1877; son of George and Marie Schanz. Immigrated to Plattsmouth, Neb., 1884. Educated, local schools. Removed to Jennings, La., 1901. Married, February 12, 1903, Maud Edith Cook, daughter of J. Cook and Sarah Farley of Jennings, La. Children: Florence (b. 1905), Bernice (b. 1907), Edna (b. 1909), George (b. 1913), Jack (b. 1917). Removed to Evangeline, La., founded Evangeline Iron Works. Removed residence to Vinton, La., business to Ged Oil Field, 1920; removed business to Orange, Tex., 1925; removed business to Lake Charles, La., 1935. Instrumental in organizing National Bank, director until 1941. Member: Lutheran church; Rotary Club; Jennings Masonic Lodge F&AM No. 249. Died, April 20, 1941, interred Big Woods Cemetery, Edgerly, La. G.S.P. Sources: Lake Charles American Press, April 21, 1941; Beaumont Enterprise, April 22, 1941; Orange Leader, April 21, 1941; Schanz Family Papers.

SCHERTZ, Helen Pitkin, author, civic and social leader. Born, New Orleans, August 8, 1877; daughter of John Robert Graham Pitkin and Helen Fearing Fuller. Education: private schools; Newcomb College, New Orleans. Married, April 29, 1909, Christian Schertz, of Lorraine, Germany, chemist and owner of chain of drugstores in New Orleans. Staff writer for the New Orleans Times-Democrat; newspaper columnist; co-founder of Louisiana branch International Sunshine Society and president of its Helen Pitkin Wheel Chair Branch for 18 years; founder of New Orleans Spring Fiesta; charter member of Le Petit Théâtre du Vieux Carré, served on board; served as president of Orleans Anti-Tuberculosis League, local chapter of American Pen Women, Poetry Society; King's Daughter. Member of Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals; New Orleans Philharmonic Society; Louisiana Historical Society; U. S. Daughters of 1776, 1812; Orleans Club; New Orleans chapter American Red Cross; D. A. R.; Stuart Clan. Episcopalian. Author of Over the Hills (1903); An Angel by Brevet (1904); Legends of Louisiana (1922); and several guide books to New Orleans. Pioneer advocate of the preservation of the Vieux Carré. Died New Orleans, December 26, 1945; interred Lafayette Cemetery I. J.L.M.-F. Sources: May Mount, Some Notables of New Orleans (1896); Herman de Bachelle Seebold, Old Louisiana Plantation Homes and Family Trees (1941); articles and obituary, New Orleans Times-Picayune, December 27, 1945; February 27, 1927; Who Was Who in America, V, 1969-1973; miscellaneous newsclippings in Louisiana scrapbook, Tulane University Special Collections Division.

SCHEXNAYDER, Maurice
, clergyman, prelate. Born, Wallace, La., 1895; son of Adam Schexnayder and Jeanne Marie Dupleix. Education: Wallace and New Orleans schools; entered St. Joseph Seminary, 1916, at St. Benedict, La.; attended St. Mary Seminary, Baltimore, received both Bachelor's and Master's degrees. Sent by the archbishop of New Orleans to study theology at the North American College in Rome. Ordained priest in Rome, April 12, 1925. Assistant pastor, St. John the Evangelist Church, Plaquemines, La., 1925-1929; assigned to St. Joseph Church, Baton Rouge, with specific task of establishing a Catholic Student Center at Louisiana State University. Remained pastor of Christ the King Chapel at LSU until 1946. Served as state chaplain of the Knights of Columbus, 1932-1944. Supported establishment of Catholic student centers at public universities. Became nationally known for involvement in the Newman Club movement on secular campuses and as bishop served as episcopal advisor for the National Newman Federation. Appointed, 1946, pastor of St. Francis de Sales Church, Houma, La. Named domestic prelate (monsignor) by the Holy See, 1947; appointed auxiliary bishop to Bishop Jeanmard (q.v.) of Lafayette, February 22, 1951. As auxiliary bishop of Lafayette, named pastor of St. Michael's Church, Crowley, La., until Bishop Jeanmard retired in 1956. Appointed second bishop of Lafayette and installed by Archbishop Rummel (q.v.) on May 24, 1956. Built a more adequate chancery for diocesan administration, enlarged facilities at Immaculata Minor Seminary, supervised construction of more permanent churches, schools and parish centers throughout the diocese and established thirty-one new parishes. Ordained 81 young men to the priesthood. Resigned 1972. Died, January 23, 1981; interred St. John Cathedral, Lafayette. J.G. Sources: Attakapas Gazette, VII (1972), 153; Morning Star (Diocese of Lafayette), various issues; Archives, Diocese of Lafayette, Schexnayder Papers.

SCHILLING, Ola Haney, civic leader. Born East Feliciana Parish, La., September 14, 1894, daughter of the Reverend J. P. and Leola Haney. Removed to Greensburg, La., as a child. Education: St. Helena schools; Silliman Institute, Clinton, La. Married Leon D. Schilling, Greensburg. No issue. Helped organize local garden club, instrumental in securing library for Greensburg, was state flower judge, active with Live Oak Society on state level, worked as a social worker. Member Methodist church. Died, October 5, 1975; interred Greensburg Cemetery. N.C.L. Source: Author's research.

SCHLIEDER, Edward G., financier, brewer, sportsman, philanthropist. Born, Louisville, Ky., 1853. Parents natives of Alsace-Lorraine. Married Louise Marie Sontag (d. 1909). Went to work in the cigar industry in Havana, Cuba; removed to New Orleans, 1870, worked in the leaf tobacco business; first president, Salmen Brick and Lumber Co.; member, board of directors, D. H. Holmes Co., and investor in New Orleans shipbuilding companies, banks, an oil company, and homesteads. Organized American Brewing Co., 1890, and continued as its president until 1935; president, administrative board, Fair Grounds racetrack, 1925; established Edward G. Schlieder Education Foundation, 1945; built private hunting lodge on South Pass Manchac, 1908 (presently Southeasten Louisiana University's Biological Field Research Station). Died, New Orleans, May 12, 1948; interred Metairie Cemetery. C.A.D. Sources: New Orleans Daily Picayune, December 22, 1909; New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, May 13, 1948; Personal interviews.

SCHMIDT, Gustavus
, attorney, historian, linguist. Born, Maiestad, Sweden, June 16, 1795. Immigrated to America, settled in Louisiana. A noted international lawyer; also well known for having established (1844) the state's first law school, "Schmidt's Law School," a forerunner of Tulane Law School. Author of The Civil Law of Spain and Mexico and editor of The Louisiana Law Journal (1841-1842). Married (1) Melanie Seghers (b. 1804), April 18, 1831; three children: Charles Edouard Schmidt (b. 1832); Julien Albert Schmidt (b. 1833); and Euphrosine Julie (b. 1834), married Pierre François Volant de La Barre. Married (2) Estelle Marie Mascey; four sons: Oscar, Edward, John, and Henry. A linguist, was studying Chinese at time of death. Died, September 20, 1877. R.D.R. Source: Author's research.

SCHMIDT, Marie Louise
, civic leader. Born, New Orleans, July 10, 1876, daughter of Charles Edouard Schmidt and Marie Louise Hélène Léda Hincks. Educated in France. Made her debut, New Orleans, 1894. Married Hughes Jules de la Vergne, May 3, 1895. Children: Marie-Louise Marguerite (b. 1896), married Charles de Bony de Lavergne; Juilliac Hugues (b. 1897); Charles Edouard (b. 1904); Marie Louise Hélène Léda, married Hugh Cage St. Paul; Jules Kristian (b. 1911); Jacques Philippe Villeré (b. 1913); Pierre Renaud (b. 1916). Married (2) Henry Landry de Freneuse, April 27, 1927. President, New Orleans Spring Fiesta Association, 1939-61. During World War I, she was chairman for Louisiana of the Fatherless Children of France; chairman of the Devastated Churches; chairman of Ship of Friendship to Aid War Victims of Orléans, France; director of the Opera House Association; director of the Pontalba Building Association; member, Athenée Louisianaise. Was instrumental in raising funds to erect statue of Bienville, founder of New Orleans. Awarded the Legion of Honor of France (1949) in ceremonies presided over by Frendh ambassador Henri Bonnet. Member, Crecle Interallié of Paris; director, Louisiana Historical Society; vice-chairman, New Orleans Civic Choral Society. Name entered into the New Orleans Federation of Women's Clubs Hall of Fame. Died, New Orleans, January 12, 1961. R.D.R. Source: Author's research.

SCHUSTER, Hattie, founder of the Mothers Union. Drew together Shreveport's most prominent matrons to form the Mothers' Class, which later became Mothers' Union. Prior to 1902 she had been engaged in kindergarten work. Among projects designed by the Mothers' Union were the Shreveport Training School for Girls, the Shreveport Co-operative and Protective Association, and the first organized effort to establish Parent-Teacher associations in the public schools. Established first private kindergarten in Shreveport in 1901. In 1903, was elected by the Caddo Parish School Board to be supervisor of the public school kindergarten department. She retired at the end of the 1936-1937 school year at age 70. P.L.M. Source: Lilla McLure and J. Ed Howe, History of Shreveport and Shreveport Builders (1937).

SCHWARZ, Herbert J., businessman, civic leader. Born, New Orleans, 1887. Entered the family's wholesale business, Schwartz Bros., in New Orleans in 1902. At the same time, continued education at Tulane University. Became president of Schwartz Bros., 1926, upon death of father. When Schwartz Bros. closed during Great Depression, became president of Maison Blanche department store, 1932. Served in this capacity until 1949 when named president of City Stores Company, the New York-based chain that owned Maison Blanche. During his years in New Orleans, he served as president of Greater New Orleans, Inc., a service organization which promoted the economy of the city. Helped organize and served as a director of International House, designed to encourage international trade. Served as first vice-president of the New Orleans International Trade Mart and president of the Traffic and Park Improvement Association of New Orleans. Was instrumental in organization of New Orleans Mid-Winter Sports Association and active in the New Orleans Symphony Society. A director of Hibernia National Bank, New Orleans Chamber of Commerce and member of Louisiana Port Commission. Died, New York, April 12, 1955. E.N. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, April 12, 1955; New Orleans Item, April 12, 1955; New Orleans States, April 12, 1955; New York Times, April 12, 1955.

SCHWING, Anna Blanchet, civic and religious leader. Born January 2, 1890; daughter of Henriette Hebert and Jules Blanchet, great grand-daughter of Frederic Henri Duperier (q.v.), who chartered city of New Iberia. Survivor of 1900 Galveston storm; 1907 Mt. Carmel graduate. Married, April 6, 1910, John E. Schwing, local attorney, executive vice-president of New Iberia National Bank, son of George B. Schwing, Jr., of Plaquemine, La., and Florestine Patout of Enterprise Plantation, Patoutville, La. Children: The Reverend J. E. Schwing, Jr., S. J., (b. 1911), Jules B. (b. 1914), Mary Robbins (b. 1916), Anna Louise Allain (b. 1921), Flora Thérèse Broussard (b. 1923), George E. (b. 1925), Paul F. (b. 1927), Pierre F. (b. 1929), Henriette Dougherty (b. 1931), James W. (b. 1934). First Grand Regent and organizer of Catholic Daughters Court of Little Theresa; received award, 1967, from Pope Paul VI, the Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice; sponsor of annual Anna B. Schwing Elocution Award; active member, Third Order of Carmelites Ladies Altar Society, V. F. W. Auxiliary, Red Cross, Mt. Carmel and St. Peter's College Mothers clubs, St. Peter's Choir, Senior Children of Mary, Mt. Carmel Alumnae, Catholic Charities. Was St. Peter's first grade teacher, one of first Cub Scout den mothers in parish. Died, New Iberia, January 16, 1981; interred St. Peter's Catholic Cemetery. M.G.B. Source: Author's research.

SCHWING, Mary Ann, see PATOUT, Mary Ann Schwing

SCOTT, Thomas Moore, farmer, soldier. Born, Athens, Ga., 1829; son of George Scott and Mary Anne Moore. Lived in New Orleans and LaGrange, Ga., as a young man before removing to Claiborne Parish, La., where he was a farmer. Elected colonel, Twelfth Louisiana Infantry Regiment, August 13, 1861, and led his regiment in several battles in Tennessee and Mississippi. Acted as brigade commander at various times and promoted to rank of brigadier general, May 10, 1864. Led a brigade of the Army of Tennessee in the Atlanta Campaign and Hood's invasion of Tennessee. Wounded and disabled by an artillery shell at the Battle of Franklin, Tenn., November 30, 1864. Returned to farming near Homer after the war. Later ran a sugar plantation in southern Louisiana. Member of the Masonic Order. Died, New Orleans, April 21, 1876; interred Greenwood Cemetery. A.W.B. Sources: Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Gray (1959); Clement A. Evans, Confederate Military History, 13 vols. (1899).

SCOTT, William Anderson, clergyman, author, colonizationist. Born, Bedford County, Tenn., January 31, 1813; son of Eli Scott and Martha Anderson. Education: self-educated in youth; Cumberland College at Princeton, Ky., 1833; Princeton (N.J.) Theological Seminary. Ordained, May 17, 1835, by the Presbytery of Louisiana, then served as missionary in Louisiana and Arkansas, 1835-1836, and as principal of the Female Academy at Winchester, Tenn., 1836-1838. Married, January 19, 1836, Ann Nicholson of Kilkeel, Ireland. During next four years, Scott served as pastor of Andrew Jackson's Hermitage Church, president of Nashville Female Seminary, and pastor in Tuscaloosa, Ala. From 1842 to 1854, he was chief pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in New Orleans where he attained fame. In 1844, Scott became embroiled in a prolonged and bitter debate in which he impugned the integrity of presidential hopeful Henry Clay. An avid expansionist, Scott also sought to spread Calvinist faith through the aggressive development of trade and commerce. Between 1847 and 1850, Scott was editor of the New Orleans Presbyterian, a denominational weekly largely concerned with African colonizationist, local morality, and "evils" of Roman Catholicism. Removed to San Francisco in 1854. Though he criticized slavery, he remained steadfastly loyal to Southern cause until his death, January 14, 1885. He was the author of several religious books, the best known of which include Trade and Letters (1856), The Bible and Politics (1859), and The Christ of the Apostles' Creed (1867). T.F.R. Sources: Clifford Merrill Drury, William Anderson Scott: "No Ordinary Man" (1967); Timothy F. Reilly, "Religious Leaders and Social Criticism in New Orleans, 1860-1861" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Missouri at Columbia, 1972); "Scott, William Anderson," Dictionary of American Biography, XVI.

SEALE, William Arnold Kent,
physician, surgeon, civic leader, conservationist, sportsman. Born, Eupora, Miss., August 3, 1905; son of William H. Seale and Susan Kent. Education: local schools; Howard College, Birmingham, Ala.; Tulane Medical School, New Orleans, La. Practiced, Sulphur, La., 1932-1985. Married, February 9, 1936, Ilene Fleniken, of Baywood, La., daughter of William A. Fleniken and Ella Perry. Children: Ilene (b. 1937), A. Kent (b. 1941). Instrumental: establishing Ward 4 Recreational District; obtaining Sulphur Frasch Park land; promoting annual State High School Championship Rodeo, Sulphur; establishing West Cal-Cam Hospital; petitioning Sulphur first street-paving project. Established: Sulphur High School student loan fund. Supportive: McNeese State University emergency loan fund. Served: gratuitous team physician, Sulphur High School, 1943-1954. Big game hunter: Africa, India, Canada, Mexico, western U. S.; donated head mounts of game animals collected to McNeese State University; donated preserved small animal specimens to Tulane University. Member: Methodist church; American College of Surgeons; International College of Surgeons; Southeastern Surgical Association; Louisiana Medical Society; Calcasieu Parish Medical Society; Safari Club International; Ducks Unlimited; Grand Slam Club. Seale Vertebrate Museum, McNeese State University, named for subject; named first McNeese honorary professor. Died, Miami, Fla., February 28, 1985; body donated to Tulane Medical School. G.S.P. Sources: Erbon Wise, "Brimstone! The Story of Sulphur, La.," Lake Charles American Press, August 1, 1979; obituary, March 1, 1985; Sulphur Southwest Builder, July 25, 1979; August 8, 1979; obituary, March 3, 1985; Seale Family Papers.

SEALSFIELD, Charles, pseudonym of Karl Postl, journalist, novelist. Born, Poppitz, Moravia, March 3, 1793. Educated at Zoraim in Moravia, entered monastery of the Knights of the Cross in Prague. Became a priest and a monk, but in 1823, fled from the monastery and emigrated to the United States. Assumed the name Charles Sealsfield. Worked in New York for the French American newspaper Le Courrier des Etats-Unis. Returned to Europe and published under the pseudonym Von C. Sidons Die Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika . . . (1828) which was translated in London as The Americans as They Are . . . (1829). Published anonymously in London Austria as It Is (1828). In the U. S. had obtained a passport in the name of Sealsfield which identified him as a Pennsylvania Protestant minister. Returned to the United States and became, he claimed, editor of the Courrier des Etats-Unis though the masthead never carried his name. Travelled in Texas, Louisiana, and Central America. Bought a plantation in Louisiana, but this claim remains unverified. Became acquainted with Matthew Carey, James Fenimore Cooper's Philadelphia publisher who, in 1829, published his Tokeah or The White Rose. A New York reviewer ranked it as superior to Cooper's novels, but a negative review in the May 1829 Ariel ended Sealsfield's ambition to outdo Cooper on his own ground. Became the London and Paris correspondent of Mordecai Noah's New York Morning Courier and Enquirier. In 1832 moved to Solothurn, Switzerland. Published in 1834 Lebensbilder aus bieder Hemisphären (2 vols.), translated as Life in the New World (1841). Published numerous novels and travel accounts. When Theodor Mundt ranked him above Irving and Cooper in lectures delivered at the University of Berlin, the Boston Daily Advertiser of March 29, 1844, in an article entitled "The Greatest American Author," asked for help in finding this important writer who was unknown in Boston. A number of Sealsfield's works appeared then in English translations, and refacimenti, in America and England, including: The Cabin Book or Sketches of Life in Texas (1844); The Boy of Mount Rhigi (1848); Frontier Life or Scenes and Adventures in the South 'West (1853); Adventures in Texas (1861); "The Squatter Regulator." Selections pertaining to Louisiana were translated into French as Les Emigrés français dans la Louisiane (1800-1804) (1853). His true identity was revealed after his death at Solothurn, May 26, 1864. K.J.R.A. Sources: Otto Heller and Theodore H. Leon, Charles Sealsfield, Washington University Studies, New Series, Language and Literature, No. 8, September, 1939; Albert B. Faust, Charles Sealsfield (Carl Postl), der Dichter bieder Hemispharen; Eduard Castle, Der Grofe Unbekannte: Das Leben von Charles Sealsfield; Karl J. R. Arndt, Charles Sealsfield, Samtliche Schriften; "Charles Sealsfield, The Greatest American Author," Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, October 1964.

SEAY, William A., attorney, politician, diplomat. Born near Burkeville, Va., April 19, 1831. Education: Princeton, graduated, 1850; Lexington Law School. Married sister of Henry L. Edwards, Iberville Parish sugar planter and New Orleans attorney. Served in Confederate Army as engineer officer under General Price. Admitted to Virginia bar, 1852, law practice in Virginia, 1852-1853; law practice in St. Louis, Mo., 1853-1861; law practice in Shreveport, La., 1861-1885; received majority of votes for Louisiana district court judgeship, 1872, but electoral board denied him the office. Professor at Louisiana State Military School. Served in Louisiana house of representatives, 1882-1885. Compiler, The Revised Statutes of the State of Louisiana, from the Organization of the Territory to the Year 1884 (1886). Minister resident and consul general to Bolivia from May 9, 1885, to April 12, 1887. T.D.S. Sources: National Cyclopedia of American Biography, VII; Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Louisiana (1892; reprint ed., 1975); U. S. Dept. of State, United States Chiefs of Mission, 1778-1973 (1973).

SEDELLA, Antonio de
, clergyman. Born, at Sedella, Granada, Spain, November 18, 1748; son of Pedro Moreno and Ana Arze, baptized Francisco Antonio Ildefonso. A most interesting and controversial personality in the history of the Catholic church in Louisiana. Entered Capuchin Order and ordained priest in Granada, December 21, 1771. Lectured in Sacred Theology. Responded to the appeal of the bishop of Santiago, Cuba, for more priests in Louisiana, 1779. Arrived in New Orleans, January 1781, and joined the staff of St. Louis Church. Temporary pastor of New Orleans in the absence of Bishop Cirillo de Barcelona (q.v.), 1785. Appointed permanent pastor by Bishop Echeverria 1787. Appointed commissary of the Holy Office, February 10, 1786. Upon return of Bishop Cirillo in 1789 charged with a variety of abuses and misdemeanors. Complained to Bishop Trespalacios of Cirillo's treatment. Cirillo called on Governor Miró (q.v.) to deport Fr. Antonio and instituted a canonical process against the latter, March 30, 1790. Sedella collected a large number of testimonials in his favor. On receipt of another commission from the Holy Office to erect an inquisitorial tribunal, Sedella appealed to Miró for assistance. Miró, alarmed, decided to deport Sedella to Spain but under the guise of yielding to Cirillo's wishes. Sedella sent to Cadiz as prisoner on April 29, 1790. Cirillo sent charges against Sedella to Bishop Trespalacios who was unimpressed and accused Cirillo of having exceeded his authority. In Spain Sedella appealed to Council of Indies. Cirillo and Governor Miró charged with having made grave mistake. Sedella's case referred back to Havana. Arrived in Havana, September 21, 1791. Trespalacios ordered secret investigation. After a year without results Sedella appealed to the crown which ordered him restored as pastor of New Orleans. Matter turned over to Luis Peñalver y Cardenas (q.v.), newly elected first bishop of Louisiana and the Floridas, who brought back Sedella to New Orleans with him in July of 1795. Sedella accompanied Peñalver as secretary during tours of the diocese, 1795-1798. Status of the diocese uncertain after Peñalver's departure for Guatemala in 1801. Administration of the diocese left to Canon Thomas Hassett. Sedella elected pastor of St. Louis Cathedral by a large majority of New Orleans citizens, March 14, 1804. Canon Hassett died April 23, 1804. Administrative authority claimed by Rev. Patrick Walsh (q.v.). Sedella refused to acknowledge Walsh who, in turn, suspended Sedella. Schism in New Orleans. Gov. W. C. C. Claiborne, and Secretary of State James Madison doubted loyalty of Sedella to United States (1805). Walsh sought legal possession of Cathedral from territorial supreme court, but ruling went against him. Walsh died August 22, 1806. Bishop Carroll given temporary jurisdiciton over Louisiana and sent Rev. Jean Olivier to New Orleans as administrator in 1807. Sedella challenged authority of Olivier. Cathedral church wardens wrote to pope on March 18, 1807, asking that Carroll's jurisdiction be rescinded, Peñalver be restored as bishop of Louisiana, and Sedella made his vicar general. Mounting opposition to Olivier forced his resignation in 1808. Carroll sent Rev. Louis Sibourd as replacement and, in 1812, Louis Guillaume Valentin DuBourg (q.v.) as Sibourd's replacement. Opposition developed between Sedella and DuBourg. DuBourg traveled to Rome in summer of 1815 to report on religious conditions in Louisiana, leaving Sibourd as vicar general. Sedella challenged Sibourd's authority. DuBourg named bishop of Louisiana and the Floridas and was consecrated in Rome. Sedella reportedly dismissed legitimacy of Dubourg's appointment. DuBourg returned from Rome in 1817 but lived in St. Louis, Mo. Surprisingly DuBourg asked Rome to appoint Sedella co-adjutor bishop, May 12, 1819, but withdrew request in June. Sedella declined offer of episcopate on grounds of age. DuBourg visited New Orleans during 1820 and was warmly received; praised Sedella. DuBourg moved to New Orleans in 1823 but resigned the diocese and returned to France, 1826. Bishop Joseph Rosati (q.v.) of St. Louis named administator of the diocese. Rosati named Sedella presiding officer of the Episcopal Council for New Orleans. Cathedral church wardens circulated petition destined for state legislature entitling them to approve nomination of pastor of the cathedral, 1828. Rosati convened Episcopal Council which condemned petition. Sedella brought Council's censure to church wardens. Sedella died January 22, 1829. J.E.B. Sources: Roger Baudier, The Catholic Church in Louisiana (1939); C. W. Bishpam, "Fray Antonio de Sedella: An Appreciation," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, II (1919); F. P. Burns, "Notes on the Legislation and Litigation Affecting the Title of St. Louis Cathedral," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XVIII (1935); M. J. Curley, Church and State in the Spanish Floridas, 1783-1822 (1940); Stanley Faye, "The Schism of 1805 in New Orleans," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXII (1939); S. Faye, "Louis Declouet's Memorial to the Spanish Government, December 7, 1814," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXII (1939); A. E. Fossier, New Orleans: The Glamour Period, 1800-1840 (1957); A. M. Melville, "John Carroll and Louisiana, 1803-1815," Catholic Historical Review, LXIV (1978); E. F. Niehaus, "Sedella, Antonio de," New Catholic Encyclopedia (1967), XIII; C. L. Souvay, "A Centennial of the Church in St. Louis," Catholic Historical Review, IV (1918).

SEEBOLD, Frederic William Emile (W. E.)
. Born in Lachem, Kingdom of Hanover, Germany, September 15, 1833; son of the Reverend John William Herman Seebold, head of the Lutheran church of Hanover and Sophie Munchmeyer, a descendant of Jacques de Bachellé, savior of the city of Metz in Lorraine in the 1500s. Education: University of Goettingen in Hanover, graduated with honor. Came to America in 1854 or 1856 on the customary tour as part of finishing one's education. Resided in New York, Cleveland, Milwaukee, and Chicago before removing to New Orleans in 1860 or 1861, where he worked as a builder and contractor. He entered the Confederate Army, July 1861, as a private in Company I, First Regiment Louisiana Cavalry. Fought in the battles of Fort Donaldson and Shiloh, the Corinth campaign, and the battles of Richmond, Perryville, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, and Chattanooga. Captured on the Cumberland River in Kentucky in 1864, imprisoned at Johnson's Island and Point Lookout until being exchanged at City Point, Va., on May 11, 1864. He rejoined his regiment until the capitulation at Meridian, Miss. Married Lisette Boehm, May 1865, daughter of François Pierre Boehm III. Children: Mrs. Marie Madeleine Molinary (1866-1948), William John Seebold (d. 1868), George Sandford Seebold (d. 1880), Walter Emile Seebold (d. 1914), Mrs. Stella Lisette MacPherson, Randall Hunt Seebold (d. September 1, 1927), Herman Boehm de Bachellé Seebold, and Francis Semmes Seebold (d. 1934). After war Seebold opened a book, picture framing, stationery, and art dealership on Canal Street, a business he maintained until his death. He became the foremost art connoisseur in New Orleans and was a friend of many struggling artists. Between 1879 and 1916 nearly every artist of note dined at his house. In 1879 his gallery became the headquarters of Richard Clague, Everett B. D. Fabrino Randolph, and Harold Julio. On Sundays would gather a group of artists, writers, musicians and poets. Active in the formation of the Art Gallery at the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition of 1884-1885. Charter member of the Southern Art Union and Artists' Association of New Orleans and member of the Association of the Army of Tennessee. Died, New Orleans, June 25, 1921. C.S.B. Sources: The Historic New Orleans Collection, Encyclopaedia of New Orleans Artists, 1718-1918 (1987); New Orleans Item, June 25, 1921; New Orleans Times-Picayune, October 9, 1983; Clement A. Evans, ed., Confederate Military History (1899); Herman de Bachellé Seebold, Old Louisiana Plantation Homes and Family Trees (1941).

SEEBOLD, Herman Boehm de Bachellé
, physician, author. Born, New Orleans, 1875; son of Lisette Boehm and Frédéric William Emile Seebold (q.v.). Graduate of Tulane University school of medicine; served in World War I. Retired from medical practice in 1930s to devote his time to the study of Louisiana and its traditions. Authored Louisiana Plantation Homes and Family Trees (1941). Died, New Orleans, December 11, 1950; survived by widow, the former Nettie Kinney. Interred Metairie Cemetery. J.B.C. Source: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, December 12, 1950.

SEELOS, Francis-Xavier
, clergyman, missionary. Born, Fussen, Bavaria, January 11, 1819; son of Mang and Frances Seelos. Education: local schools; St. Stephen's Gymnasium, Augsburg; Royal Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich; School of Theology, Munich University. Removed to America, 1843, to enter Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer. Made religious profession, Baltimore, Md., 1844; ordained to priesthood, December 22, 1844. Served several parishes in Pennsylvania, Maryland and Michigan, 1845-1866. Appointed acting pastor, St. Mary's Church, New Orleans, 1866-1867. Worked for one year in the three churches committed to the care of the Redemptorists, one for English-speaking Catholics, one for French, and one for German. Died of yellow fever, New Orleans, October 4, 1867; interred St. Mary's Church. Cause for canonization begun in 1900. J.E. Source: Michael J. Curley, Cheerful Ascetic, The Life of Francis Xavier Seelos, C.SS.R.

SEGURA, Albin (Marie Joseph), farmer. Born, Abbeville, La., December 24, 1881; son of Emile Adolphe Segura and (Françoise) Mathilde Perret. Education: New Iberia High School, valedictorian, class of 1899. Married, August 22, 1911, Llewellyln Adelaide Eaton, daughter of Freeman Baker Eaton and Martha Mitchell, of Owensboro, Ky. Children: Marnell Albin (b. 1912), Annette Levie (Sister Ann Carmel) (b. 1913), Charles Frederick D'Arensbourg (between 1914 and 1916), Richard Eaton (b. 1917). Expert on sugarcane growing. Member, Roman Catholic church; Knights of Columbus; U. S. Coast Guard in World War II. Died, Iberia Parish, October 16, 1970; interred St. Peter's Cemetery, New Iberia. P.M.S. Sources: Obituary, New Iberia Daily Iberian, October 18, 1970; Attakapas Gazette, XIV (1979); Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984).

SEGURA, Emile Adolphe, farmer, politician, educator. Born near New Iberia, La., May 22, 1831; son of Raphael Segura, Sr., and Marie Carmelite Romero. Education: local schools and Kentucky. Married (1), December 8, 1853, Odile Marguerite Dugas, daughter of Aurelian Benjamin Dugas and Eurasie Broussard. Children: Marie Angele (b. 1855), Carmelite Corinne (b. 1856), Joseph René (q.v.), Marguerite Annette (b. 1861). Believed to have been private, First Native Guards, Louisiana Militia for active service within state of Louisiana. Married (2), June 28, 1865, Jeanne Mathilde Perret, daughter of Placide Perret and Isabelle Mathilde d'Arensbourg. Children: Jean Emmanuel (b. 1869), Marie Mathilde (b. 1873), Marie Blanche (b. 1874), Child (b. 1875?), Marie Joseph Adolphe (b. 1878), Marie Levie (Lucie) (b. 1880), Marie Joseph Albin (Albert) (q.v.). Following close of Civil War was one of six who organized public school system for Iberia Parish. Appointed member of the first school board by Gov. Francis T. Nicholls (q.v.). Also served as justice of the peace for Ward 5. Active in Democratic party. Was trilingual. Member, St. Peter's Catholic Church. Died Segura, La. (suburb of New Iberia), May 11, 1888; interred St. Peter's Cemetery, New Iberia. P.M.S. Sources: Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); Alcée Fortier, Louisiana (1914); Louisiana Secretary of State Report, 1879, 1882, 1884, 1886, 1887; Glenn R. Conrad, comp., New Iberia, Essays on the Town and Its People (1986); Vivian A. Mestayer, "The History of the New Iberia High School" (MA thesis, LSU, 1951).

SEGURA, Francisco (François), planter, rancher. Born, Málaga, Spain, November 27, 1759; son of Manuel Segura and Gertrudis Varaona. Education: schools of Málaga. Joined group coming to settle in Louisiana, arriving in New Orleans, November 11, 1778. Was in first group to settle New Iberia under the leadership of Francisco Bouligny (q.v.) in early 1779. In September 1779 served as a voluntary recruit under Bouligny (q.v.) in the Fifth Company of the First Battalion of the Fixed Spanish Regiment of Louisiana at Manchac and Baton Rouge in campaign of Bernado de Gálvez against the British. Married, St. Martinville, 1780, Maria de Prados, native of Málaga, Spain, daughter of Gonzalo de Prados and Teresa Guzman, natives of Málaga. Children: Maria Teresa Basilia (b. 1781), François Emmanuel (b. 1785), Joseph Manuel Thomas (b. 1786), Raphael (q.v.), Eloy (b. 1796), Marie Thérèse Francisca Mathilda (b. 1798), Antoine (b. 1800), Rosalie (b. 1803), Louis (b. 1806), Santiago (Jacques) (b. 1809). Member, Roman Catholic church. Class B Claim (occupancy and cultivation 10 years before 1803) to 677.01 acres (800 arpents) confirmed by U. S. Government. Died Segura, La., near New Iberia, September 18, 1831; interred St. Michael's Catholic Cemetery, St. Martinville. P.M.S. Sources: Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); Maurine Bergerie, They Tasted Bayou Water (1962); Glenn R. Conrad, comp., New Iberia: Essays on the Town and Its People (1986); C. Robert Churchill, comp., S. A. R. Spanish Records [1925]; American State Papers.

SEGURA, Joseph René, farmer. Born near New Iberia, La., March 14, 1859; son of Emile Adolphe Segura (q.v.) and Odile Marguerite Dugas. Education: local schools. Clerked in New Iberia before marriage. Married, March 14, 1879, Eliza Marie Nunez of Vermilion Parish, daughter of Sen. Joseph Adrien Nunez of Vermilion Parish and Oliva Guidry, native of St. Martin Parish. Children: Marie Beulah (b. 1881), Marie Viola (b. 1882), Joseph Sidney (b. 1883), Marie Dora (b. 1885), Marie Eula (b. 1886). Was great-grandson of Francisco Segura (q.v.), one of first settlers of New Iberia. Removed to Vermilion Parish after marriage. Engaged in farming at Springhill (now Nunez, La., named for his father-in-law). Member, St. Mary Magdalen Catholic Church, Abbeville. Died, Nunez, December 23, 1885; age 26; interred Old Catholic Cemetery, Abbeville. P.M.S. Sources: Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); New Iberia Enterprise; Quintilla Morgan Anders, comp., Some Early Families of Lafayette, Louisiana (1970).

SEGURA, Joseph Sidney, Jr., insurance adjuster. Born, Lafayette, La., November 25, 1917; son of Joseph Sidney Segura, Sr. (q.v.), and Celestine Gutierrez. Education: Cathedral High School; Lafayette High School; Louisiana State University. World War II service: enlisted U. S. Army, 1941; trained at Camp Moultrie, S.C.; served in Hawaii, New Caledonia, Biak, Netherlands Indies, Australia, and New Guinea. Awarded GCM, AP, Am. Def. and Victory Ribbons. Discharged 1945. Married 1956, Mae Ellen Hilliard. Children: Joseph Sidney, III (b. 1957), John Clint (b. 1958), Timothy Patrick (b. 1959), Suzanne Celestine (b. 1960), Mary Elizabeth (b. 1962). Member: Roman Catholic church. Died, Lafayette, October 29, 1984; interred St. John's Cathedral Cemetery. P.M.S. Sources: Family records; obituary Lafayette Daily Advertiser, October 30, 1984; "Men and Women in the Armed Forces from Lafayette Parish," Attakapas Gazette, XIII (1978).

SEGURA, Joseph Sidney, Sr., railroad conductor, politician. Born, Abbeville, La., November 1, 1883; son of Joseph René Segura (q.v.) and Eliza Marie Nunez. Educated local schools. Married April 20, 1904, Celestine Gutierrez, of Erath, La., daughter of Joseph Gutierrez and Lezima Trahan. Children: Marie Olga (b. 1905), William Aubion (St. Aubin), (q.v.), Pearl Mary (b. 1909), Libby Marie (b. 1911), Joseph Sidney, Jr. (q.v.), Joseph James (b. 1923). Removed to Lafayette, La., 1907. Active in Democratic party; member, Lafayette Parish Police Jury, 1940-1948. First president, board of commissioners of the Lafayette Harbor and Terminal District. Member, Roman Catholic church; Fourth Degree Knight of Columbus. Died, Lafayette, January 27, 1948; interred St. John's Cathedral Cemetery. P.M.S. Sources: Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); Records of St. Mary Magdalene Catholic Church, Abbeville; Records of Our Lady of the Lake Catholic Church, Delcambre; Records of St. Genevieve Church, Lafayette; Records of St. John's Cathedral, Lafayette; Quintilla Morgan Anders, comp., Some Early Families of Lafayette, Louisiana (1970); Beaumont Enterprise, January 28, 1948.

SEGURA, Pierre Homer
, politician, planter, businessman. Born near New Iberia, May 17, 1853; son of Raphael Segura, Sr. (q.v.), and Elise Celima Bonin. Education: local schools. Married (1), November 23, 1875, Cora Catherine (Camille) Smith, daughter of Jacob Smith and Mary Hathen of New Orleans. Children: Homer Smith (b. 1880); Eve Emma Marie (b. 1884); William Carson (b. 1886); Jacob Smith, Sr. (b. 1889); Mary Celima (b. 1892); Cora Catherine (b. 1894). Married (2), November 22, 1919, Anna Breaux of Loreauville, La., daughter of Luzin Breaux and Marie Decuir. Children: Pierre Homer, Jr. (b. 1920), Raphael Calvert (b. 1926), Mary Anna (b. 1927). Served as clerk of court in Iberia Parish, 1872-1884, after which he engaged in planting. In later life he turned to business in New Iberia. Member: Catholic church. Died, New Iberia, May 31, 1932; interred St. Peter's Cemetery. P.M.S. Sources: Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); William Henry Perrin, Southwest Louisiana Biographical and Historical (1891; reprint ed., 1971); Glenn R. Conrad, comp., New Iberia: Essays on the Town and Its People (1986); Attakapas Gazette, XIV (1979).

SEGURA, Raphael
, planter, rancher. Born near New Iberia, La., March 4, 1794; son of Francisco (François) Segura, Sr., and Maria de Prados. Served as private in Baker's Regiment in the War of 1812. Married three times (1), April 4, 1815, Marie Carmelite Romero, daughter of Josef Romero, native of Málaga, Spain, and Julie Gosserand, native of Pointe Coupée Parish. Children: Raphael, Jr. (b. 1816); Marie Carmelite (b. 1817); Joseph Clairville (b 1820); Marie Irma (b. 1821); Antoine Nicolas (b. 1823); Joseph Ozémé (b. 1825); Marie Aimée (b. 1825); Elodie Clothilde (b. 1828). Emile Adolphe (b. 1831). Married (2), August 29, 1846, Azelie Gathe (Gaat), daughter of François Gathe (Gaat) and Magdeleine (Adeline) Bourgeois of St. James Parish. Children: Ovide (b. 1847), William (b. ca. 1848), Corinne (b. ca. 1849), Marie Azelie (b. 1850). Married (3), January 26, 1852, Elise Celima Bonin, daughter Benjamin Bonin and Modeste Brault. Children: Pierre Homère (q.v.), Marie Celina (b. 1856), Modeste Odile (b. 1861). His home, completed in 1836 on Spanish Lake facing Old Spanish Trail stood approximately 130 years. Severely damaged by hurricane, it was razed and rebuilt in 1967 by great-granddaughter Mrs. Thomas C. Holleman, Jr. and her husband. For many decades he was the largest stockraiser and planter of section and held large tracts of land. Died on Spanish Lake, Segura, La. (suburb of New Iberia), October 9, 1891; interred St. Peter's Cemetery, New Iberia. P.M.S. Sources: Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); Powell A. Casey, Louisiana in the War of 1812 (1963); Marion John Bennett Pierson, Louisiana Soldiers in the War of 1812 (1963); Iberia Parish, 1868-1968, Centennial Celebration, October 26 thru November 2; "Cajun-Creole Cookery, New Iberia Daily Iberian, September 21, 1957; Welcome to Iberia Parish and New Iberia, Louisiana; "Queen City of the Teche;" Glenn R. Conrad, comp., New Iberia: Essays on the Town and Its People; Lafayette Advertiser, October 17, 1891.

SEGURA, William Aubion (St. Aubin)
, tax accountant, restaurateur. Born, Erath, La., March 1, 1907; son of Joseph Sidney Segura, Sr. (q.v.), and Celestine Gutierrez. Education: Mt. Carmel Academy; Cathedral High School; Southwestern Louisiana Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana). Married, March 30, 1939, Doris Ada Gooch, of Abbeville, La., daughter of Claude Gooch, Abbeville businessman and Victoria (Zettie) Stansbury. Children: William Gooch (b. November 22, 1930), Patricia Doris (b. 1932), Michael Gerard (b. 1936), Christopher Richard (b. 1942). Democrat. Member: Roman Catholic church. Died, Lafayette, March 1, 1971; interred, St. John's Cathedral Cemetery. P.M.S. Sources: Family records; obituary, Lafayette Daily Advertiser, March 2, 1971; Attakapas Gazette, XIII (Winter, 1978).

SEIFERTH, Solis, architect. Born, New Orleans, February 13, 1895. Son of Herman Seiferth (one-time city editor of the New Orleans Daily Picayune), and Cecelia Cohen of Meridian, Miss. Education: New Orleans public schools; Boys [Warren Easton] High School; Tulane University, bachelor's degree in architecture, 1915. Member of Kappa Delta Phi fraternity. Served in U. S. Army during World War I, lieutenant in Corps of Engineers; World War II, major in Coast Artillery Corps and Chemical Warfare Service. Married Helen Stern, 1923. One daughter: Celia (b. 1926). Affiliated with architects Felix Julius Dreyfous and Leon Charles Weiss. Important architectural works include: Jung Hotel (1925), Louisiana State Capitol (1932), Louisiana State University Medical Center in New Orleans (1933), Shushan (New Orleans Lakefront) Airport (1934), New Orleans Charity Hospital (1939), and several buildings on the LSU-Baton Rouge campus. Made Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1960. Member, New Orleans City Planning and Zoning Commission, 1923-1930; chief architectural supervisor of the Federal Housing Authority in Louisiana, 1934-1936; and New Orleans Cultural Center Commission, 1958-1959. Other board memberships include: Jewish Children's Home, 1934-1959, Newman School, 1940-1959, and Tulane University Alumni Association, 1955-1958. Member of Temple Sinai. Past-commander, Camp Beauregard #130, Sons of Confederate Veterans. Died, New Orleans, October 11, 1984; interred Metairie Cemetery. J.T.M. Sources: obituary, New Orleans Times-Picayune/States-Item, October 12, 1984; Solis Seiferth Collection, Manuscripts Department of The Historic New Orleans Collection; additional information courtesy Mrs. Helen Stern Seiferth.

SEJOUR, Victor, dramatist. Born, New Orleans, June 2, 1817; son of Louis-Victor Séjour Marcou from Saint-Domingue and Héloïse-Phillippe Ferrand of New Orleans, free persons of color. Private schooling in New Orleans under Michel Séligny (q.v.). Went to France in 1834. Maintained close contact with family although he never returned to Louisiana. First publication was short story Le Mulâtre (1837). First play, Diégarias, staged in 1844, by Comédie Française. After composing his earliest plays in verse, Séjour turned to prose for Richard III (1852) and for all of his later works. Twenty-three plays staged between 1844 and 1870 in Paris and en province. Peak of career: 1855-1860. Befriended by Alexandre Dumas. Personally known to Napoléon III who attended Séjour play that hailed the emperor's intervention to halt Les Massacres de la Syrie (1860). Published serialized novel Le Comte de Haag in 1872. Died of consumption in Paris, Septem¬ber 20, 1874; interred Père Lachaise Cemetery. C.E.O. Sources: Archives Nationales, Archives de la Comédie Française; Paris newspapers and theater periodicals. Unpublished bookscript on Séjour by C. E. O'Neill; Edward Larocque Tinker, Les Ecrits de langue française en Louisiane au XIXe siècle (1932); Charles Edwards O'Neill, "Theatrical Censorship in France, 1844-1875: The Experience of Victor Séjour," Harvard Library Bulletin, XXVI (1978).

SELIGNY, Michel, educator, writer. Half-brother of Camille Thierry. Established Saint-Barbe Academy in New Orleans for children of color; Victor Séjour (q.v.) and Natalie Populus Mello studied under his tutelage. Some works appeared in French newspapers (New Orleans)—L'Abeille, La Renaissance Louisianaise, and Courrier de la Louisiane. Died, Paris, France, 1868. D.D.C. Sources: Charles B. Roussève, The Negro in Louisiana: Aspects of His History and His Literature (1937); Edward Larocque Tinker, Les Ecrits de langue française en Louisiane au XIXe siècle (1932).

SEMMES, Thomas Jenkins, attorney, politician, academic. Born, Washington, D C., December 16, 1824; son of Raphael Semmes and Matilda Jenkins; first cousin of naval officer Raphael Semmes. Education: McLeod Primary School, Georgetown, D. C.; Georgetown College, graduated with honors, 1842; studied law in the office of Clement Cox of Georgetown; Harvard Law School, graduated, 1845. Practiced law for several years in Washington, D. C., before removing to New Orleans in 1850. Married, January, 1856, Myra E. Knox of Montgomery, Ala.. Children: Thomas J., Jr., Joseph F., Charles, Myra (Mrs. S. P. Walmsley), Cora (Mrs. A. S. Ranlett). Active in Democratic politics; elected to the Louisiana lower house in 1855; elected member Democratic State Central Committee, 1855; outspoken critic of the Know-Nothing movement; defended the Roman Catholic church and dissolved his law partnership with Matthew Edwards (a Harvard classmate), a member of the Know-Nothing party. Appointed United States attorney for Louisiana in 1858; prosecuted William Walker for unlawful expedition to Nicaragua; resigned to run for attorney general of Louisiana, elected in 1859. Strong advocate of secession; elected to the state convention (from the First District of New Orleans) which passed secession ordinance, January 26, 1861, for which he voted. Elected, November, 1861, to Confederate senate from Louisiana; February, 1862, took his seat in Richmond, member of the Finance and Judiciary committees, 1862-1865; pardoned by President Johnson in October 1865; returned to New Orleans, practiced law until 1875. Appointed civil law professor at the University of Louisiana (now Tulane University), 1873-1879, and common law professor, 1879-1899. Member, Louisiana constitutional conventions of 1879 and 1898; president, American Bar Association, 1886. President, New Orleans Board of Education, 1898. Died of heart failure, New Orleans, June 23, 1899. M.C. Sources: R. T. Semmes, The Semmes and Allied Families; Henry Rightor, ed., Standard History of New Orleans, Louisiana (1900); Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Louisiana (1892; reprint ed., 1975); New Orleans Daily Picayune, June 3, 1858, June 23-25, 1899; New Orleans Times-Democrat, June 23-25, 1899.

SENTELL, John M., planter, politician. Born, Collinsburg, La., March 2, 1871; son of N. W. Sentell and Elizabeth Doles. Education: private schools of New Orleans, Virginia Military Institute, Eastman's College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Became president of the Caddo Parish Police Jury, 1926. His plantation in Dixie, La., was called Cairo. Retired from the police jury in 1932. Married, October 4, 1893, Margaret Cade, daughter of John W. Cade and Pattie Lowry. Children: John M., Claudia E., Margaret, Augustus Lowry, Washington C., and John (adopted son). P.L.M. Sources: J. Fair Hardin, Northwestern Louisiana (1939); Maude Hearn O'Pry, Chronicles of Shreveport (1928).

SERIGNY ET DE LOIRE, Joseph Le Moyne de, French co-commander of Louisiana. Born, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, July 22, 1668; son of Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil et de Châteauguay and Catherine (Primot). Married Marie-Elisabeth Héron of Rochefort, France. Children: two sons, one daughter. Entered the French navy at Rochefort with rank of naval guard, May 28, 1686. Interrogated Iroquois Indian captives sent to Marseilles for imprisonment aboard France's Mediterranean slave galleys, November, 1686. Assigned to escort said Indians from Marseilles to La Rochelle, France, for subsequent release and transportation to Canada. Promoted to ensign, January 1, 1692; promoted again to rank of ship's ensign, 1693. Served under his brother, Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville (q.v.) aboard the Poli, 1693. Assumed command of the Salamandre, a frigate in Iberville's squadron, 1694; sailed from Rochefort, France, for Quebec, May, 1694. In October, 1694, participated in capture of English Fort York on Hudson's Bay. Returned to France, September, 1695. Promoted to rank of ship's lieutenant, January 1, 1796. Ordered to return to Hudson's Bay with supplies for the French garrison at Fort Bourbon (formerly Fort York), January 1, 1696. Arrived to find an eight-ship British squadron anchored before the fort. Returned to France without engaging the English. As commander of the Palmier, participated in the French recapture of Fort Bourbon, September 12, 1697. Acting commander of French forces in the Hudson's Bay area, 1697-1698. Sailed for France, November, 1698. Sailed for Louisiana aboard the Palmier, September, 1701. Supervised construction of a warehouse and other structures on Dauphin Island, entrepôt for the new colonial capital of Mobile, January-March, 1702. Set sail for France, ca. April 30, 1702. Upon return to the metropole, purchased, jointly with Iberville, the Loire seigneurie, in the French province of Aunis with the spoils of their military campaigns. Commanded the Coventry in Iberville's twelve-ship expedition against St. Kitt's and Nevis, 1706. Subsequently implicated with Iberville in the embezzlement of royal funds after the capture of Nevis. In summer of 1706, sold for private gain 60,000 piastres of royal supplies destined for Louisiana. Scandal arrested his advancement for several years. Rehabilitated, ca. 1717. Given command of the Maréchal de Villars, a Company of the West ship, July, 1718, and ordered to share for two years command of Louisiana with his brother Bienville (q.v.). Also directed to sound Louisiana's coastal waters, July, 1718. Carried to Louisiana news of hostilities with Spain, April, 1719. Participated in the border war between Louisiana and Florida, 1718. Led expedition (3 ships, 150 men) that captured Spanish Pensacola, May, 1719. Successfully led French defense of Dauphin Island against Spanish invaders, August, 1719. Subsequently promoted to ship's captain and awarded the Cross of St. Louis. Commanded party of reinforcements sent to Pensacola, October, 1719, but failed to reach destination before Spanish forces recaptured it. Returned to France, June, 1720. Commissioned governor of Rochefort, France, 1723. Served in that capacity until his death, September 12, 1734; interred Loire seigneurie. C.A.B. Sources: Bernard Pothier, "Le Moyne de Sérigny et de Loire, Joseph," in David M. Hayne, ed., Dictionnaire Biographique du Canada, II; Marcel Giraud, Histoire de la Louisiane française, III (1966); Charles Le Gac, Immigration and War, Louisiana, 1718-1721: From the Memoir of Charles Le Gac, trans., ed., and annot. by Glenn R. Conrad (1970); Jean-Baptiste Bénard de La Harpe, The Historical Journal of the Establishment of the French in Louisiana, trans. by Joan Cain and Virginia Koenig, ed. and annot. by Glenn R. Conrad (1971).

SESSUMS, Davis, fourth Episcopal bishop of Louisiana. Born, Houston, Tex., July 7, 1858; son of Alexander Sessums and Mary Runnel. Education: local schools, Houston; University of the South, A. M., 1878; studied law, University of Virginia; special student in Theology, University of the South, 1879-1881. Headmaster, Grammar School, Sewanee, Tenn., 1879-1881. Ordained: deacon, February 5, 1882, Christ Church, Houston; priest, St. Augustine's Chapel, Sewanee, August 13, 1882; priest-in-charge, Grace Church, Galveston, Tex., 1882-1883; rector, Calvary Church, Memphis, Tenn., 1883-1887; rector, Christ Church, New Orleans, 1887-1891. Elected assistant bishop (i. e., bishop coadjutor) of Louisiana, April, 1891; consecrated Christ Church, New Orleans, June 24, 1891. Succeeded as fourth bishop of Louisiana on death of Bishop John Nicholas Galleher (q.v.), December 7, 1891. Episcopate characterized by strong missionary outreach; advocacy of the Social Gospel; established first Diocesan Free Kindergarten, New Orleans, 1893; founded a School for Deaconesses, 1895; celebrated centennial of the formation of Christ Church, November 19, 1905; strongly supported Gaudet Normal and Industrial School for Negro Boys and Girls and the Children's Home, New Orleans, both of which became diocesan property during his episcopate. Married, Alice Castleman Galleher, daughter of the Rt. Rev. John Nicholas Galleher (q.v.) and Charlotte Barbee Galleher, Christ Church, December 18, 1890. Children: Alice, Charlotte (Mrs. Walter Goldstein), A. Cleveland Sessums, and Davis Sessums, Jr. Member: Masons; Beta Theta Pi. Died: New Orleans, December 24, 1929; interred Metairie Cemetery. P.C.L. Sources: Alcée Fortier, History of Louisiana (1914); Journal of the Fifty-Third... Council of the Diocese of Louisiana … , 1891; The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, XI; New Orleans Times-Picayune, December 25, 28, 1929; Hodding Carter and Betty Werlein Carter, So Great a Good: A History of the Episcopal Church in Louisiana and of Christ Church Cathedral, 1805-1955 (1955); Journal of the Fifty-Fourth Council of the Diocese of Louisiana … 1892.

SEWELL, Vanderbilt, businessman. Born, Tunica, La., April 11, 1905; son of Dave Sewell and Ada Burden Sewell. Education: Southern University Laboratory School, Baton Rouge; Southern University, Baton Rouge. Married Ellen Bridges. Children: Vanderbilt, Jr., (b. 1936), Carey (b. 1938), Ada (b. 1941), Fairy (b. 1942), David (b. 1943), Douglas (b. 1945). Active membership in various civic and church-related organizations; director, Southern Teachers and Parents Credit Union. Member, Mount Carmel Baptist Church, Baton Rouge. Removed to Baton Rouge, owner of Sewell's groceries and various apartment complexes. Died, Baton Rouge, September 11, 1979; interred Southern Memorial Gardens. R.J.S. Source: Fairy Lee Sewell (daughter).

SEXTON, George S.
, clergyman, college president. Born Middleburg, Tenn., June 10, 1867; son of James R. and Mary Jane Justice Sexton. Education: Hendrix College, Conway, Ark.; Kentucky Wesleyan University, Doctor of Divinity; Southwestern University of Texas, LL. D. degree. First pastorate, Texarkana, Ark., 1888-1892; served several churches in Texas; pastor, First Methodist, Shreveport, 1913-1917. Helped build the Mount Vernon Place Church, Washington, D. C., 1917-1919. President, Centenary College, 1921-1932, and president emeritus, 1932 until his death. As president, he brought enrollment from 50 to more than 700 and built an endowment of $1,250,000. Served as public relations director, 1935-1937. Member, Louisiana Academy of Sciences; director of the Shreveport Chamber of Commerce; a Mason; Grand Prelate of the Grand Commandery, Knights Templar of Texas. Married Sallie Gray Mosely of Jefferson, Tex., 1893. Child: George S. Sexton, Jr. Died July 4, 1937. P.L.M. Source: Author's research.

SEYMOUR, Isaac Gurdon, journalist. Born, Savannah, Ga., October 1804. Education: graduated Yale University. Married Caroline Whitlock. Lawyer in Macon, Ga. Editor, Macon Messenger. Mayor, Macon, six years. Raised a company of Georgia volunteers for the Seminole War, 1836. Organized a volunteer regiment in May 1846 and elected colonel. Served in the army of Gen. Winfield Scott in the Mexican War, 1846-1847. Commander of the American garrison at Perote, Mexico, 1848. Removed to New Orleans, fall 1848. Editor, New Orleans Bulletin until his death. Elected colonel, Sixth Louisiana Infantry Regiment, May 1861. Served in Gen. Richard Taylor's brigade in Virginia. Killed in the Battle of Gaines' Mill, Va., June 27, 1862. A.W.B. Sources: Edwin L. Jewell, Jewell's Crescent City Illustrated (1873); Robert K. Krick, Lee's Colonels (1979).

SHAKSPEARE, Joseph Ansoetegui, businessman, mayor of New Orleans. Born, New Orleans, April 12, 1837; son of Samuel Shakspeare and Marianne Mathias. Education: local public schools. Apprenticed 1850-1854 in firm founded by his father, the Shakspeare Iron Foundry; left to work in New York City at the Novelty Iron Works; returned ca. 1858, became a partner and eventually president of the firm whose name changed to Wheeler, Geddes & Co., later Shakspeare, Swoop and Co., also on board of directors of Mutual National Bank, 1879-1896; on board of directors of Merchants Mutual Insurance Co., 1890-1896; and several other businesses. Married, November 12, 1863, Antoinette Kroos of Berlin, Germany. Children: Mary (b. 1864), Josephine (b. 1867), Nita Antoinette (b. 1869), Joseph A., Jr. (b. 1870), Alice (b. ca. 1873). Elected November 7, 1876, to legislature from Second Ward, New Orleans, on Democratic ticket, served, 1877-1878. Elected mayor of New Orleans, November 2, 1880, as reform candidate on People's Democratic Association ticket; served from December 16, 1880, to November 20, 1882. During this first term, devised "Shakspeare Plan" to reduce gambling and finance the Shakspeare Almshouse; reorganized the city's indebtedness; established City Smallpox Hospital and brought in new revenue by selling a franchise to the Carrollton Railroad. Declined to run in 1882; elected mayor again on April 17, 1888, served from April 23, 1888, to April 25, 1892, as a reform candidate on Young Men's Democratic Association ticket. During his second term he reorganized police department, instituted paid fire department; further reduced city debt and balanced budget for first time since before the Civil War. Ran on same ticket in 1892 but was defeated. Member of State Board of Health, 1886-1888; board of administrators of Charity Hospital, 1892-1896; commissioner of Stephen Henderson Poor Fund from 1882; delegate to Trans-Mississippi Congress, 1891, and several other public boards. Member, Episcopal church; Boston Club, 1875-1896; reigned as King of Carnival, 1882; Pickwick Club, 1884-1896, vice-president, 1893-1894; Knights of Honor, 1884-1896. Died, New Orleans, January 22, 1896; interred Metairie Cemetery. Memorialized by Shakspeare Almshouse, now known as Touro-Shakspeare Home and Shakspeare Recreational Park. C.B.H. Sources: Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Louisiana, (1892); Joy J. Jackson, New Orleans in the Gilded Age: Politics and Urban Progress, 1880-1896 (1969); John S. Kendall, History of New Orleans (1922); Soard's New Orleans City Directory, 1879-1896; Works Progress Administration, Biographies of the Mayors of New Orleans (1939); U. S. Bureau of the Census, Census of Louisiana, Soundex Index, 1880; New Orleans Daily Picayune, August 17, 1882; November 16, 1876; obituary, January 23, 1896; New Orleans Daily City Item, January 16, 1893; New Orleans Times-Democrat, January 23, 1896.

SHANNON, Maurice Dietrich, businessman, mayor of Morgan City, La. Born, Morgan City, La., December 9, 1880; son of Thomas Shannon (q.v.) and Hannah Kupper (Cooper). Education: local schools; Jefferson College, Convent, La. Entered the family business, founded by his father, and headed the firm—Shannon Hardware Co.—until his retirement. Married, November 6, 1907, Mary Natalie Bodin (1880-1948) of Franklin, La., daughter of Eugene Bodin and Mary Natalie Smardon. Children: Mary Grace Winchester (1908-1973), Maurice Dietrich, Jr. (1911-1979) and Thomas Bodin (b. 1912). Elected mayor in 1911, re-elected in 1915 and 1919. In 1923 chose to support his friend, Maurice E. Norman, for mayor and to run for a seat on the council. He served as councilman until 1931 when Norman died in office and Shannon was appointed to fill the unexpired term. Elected mayor in 1936 and re-elected in 1944 and 1947; retired in 1951. The first natural gas system, the first public library, miles of street paving, and expanded water and electric systems were accomplished under Shannon's leadership. Member, Sacred Heart Catholic Church. Died February 22, 1958; interred Morgan City Cemetery. An elementary school and housing projects in Morgan City named in his honor. L.K.L. Sources: Shannon Family Papers, Morgan City Archives.

SHANNON, Thomas, businessman, politician. Born, New Orleans, December 14, 1850; son of Thomas Shannon and Margaret Moore, emigrants from Ireland to Louisiana ca. 1849. Education limited due to death of mother in 1853 yellow-fever epidemic and accidental death of his father soon thereafter. At age 12 cabin boy aboard the Leviathan, a Union dispatch boat running between New Orleans and the mouth of the Mississippi. Served as cabin boy on other Federal vessels during the Civil War, later worked at the U. S. Commissary Department in Brownsville and Port Isabel, Tex.; learned tinner's trade at St. Louis, Mo., but after three years returned to the river, working as storekeeper on the steamers Morgan and Josephine owned by Charles Morgan (q.v.). On one trip to Brashear (now Morgan City), railroad-steamship terminal, he came ashore and decided to make his home there. Employed in a general store about five years to accumulate enough capital to open his own hardware business in 1872 which continues to this day in the Shannon family. Married, October 1873, Morgan City, Hannah Kupper (Cooper) (1847-1932), a native of Germany. Children: Thomas H., Maurice D. (q.v.), Meta Elizabeth, Francis, Mary Grace and Loretta Winifred. Appointed postmaster of Morgan City by President Grover Cleveland in 1893 and served until 1898 when he was elected mayor of Morgan City, an office he held for eight years. The present City Hall was erected in 1905 during his tenure as mayor. In 1900 he began 14 years of service on the St. Mary School Board. He was also chief oyster inspector of Louisiana for two years under Gov. J. Y. Sanders. He retired from the Shannon hardware business in 1911. He and his wife were active in Sacred Heart Catholic Church. Died,, Morgan City, February 26, 1924; interred Morgan City Cemetery. L.K.L. Source: Author's research.

SHARP, Francis Marion, planter, businessman. Born, Union County, S. C., June 22, 1823; son of James and Lavinia Giles Sharp. Education: local schools. Removed to Louisiana, entered mercantile business in Montgomery, later acquired plantation. Civil War service: served in Twenty-ninth Louisiana Infantry, resigned to form own Louisiana company in which he held rank of captain. After war returned to Red River Plantation. Married, 1859, Martha Ann Carradine, daughter of Isaac Carradine and M. E. Carradine. Children: Francis M., Jr., Charles, Elizabeth, Thomas Jefferson, Minnie Helen, Rosa, and Sam. Member: Baptist church; Montgomery Lodge No. 168, F&AM. Died, November 25, 1901; interred Mars Hill Cemetery near Montgomery. M.D.F. Sources: History of Louisiana; personal records.

SHARP, Grace Marmaduke, educator. Born, Kirksville, Mo.; daughter of the Reverend George W. Sharp and Virginia Marmaduke. Education: State Teachers College, Kirksville, Mo. Came to Shreveport in 1907 to become head of the Departments of History and Public Speaking in the senior high school. Eventually devoted her time to the history department. As a history instructor, she was noticed by the state's leading educators. Dr. Weber, state high school inspector, brought his history teachers and the state's educational officers to watch her work for two days. She had invented the topical plan of discussing history, tracing the history of each institution through topics. Her system was so well thought of that State Superintendent Thomas H. Harris (q.v.) adopted it for notebooks. P.L.M. Sources: Lilla McLure and J. Ed Howe, History of Shreveport and Shreveport Builders (1937).

SHAW, Clay L., businessman. Born, Kentwood, La., 1914. Removed with family to New Orleans at age 5. After graduating from a local high school at age 15 went to work at Western Union, first in New Orleans and then in New York, where he managed forty branches in Manhattan; also worked in advertising and public relations. During World War II served as aide-de-camp to the commander of United States forces in southern England and later as the commander's deputy chief in northern France; received the Croix de Guerre and was named Chevalier de l'Ordre du Mérite by the French government; named Chevalier of the Order of the Crown of Belgium and received the Legion of Merit and the Bronze Star from the United States; discharged in January 1946 with rank of major. Returned to New Orleans and was appointed to the staff of the International Trade Mart, the first one of its kind in the world, on March 8, 1946, as promotional director; under his direction the Trade Mart was financed and built, opening in 1948. In 1953 and 1954, he planned and executed activities of the Louisiana Purchase Sesquicentennial Commission; active in promoting international trade for New Orleans, traveling widely in South America and Europe; served as program director for the Foreign Policy Association of New Orleans and as secretary of the Mississippi Valley World Trade Council; was program director of the French Market Corporation, heading up a multi-million dollar renovation of the French Market area; was a leader in private renovations in the French Quarter supervising, 1949-1960, restoration of sixteen structures including the J. J. Audubon house and the Spanish Stables on Governor Nicholls Street. Honored at testimonial dinner in September 1965 upon his retirement; presented the International Order of Merit of the City of New Orleans. The author of several published plays; wrote Submerged with Herman Cottmann and wrote or collaborated on Stokers, A Message from Khufu, Cukoo's Nest, and Memorial; was an avid supporter of local theatrical productions; was fluent in several languages and worked on translation of plays from Spanish into English. Arrested March 1, 1967, on charges brought by District Attorney James Garrison of helping to plan the assassination of President Kennedy with alleged accomplices (Lee Harvey Oswald [q.v.] among them). Trial began in 1969 and lasted five weeks; jury declared him not guilty of all charges; trial ruined him financially; the two years of legal battles forced him out of retirement to pay off debts; filed a $5 million damage suit against Garrison and a private citizens group which financed part of the probe. Died August 15, 1974; interred Kentwood, La. J.B.C. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, March 2, 1967; obituary, August 16, 1974; New York Times, March 23, 1969; obituary, August 16, 1974.

SHAW, J. W. Kenward
, physician. Born, Trenton, N. J., April 9, 1865; son of Angus Shaw, M.D. and Virginia Johnson. Family later returned to their home in Loreauville, La. Education: tutors and his family until going to the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, Md., from which he was graduated March 15, 1887. This school later merged with the University of Maryland. Returned to Loreauville to practice with his father until his brother, Guy Angus Shaw, M.D., took his place. Removed to New Iberia and practiced there until his death. Later attended graduate school at Rush Medical School, Chicago, Ill., to be trained in ear, eye, nose and throat work. Followed this line of work but continued to be the family doctor for many. Married, 1903, Mattie deValcourt Barnard. Children: Dorothy Shaw Rankin (b. 1903); Elizabeth deValcourt Shaw (b. 1905); Sarah Shaw Andrews (b. 1910); and Kenward DeValcourt Shaw (b. 1919), killed in action in World War II. A member of Knights Templar, Odd Fellows, Woodmen of the World, Knights of Pythias; member, of the Iberia Parish Board of Health. Was instrumental in getting bread wrapped and milk sold in containers instead of in bulk. Served as coroner and on the local school board. Interested in keeping abreast of the times especially in medicine. Installed the first X-Ray machine in New Iberia in the Dauterive Hospital. Owned the first automobile in New Iberia and personally built the first radio receiver. Died, New Iberia, February 14, 1938; interred Rosehill Cemetery. D.S.R. Source: Author's research.

SHAW, John Fogleman, missionary. Born, on his father's plantation near Holmesville, St. Landry Parish, La., March 25, 1827; son of Thomas J. Shaw and Elizabeth Fogleman. Education: Franklin College, Opelousas. Owned a large plantation near Ville Platte, La. Established a private school on his plantation and taught for over thirty years. Was a notary public for many years. Married (1) Christina Fontenot (1833-1887), daughter of Augustin J. Fontenot and Irene Chattman, December 17, 1850, St. Landry Parish. Children: Omarine, Christina, Theodosia, Elizabeth Irene, Texana Leomie, Bula Ann, Mary Cordilia, Mae Dora, and John Augustus. Married (2) Sarah Doucet Garand, September 11, 1888. Spent the Civil War years teaching school in Texas and returned to his plantation after the war. A Catholic but later became a Baptist through independent study of the Bible. Baptized into Calvary Baptist Church, Bayou Chicot, La., August 12, 1860, and was licensed to preach by the same church July 12, 1873. He established Eden Baptist Church on his plantation near Ville Platte. He was ordained to the ministry by Eden Church, August 2, 1883. Because of his fluency in the French language, he was employed by the Louisiana Baptist Convention as a missionary, 1887-1893. During this time he held services throughout Southwest Louisiana and established several churches. After his years of missionary service, he continued to teach school and to pastor Eden Church until his death on March 31, 1908. Interred Baptist Cemetery, Ville Platte, La. A.Y.B. Sources: Baptist Ministerial Directory, 1899 (1899); J. H. Strother, "Missionaries in South Louisiana: John F. Shaw, Citizen, Teacher, Missionary," Baptist Message, March 5, 1950; Louisiana Baptist Convention, Minutes, 1886-1888, 1891, 1893, 1895, 1896, 1902-1904, 1908; Allen Cleveland Morris, Some History and Memories of the Life of John Fogleman Shaw and a Partial Genealogy of His Descendants (unpublished manuscript); Cavalry Baptist Church, Bayou Chicot, La., Minutes; John F. Shaw family Bible record.

SHAW, John William, clergyman, prelate. Born, Mobile, Ala., December 12, 1863; son of Patrick and Elizabeth (Smith) Shaw. Education: local school; completed secondary education at Navan, County Meath, Ireland. After philosophical and theological studies in Rome, ordained a priest on May 26, 1888, in the Basilica of St. John Lateran. Assigned briefly to St. Peter's Church, Montgomery, Ala.; assigned as assistant in his home parish of St. Vincent de Paul. Later named rector of the Mobile cathedral and served for fourteen years as chancellor of the diocese and as secretary of two bishops. In 1910, selected coadjutor to Bishop J. A. Forest of San Antonio; succeeded as ordinary on March 11, 1911. Because of work among the Mexicans, named assistant at the Pontifical throne in September, 1916. Chosen as successor to Archbishop Blenk (q.v.), January 25, 1918. Installation ceremonies, June 1918, at St. Joseph Church, New Orleans. Pallium or insignia of his archiepiscopal rank conferred December 8, 1918, at St. Louis Cathedral, by the Most Rev. John Bonanzo, apostolic delegate, who simultaneously consecrated Jules B. Jeanmard (q.v.) as first bishop of Lafayette, La., and Arthur J. Drossaerts of St. Joseph's, Baton Rouge, as Shaw's successor for San Antonio. Worked to open new parishes; construct schools and churches, rectories and convents; and, a major seminary. Seminary ready for the charter students, September, 1923. Expanded over the years. During tenure as archbishop, established thirty-three parishes, approved the construction of over forty houses of worship (churches, chapels, missions), in addition to the inauguration of twenty-nine new elementary and secondary schools. Approved transfer of the Motherhouse of the Sisters of Mount Carmel from the inner city to Lakeview; the opening of Xavier University; the building of protective institutions such as Madonna Manor and Hope Haven in Marrero; the rebuilding of Lafon Boys' Home in the Gentilly section of the city; the enlargement of both St. Vincent's Home for transients, and the Louise Home for working girls. Encouraged the foundation of a new diocesan community of nuns, the Missionary Servants of the Holy Eucharist; invited into the archdiocese Teresian Sisters and the Sisters of the Incarnate Word. Among new men's communities coming into the archdiocese during tenure were the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, the Order of St. Francis, the Holy Ghost Fathers, and the Society of the Divine Word. Initiated Catholic Action of the South (December, 1932) and made it the official archdiocesan organ with Msgr. Peter M. H. Wynhoven (q.v.) as chief editor. In 1962, a boys' secondary school in Marrero was dedicated in his honor. Died, November 2, 1934; buried in a crypt under the sanctuary of St. Louis Cathedral. H.C.B. Sources: "Sesquicentennial Supplement, 1793-1943," Catholic Action of the South, II, No. 35 (July 29, 1943); Joseph B. Code, Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964) (1964); Archdiocesan and Notre Dame Seminary Archives, New Orleans.

SHELDON, Lionel Allen
, attorney, soldier, politician, congressman. Born, Otsego County, N.Y., August 30, 1829. Removed with parents to Ohio. Educated at Oberlin College; later admitted to Ohio bar. Delegate to Republican National Convention, 1856. Served on Union Army during Civil War; rose to rank of colonel. After war, settled in New Orleans; practiced law there, 1864-1879. Elected, as a Republican, to Forty-first, Forty-second, and Forty-thrid Congresses (1869-1875). Unsuccessful candidate for reelection to Forty-fourth Congress. Presidential elector on the Republican ticket, 1876. Removed to Ohio, 1879. Served as governor of Territory of New Mexico, 1881-1885. Removed to California; remained active in Republican politics. Died, January 17, 1917, Pasadena, California. Cremated. G.R.C. Sources: Alcée Fortier, Louisiana . . . , 3 vols. (n.p., 1914), II, 445; Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (Washington, D. C., 1950), p. 1803.

SHEPLEY, George Foster, politician, jurist, military governor. Born, Saco, Me., January 1, 1819. Education: Dartmouth College, graduated 1837; attorney in Bangor, Me., 1839-1843; U. S. district attorney, 1848-1849, 1853-1861. Commissioned colonel of Twelfth Maine Infantry, 1861; promoted to rank of brigadier general, July 1862. Assigned to District of Eastern Virginia, 1864-1865; military governor of Richmond, Va., April-July 1865. Resigned commission, returned to Maine law practice, 1865-1869. U. S. circuit court judge for Maine, 1869-1878. As military governor of federally occupied Louisiana, June 1862 to March 1864, General Shepley was no more than an aide to Generals Benjamin F. Butler (q.v.) and N. P. Banks (q.v.), successive district commanders and Shepley's immediate military superiors. Shepley experienced friction with both, and after Banks, in January 1863, removed both the provost marshall's office and authority to decide civil cases from Shepley's jurisdiction, the latter's "prestige in the state slowly declined." Michael Hahn (q.v.), a civilian Louisiana Unionist, replaced Shepley in March 1864. Died, Portland, Me., July 20, 1878. M.T.C. Sources: E. J. Warner, Generals in Blue (1964); Joseph G. Dawson, III, Army Generals and Reconstruction: Louisiana, 1862-1877 (1982).

SHERIDAN, George Augustus, soldier, politician, congressman. Born, Millbury, Mass., February 22, 1840. Removed with parents to Chicago, 1858; engaged in publishing. Served in Union Army in Civil War; rose to rank of captain; resigned, 1864. Removed to New Orleans, 1866. Served as adjutant general on staff of Gov. Henry C. Warmoth. Sheriff of Carroll Parish, 1867. Seated in Congress, 1873-1875, after election contested by P. B. S. Pinchback (q.v.). Recorder of Deeds, District of Columbia, 1878-1881. Died, National Soldiers Home, Va., October 7, 1896; interred Arlington National Cemetery. G.R.C. Sources: Alcée Fortier, Louisiana . . . , 3 vols. (1914); Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950).

SHERIDAN, Philip Henry, soldier. Born, Albany, N. Y., March 6, 1831; son of John Sheridan and Mary Meenagh. Education: town school in Somerset, Ohio (to which his family had moved) and U. S. Military Academy, West Point, N. Y., graduating thirty-fourth in a class of fifty-two, 1853. Pre-Civil War service: as an infantry lieutenant, skirmished with Indians in Oregon. Civil War service: rose gradually in rank and responsibility; promoted to rank of colonel of volunteers, May 1862, and to rank of brigadier general of volunteers, September 1862; commanded Eleventh Division, Union Army of the Ohio, fighting at Perryville, Ky., October 1862; commanded Third Division, XVI Corps, Union Army of the Cumberland, fighting at Stones River, Tenn., December 1862; promoted to rank of major general of volunteers, March 1863; commanded Third Division, XX Corps, fighting at Chickamauga, Ga., September 1863; commanded Second Division, IV Corps, fighting at Chattanooga, Tenn., November 1863; commanded Cavalry Corps, Union Army of the Potomac, leading it in raids and battles around Richmond, Va., May-June 1864; commanded Union Army of the Shenandoah, devastating the Valley and defeating the Confederate Army there in a series of battles, August 1864 to March 1865; pursuit contributed to Gen. Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House, Va., April 1865. Post Civil War service: May 1865, commanded Military Division of the Gulf (including Louisiana, Texas, and other states) with headquarters in New Orleans, in order to police the former Confederates and patrol the U. S.-Mexican border; devoted his attention to political and social Reconstruction matters in Louisiana and Texas following the violent New Orleans Riot, July 30, 1866. March 11, 1867, appointed commander, Fifth Military District (Louisiana and Texas), one of five subdivisions of the South created according to Radical Reconstruction Act passed by congressional Republicans; took a number of steps to build up a Republican party in Louisiana, such as removing many state officeholders—including Gov. James M. Wells (q.v.)—and appointing Republicans in their places, reorganizing the New Orleans Police Department, integrating New Orleans streetcars, and registering blacks to vote. Frontier duty: removed from command of Fifth District, September 1867, by President Andrew Johnson and assigned to Indian-fighting duties on the Trans-Mississippi frontier; directed campaigns against the Southern Cheyenne, Comanche, and Kiowa in Indian Territory; promoted to rank of lieutenant general, March 1869, and to command of Military Division of the Missouri (territories and states from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from the Canadian border to the Rio Grande) and conducted further campaigns against Indian tribes on both southern and northern Plains. Reassigned to Louisiana: threat of open warfare between political parties (as indicated by the Democrats' overthrow of Republican Gov. William P. Kellogg [q.v.], on September 14, 1874), led President Ulysses S. Grant to order Sheridan back to Louisiana (December 1874-April 1875). Disagreed with Gen. William H. Emory (q.v.) over appropriate actions to take, forcing Emory's retirement; military action included sending troops to state capitol to remove improperly elected state legislators; use of soldiers resulted in negative publicity for Sheridan, the army, President Grant, the Republican party generally and Louisiana Republicans specifically. Later career: continued to command the army's main forces on the Great Plains; supervised the ill-fated Terry-Custer expedition against the Sioux and Northern Cheyenne (Battle of the Little Big Horn River, Montana Territory, June 24, 1876); went briefly again to Louisiana as a special investigator for President Grant after the controversial national elections of November 1876 in which Louisiana's electoral votes were crucial to the victory of Republican presidential candidate Rutherford B. Hayes; appointed commanding general of the U. S. Army, 1883, replacing Gen. William T. Sherman (q.v.); promoted to the extraordinary rank of general of the army, June 1888. Married, June 3, 1875, Irene Rucker of Chicago, Ill., daughter of Gen. Daniel H. Rucker, U. S. Army. Children: three daughters and one son. Strong supporter of the Republican party, although never ran for office. Member: Roman Catholic church. Fort Sheridan, Chicago, Ill., named for subject. Died, Nonquit, Mass., August 5, 1888; interred Arlington National Cemetery. J.G.D. Sources: Joseph G. Dawson III, Army Generals and Reconstruction: Louisiana, 1862-1877 (1982); Paul A. Hutton, Phil Sheridan and His Army (1985); Richard O'Connor, Sheridan the Inevitable (1953); Philip H. Sheridan, Personal Memoirs (1888); Joe Gray Taylor, Louisiana Reconstructed, 1863-1877 (1974).

SHERMAN, Mary S.
, orthopedic surgeon. Born, Evanston, Ill., April 21, 1913; daughter of Walter Allen Stults and Monica Graham. Education: Evanston Township High School; Institute de Mme Collnot, Paris, France; Northwestern University; A. B., 1934; University of Chicago, M. A., 1935, M. D., 1941; 1935-1936, instructor at University of Illinois French Institute; internship at Bob Roberts Hospital, University of Chicago; assistant professor of Orthopedic Surgery at Billings Hospital, University of Chicago, 1947; director, Ochsner Medical Foundation's bone pathology laboratory, 1952; associate professor of Clinical Orthopedics, Tulane University School of Medicine from 1953; senior visiting surgeon in orthopedics at Charity Hospital, New Orleans. Member, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, Fellow, American College of Surgeons. Phi Beta Kappa. Murdered, New Orleans, July 21, 1964; cremated, Birmingham, Ala. C.A.D. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, July 22, 1964; July 23, 1964; July 31, 1964; New Orleans States Item, July 21, 1964; July 31, 1964; Who's Who in the South and Southwest (1959).

SHERMAN, William Tecumseh
, soldier. Born, Lancaster, Ohio, February 8, 1820. Named Tecumseh after the Shawnee chief. At age nine adopted by Thomas Ewing and "William" added to his names. Education: United States Military Academy, graduated 1840. Commissioned July 1, 1840, second lieutenant in Thirty-fourth Artillery. Stationed in Florida. 1842, went to South Carolina. 1850, assigned to Washington, D. C. Married Ellen Boyle Ewing, daughter of his foster father. Resigned from army in 1853. Worked in California. 1859, appointed superintendent of Louisiana Military Academy in Alexandria, La. 1861, left Louisiana and went to St. Louis, Mo. Joined army after Civil War started. Promoted to rank of brigadier general; 1862, to rank of major general. Fought at Shiloh. 1864, made commander of Union Army in South. Confederate Gen. Joseph Johnston surrendered to Sherman, April 26, 1865, near Durham, N. C. 1866, promoted to rank of lieutenant general. 1869, made general in chief of army. When asked to consider running for president of United States by Republicans in 1884, he wired, "I will not accept if nominated, and will not serve if elected." Died, New York City, February 14, 1891. M.C.R. Sources: The Encyclopedia Americana, XXIV (1977); James M. Merrill, William Tecumseh Sherman (1971).

SHREVE, Henry Miller, pioneer, inventor, businessman, patriot, and riverboat captain. Born, Mount Pleasant, N. J., October 21, 1775; son of Israel and Mary Cokely Shreve. Father, a Quaker, served with honor in American Revolution. Removed with family to Western Pennsylvania when Henry was two. As an adult, pioneered in river navigation; invented a new kind of riverboat, Washington, 1816; helped establish commerce on western waters; cleared parts of the Mississippi River; most famous contribution was clearing Great River Raft on Red River, 1833-1838. Established the right of every American to participate in inland waterways transportation by challenging the steamboat monopoly of New Orleans held by the New York monopoly, 1814. Married (1) Mary M. Blair, February 28, 1811. Three children. Married (2) Lydia Rogers, Boston. Two children. Helped establish and name Shreveport via Shreve Town Company in 1837. Relieved of his duties by Whig President John Tyler in 1841. Retired to his farm near St. Louis, Mo., where he died, March 6, 1851. M.P. Sources: Claire Puneky, ed., Louisiana Leaders (1970); Clayton Rand, Stars in Their Eyes (1953); Louisiana Heritage, II; Florence L. Dorsey, Master of the Mississippi: Henry Shreve and the Conquest of the Mississippi (1941).

SHUSHAN, Abraham Lazar
, politician, businessman. Born Reserve, La., January 12, 1894. Executive in family wholesale dry goods business. Backed John M. Parker (q.v.) for governor, 1920; served on Orleans Levee Board, 1920-1924. Backed Huey Long (q.v.), 1928; appointed Levee Board again, 1928. President of board, 1929. Spurred New Orleans protective seawall and construction of Shushan Airport there (now Lakefront Airport), 1933, linking Louisiana with major air networks. His aviation and flood protection achievements are major accomplishments of Huey Long administration. Indicted for income-tax evasion on rebates to Long administration by land-fill contractors. Acquitted, 1935. Resigned from board, 1935. Indicted 1939 for using mails to defraud during so-called "Louisiana Scandals" in Levee Board bond refinancing plan. Before trial, case was "tried in the newspapers," and Federal Attorney Rogge's tactics included discussion with the papers of "possible" jury tampering in 1935 tax case and the civil settlement of the tax claim. Convicted after complicated trial. Pardoned by President Truman, February 28, 1947. Solicited by and contributed to campaigns of "Chep" Morrison (q.v.) and Sen. John F. Kennedy in presidential race. Died New Orleans, November 3, 1966. A.S.J. Sources: New Orleans Item, August 21, 1939; Harnett T. Kane, Louisiana Hayride (1941); Arthur Scully, Jr., "Huey Long's Lieutenant, Abe Shushan and the Image of Long as a Neopopulist and Mass Leader" (M.S. thesis, University of New Orleans, 1978).

SHUTTLEWORTH, Frances (Mrs. John), civic leader. Born, Seguin, Tex., December 25, 1848. Education: Seguin Female College. Charter member and secretary for fourteen years of Home Charitable Association, earliest relief organization in Shreveport. Strong supporter of the Genevieve Orphanage and the Shreveport Training School for Girls. Held numerous fund-raising activities including candy sales and cotton-bale auctions and established the Federated Club's loan fund aimed at assisting young women wanting to enter the teaching profession. Was on the committee that originated trash receptacle placement in Shreveport and founded the first free night school. Member, Hypatia Club, United Daughters of the Confederacy, and Louisiana Federation of Women's Clubs. Married John Shuttleworth in 1870s. No children. Died February 4, 1944. P.L.M. Source: Lilla McLure and J. Ed Howe, History of Shreveport and Shreveport Builders (1937).

SIBLEY, Henry Hopkins
, soldier. Born, Natchitoches, La., May 25, 1816; son of Samuel Hopkins Sibley and Margaret Lamis; grandson of Dr. John Sibley (q.v.). Education: United States Military Academy, West Point, graduated 1838, thirty-first in a class of forty-five. Commissioned second lieutenant of dragoons. Fought in the Seminole War, 1838-1839. Promoted to rank of first lieutenant, March 8, 1840, and served as adjutant, First U. S. Dragoons, 1841-1846. Fought in the Mexican War; promoted to rank of captain, February 16, 1847; brevetted major for gallantry near Vera Cruz, March 25, 1847. Saw duty in the West against the Indians in Kansas, and in the Mormon War in Utah. Invented the Sibley tent. Resigned May 13, 1861. Commissioned brigadier geneal in Confederate Army, June 17, 1861. Appointed commander of the Department of New Mexico and led the invasion of New Mexico and Arizona, 1861-1862. Defeated in the battles of Valverde and Glorieta and retreated to Texas. Led a brigade of Texas cavalry in southern Louisiana, December 1862 to April 1863. Charged by Gen. Richard Taylor (q.v.) with disobeying orders and conduct unbecoming an officer at the Battle of Bisland, April 12-13, 1863, and during the retreat up Bayou Teche. Court-martial found Sibley innocent but criticized his actions. He held no other commands during the war. Served as general of artillery in Egypt under the Khedive, 1869-1873. Returned to the United States and lived in poverty until his death. Died, Fredericksburg, Va., August 23, 1886; interred Fredericksburg. A.W.B. Sources: Jerry Thompson, Henry Hopkins Sibley (1987); Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Gray (1959); Mark M. Boatner, III, The Civil War Dictionary (1959); Martin H. Hall, Sibley's New Mexico Campaign (1960); Elizabeth Shown Mills, Natchitoches Church Marriages, 1818-1850 (1985).

SIBLEY, John, Indian agent, planter, politician. Born Sutton, Mass., May 19, 1757; son of Timothy and Anne (Waite) Sibley. Surgeon's mate, Continental Army, War of Independence. After war, established medical practice at Great Barrington, Mass. Removed to Fayetteville, S. C., 1784, and published a newspaper there; migrated to Louisiana in 1802 and settled at Natchitoches in 1803. Contract surgeon to U. S. garrison at Fort Claiborne, 1804-1805; Indian agent, 1805-1815; member of territorial Governor William C. C. Claiborne (q.v.)'s advisory council; justice of the peace and parish judge; state senator; captain of militia. Acquired extensive real estate holdings in and around Natchitoches; shipped first Red River cotton to New Orleans in 1810; purchased and developed important salt deposits in Red River Parish known as Drake Salt Works. Authority on Louisiana geography, history, and ethnography; reports greatly influenced policy-making in New Orleans and Washington. Sympathized with Mexican revolution and participated in James Long's abortive 1819 filibuster into Texas. Married (1) Elizabeth Hopkins (d. 1790) at Great Barrington, Mass., 1780. Two children. Married (2) widow, Mrs. Mary Winslow White (d. 1811) at Fayetteville, S. C., 1791. Two children. Married (3) Eudalie Malique at Natchitoches, La., 1813. Four children. Grandfather of Gen. Henry Hopkins Sibley (q.v.). Died at home in Natchitoches, April 8, 1837, leaving an extensive estate; interred American Cemetery. Sibley Lake is named for him. R.C.V. Sources: Julia Karhryn Garret, ed., "Dr. John Sibley and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier, 180-3-1814," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, XLV-XLIX (1941-46); Sibley Papers, Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis; G. P. Whittington, "Dr. John Sibley of Natchitoches, 1717-1837," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, X (1927).

SIMON, Emile Edouard Joseph, jurist, scholar, planter. Born, St. Martinville, La., September 17, 1824; son of Florent Edouard Simon, jurist (native of Tournia, Belgium), and Eugénie Zerban of New Orleans. Education: Jefferson College, St. James Parish, La.; Louisiana State University; attended Georgetown College in the District of Columbia; and completed his law studies at Harvard University, studying law under Justice Story of the Supreme Court and Simon Greenleaf. While a student at Harvard, he furnished information and descriptive matter to Longfellow which he incorporated into his poem Evangeline. Simon was admitted to the Louisiana bar in 1848 and was appointed in 1853 by Gov. Joseph Walker (q.v.) to be state attorney for the Fourteenth Judicial District. Later elected district judge of this same district, succeeding his father on the bench, to be succeeded in turn by his son and grandson in this position. (The four generations of Simons all went on to serve the state supreme court.) Re-elected district judge in 1865 for another four years, but was denied his office by the Federal (Union) governor after the Civil War. In 1871, he was mentioned as a candidate (independent) for governor, but withdrew in favor of party unity. He engaged in extensive sugar planting for several years after the Civil War, then gave this up; he owned Palo-Alto Plantation in the Franklin-Charenton area. He represented St. Martin Parish and was a active delegate in the constitutional convention of 1879 held in New Orleans, taking a prominent part in framing the laws of the state. Actively engaged in the practice of law until a few months prior to his death. Married, May 26, 1853, Harriet Helen Kitchen of New Orleans, daughter of William H. Kitchen of Virginia, and Anna C. Smith of Connecticut. Children: William Edouard (b. 1853), Eugenie L. (b. 1859), Alice Edith (b. 1858), James Etienne (Dudley) (b. 1866), Leopold (b. 1860), Lorena (b. 1869), Walter (b. 1862). Died, St. Martinville, February 10, 1913. W.Z.B. Sources: New Orleans Item, obituary, February 12, 1913; St. Martin Banner, obituary, 1913; Walter M. Hunter, The Hunters of Bedford County, Virginia; Donald Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984).

SIMON, James Dudley, politician, jurist. Born, St. Martinville, La., January 30, 1897, son of Judge James Simon and Laurence Mouton, grandson of Judge Edward Simon and Judge Edward Mouton, great-grandson of Justice Edouard Simon (q.v.). Education: local schools, attended Louisiana State University, Tulane University Law School, graduated 1918. Enlisted in the United States Army, 1918. Served during World War I. Discharged as a lieutenant in 1919. Charter member of the American Legion and Past Department Judge Advocate General. Served as state senator, 1921-1925; resigned to become judge of the Sixteenth Judicial District Court, April, 1925, and re-elected at each of five successive elections for terms of six years; appointed by Louisiana Supreme Court to Orleans Court of Appeals, New Orleans, 1941-1942. Appointed by Louisiana Supreme Court to the Fourteenth Judicial District Court, Parishes of Calcasieu, Jefferson Davis, Cameron, and Beauregard, 1947. Elected to the Louisiana Supreme Court, January 1955; retired August 23, 1960. Married (1), 1929, Eloise Gertrude Stone, Alexandria, La., daughter of Walter Stone and Viola Carson of Texas. Children: Barbara (b. 1931), Eloise (b. 1935), Kathryn (b. 1936). Married (2), Lucille Bienvenu, St. Martinville, 1955. Died October 23, 1982; interred St. Michael's Cemetery, St. Martinville. J.M.G. Source: Mrs. Eloise Simon Bryant.

SIMPSON, Lillie "Kitty" Mott Atkins
, writer, editor, photographer. Born, Sabine Parish, La., April 29, 1896; daughter of George M. Mott and Susannah Humbree. Privately educated at home. Her first marriage ended in divorce. Married (2) Harold Atkins; married (3) J. L. Simpson. A resident of Shreveport, Mrs. Simpson wrote a weekly column on gardening for Planter's Press. From 1952 through 1954 she edited the Cedar Grove Reporter. From 1958 through 1972 she wrote monthly columns of gardening advice for national magazines. On the staff of Flower and Garden, she soon became Southern Field Editor for Better Homes and Gardens. She was the author of at least 188 published articles on gardens and gardening which appeared in journals in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and England. Mrs. Simpson experimented with trial seeds for Sakata Company, and created the name "Burpless cucumber." A member of the Old Rose Committee of the American Rose Society, Mrs. Simpson grew, judged, and identified old-fashioned roses. She also planned and planted old rose gardens at Hodges Gardens, Dutch Gardens, Rosedown Plantation, and at Hamilton, Bermuda. Member of the Hattie Williams Garden Club, the Cedar Grove Garden Club, Real Daughters of the Confederacy, Garden Writers Association of America, Louisiana Society for Horticultural Research, American Horticultural Society, Shreveport Rose Society, and Royal Horticultural Society. In 1971 she was awarded the Order of the Golden Rose from the Ark-La-Tex Rose Beautification League. Died, March 5, 1981; interred Forest Park Cemetery, Shreveport, La. M.H.S. Source: Author's research.

SIMPSON, Oramel Hinckley, attorney, politician, governor. Born, Washington, La., March 20, 1870; son of Samuel F. and Mary Esther Beer Simpson. Education: local schools; Centenary College, A. B., 1890; Tulane University, LL.B., 1893. Married Louise Pichet of New Orleans, 1899. No children. Democrat. Attorney in New Orleans, 1893-1899; warrant clerk at the New Orleans United States Mint, 1899; assistant secretary of the state senate, 1900-1908; secretary of the state senate, 1908-1924, and 1932; secretary of the Louisiana constitutional convention of 1921; lieutenant-governor, 1924-1926; governor, 1926-1928; attorney, 1928-1932. Member: Methodist church. Simpson's administration approved the contracts for toll-free bridges over the Chef Menteur and Rigolets passes. The outstanding event of his term was the 1927 Mississippi River flood, during which he reduced pressure on the New Orleans levees by ordering levees cut below the city. After the flood, he helped organize a tri-state flood-control commission. Died, New Orleans, November 17, 1932; interred Greenwood Cemetery. J.P.S. Sources: Robert Sobel and John Raimo, eds., Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States, 1789-1978, II, Iowa-Missouri (1978); New Orleans Times-Picayune, October 12-November 22, 1926, and November 18-21, 1932; Baton Rouge Morning Advocate, May 16, 1932.

SIMS, Harry Vernon, physician. Born, Terrebonne Parish, La., February 11, 1892; son of Robert Nicholls Sims, Jr., and Nita Dalferes. Removed with family to Donaldsonville, La., and grew to adulthood there. Education: attended Bingham Military Institute, Asheville, N. C.; Louisiana State University, B. A., 1911; Tulane University Medical School, medical degree 1915. Served internship, Charity Hospital, New Orleans. Entered U. S. Army, April 1917, served in France; awarded Silver Star for gallantry. Returned to civilian life, 1919, and began private practice of medicine, specializing in gynecology. Served on staff of Charity Hospital; president of surgical division, 1935. Also served on staffs of Baptist Hospital and Touro Infirmary. Appointed professor, 1931, of Clinical Gynecology on the original faculty of Louisiana State University Medical School; taught until 1938. Became assistant surgeon, 1924, with New Orleans Public Service, Inc., and served as chief surgeon, 1951-1961. Author of numerous articles on gynecology. President, 1929, New Orleans Obstetrical and Gynecological Society. Fellow, American College of Surgeons and of the Industrial Medical Association; member, American, Louisiana, and Orleans medical societies. Member, Nu Sigma Nu and Kappa Alpha fraternities. Member, Boston Club. A Democrat, and a Roman Catholic. Married Catherine Roger of Lafourche Parish, September 7, 1922, the daughter of Thomas H. Roger and Verna Knobloch. Children. Harry Vernon, Jr., who was killed in action in World War II, and Gerald. Died, New Orleans, October 26, 1962. G.N.S. Source: Author's research.

SIMS, Joseph Arthur, attorney, political figure. Born, Shreveport, La., July 16, 1914; son of Linus A. Sims (q.v.) and Isabel Johnson. Educated Hammond, La., public schools; Southeastern School of Law. Married, June 19, 1939, Enid Lions of Madisonville, La., daughter of Alphonse Lions, Madisonville pharmacist and Olympia Galatas. Children: Joseph Arthur, Jr. and David Robert (b. 1945). Active in Democratic politics, one-time law partner of Congressman James H. Morrison; district attorney, Twenty-first Judicial District, 1948-1952; unsuccessful candidate for attorney general on Judge Carlos Spaht ticket, 1952; joined staff of Attorney General William Guste; legal advisor to Gov. Earl K. Long (q.v.); "rescued" Long from Southeast Louisiana State Hospital in 1959. Member: Methodist church, American Bar Association, Louisiana Bar Association, American Trial Lawyers Association, Louisiana Trial Lawyers Association, Gamma Eta Gamma legal fraternity. Senior partner firm Sims and Mack. Died, Pass Manchac, La., May 20, 1973; interred Greenlawn Cemetery, Hammond. C.H.N. Sources: Frederick W. Williamson and George T. Goodman, eds., Eastern Louisiana: A History of the Watershed of the Ouachita River and the Florida Parishes (1939); obituaries, Baton Rouge Morning Advocate, May 21, 1973; New Orleans Times-Picayune, May 21, 1973; Hammond Vindicator, May 24, 1973; interview with Enid Lions Sims Sears.

SIMS, Linus Arthur, educator, administrator. Born, Crossville, Ala., September 22, 1882; son of Levi Copedge Sims and Mary Emily Bussey. Education: public schools; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.; Centenary College, Shreveport, La.; Louisiana State University, Master's degree. Like his father before him, became a Methodist preacher, 1907. In 1911 decided to become a teacher. Married Isabel Johnson of Monroe, La. Children: Joseph Arthur (q.v.) and Lydel (b. 1916). Held teaching posts in Gonzales, Cheneyville, Ponchatoula, and Bogalusa. In 1923 became principal of Hammond High School. Fostered the idea of a local college enlisting local support for such an institution. In late summer of 1925 he started Hammond Junior College in one wing of the Hammond High School building serving as president of the college as well as principal of Hammond High School. He urged the purchase of a new campus in 1927 and moved the institution to the northern edge of Hammond; in 1928 Hammond Junior College became Southeastern Louisiana College and part of the Louisiana state system of higher education. In 1933 removed to Louisiana Normal (now Northwestern State University), Natchitoches, as purchasing agent. Returned to public school teaching in 1937. He served as Hammond's postmaster, 1944-1949. Died, New Orleans, September 15, 1949; interred Greenlawn Cemetery, Hammond. C.H.N. Sources: Margaret Smythe, "The Founding of Southeastern Louisiana College," Eastern Louisiana, A History of the Watershed of the Ouachita River and the Florida Parishes, eds. Frederick Williamson and George T. Goodman (1939); LeRoy Ancelet, "A History of Southeastern Louisiana College" (Ph. D. dissertation); obituary, Hammond Vindicator, September 16, 23, 1949.

SINGLETON, Arthur James "Sutty"
, jazz drummer. Born, Bunkie, La., May 14, 1889. Married Marge Creath. One daughter, Alma. Served in U. S. Navy during World War I. In 1923, began drumming on Mississippi River excursion boats with Fate Marable's band. In Chicago settled into the Three Deuces with his own group and subsequently as a drummer in Roy Eldridge's band. In mid-1930s removed to New York where he later became the house drummer at Nick's in Greenwich Village. In 1941 moved to Jimmy Ryan's on 52nd Street. Went to Hollywood in 1943 to appear in the film Stormy Weather and remained there for 10 years. Also appeared in the films New Orleans (1946) and Turned Up Toes (1949). Died, New York City, July 14, 1975. H.C. Sources: John Chilton, Who's Who of Jazz (1972); Leonard Feather, Encyclopedia of Jazz in the Sixties (1966); New Orleans States-Item, obituary, July 16, 1975; Second Line, Fall 1975; Martin Williams, Jazz Masters of New Orleans (1967).

SKIPWITH, Fulwar
, diplomat, governor of West Florida Republic. Born, Dinwiddie County, Va., February 21, 1765; son of Fulwar and Marie Hadden Skipwith. Appointed in 1790 by President Washington as consul to West Indian islands of Martinique, Guadaloupe, and Sainte-Lucie; appointed by Washington on June 26, 1795, as consul-general to France; was sole commercial and diplomatic agent of the United States in Paris from 1796-1800; from 1800-1808 was official commercial agent in Paris. Married Evelina Louisa Barlié Van den Clooster, a Flemish countess, in France in 1802. Children: Lelia, who married Thomas B. Robertson (q.v.), governor of Louisiana, 1820-1824; Evelina, who married Robert H. Barton; and George Grey Skipwith. In 1808 resigned as consul and returned to United States to raise cotton on plantation, Montesano, near Baton Rouge, La. (then West Florida); in 1810 was one of the leaders of the successful revolt to free West Florida from Spain; was named governor of the province of West Florida on November 20, 1810. After annexation of West Florida to the United States, became register of the land office in 1812; was commissioned consul for Paris on March 3, 1815, but it is doubtful that he accepted the position; from 1815 until his death, farmed lands and pressed his claims for debts owed him by the United States Congress. He is said to have died at Montesano on January 7, 1839, but his grave has not been located. P.A.C. Sources: Henry B. Cox, The Parisian American: Fulwar Skipwith (1964); Stanley C. Arthur, The West Florida Rebellion (1935).

SLIDELL, John, businessman, attorney, politician. Born, New York, 1793; son of John Slidell, merchant, and Margery Mackenzie, a Scot. Education: Columbia College, graduated 1810. Removed to New Orleans, 1819. Married Mathilde Deslonde, 1835. Children: Alfred, Marie Rosine (later comtess de St. Roman), and Matilda (later baroness d'Erlanger). Sister Jane married Commodore Matthew C. Perry. Brother Thomas (q.v.) was a chief justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court. Mercantile business in New York; admitted to New York bar; law practice in New Orleans, 1819-1843; Louisiana house of representatives; unsuccessful candidate to U. S. House, 1828; New Orleans, district attorney, 1829-1833; U. S. House of Representatives, 1843-1845; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Mexico from November 10, 1845 to 1846, refused reception by Mexico; appointed envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras, March 19, 1853, declined; U. S. Senate, 1853-1861; Confederate diplomatic agent to France, 1861-1865; seized along with Confederate diplomat James M. Mason by U. S. war vessel in Trent incident, 1861; post Civil War resident in Paris, France. Key political figure in Louisiana state politics in the 1850s and in President James Buchanan's administration, 1857-1861. Slidell, La. named in his honor. Died, Cowes, Isle of Wight, England, July 26, 1871; interred Saint-Roman family private cemetery near Paris, France. T.D.S. Sources: Dictionary of American Biography, XVII; National Cyclopedia of American Biography, II; Clayton Rand, Stars in Their Eyes (1953); Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1971 (1971); U. S. Dept. of State, United States Chiefs of Mission, 1778-1973 (1973); C. R. Craig, "John Slidell: Louisiana Politician" (M. A. thesis, Tulane University, 1948); A. L. Diket, "John Slidell and the Community He Represented in the Senate, 1853-1861" (Ph. D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1958); Louis M. Sears, John Slidell (1925).

SLIDELL, Thomas, attorney, jurist. Born, New York, 1805; son of John Slidell and Margery Mackenzie; brother of United States Senator John Slidell (q.v.) and naval officer Alexander Slidell Mackenzie, and brother-in-law of naval officer Matthew C. Perry. Education: Yale College, graduated 1825. Traveled in Spain, settled in New Orleans. Practiced law and was "associated" with the Democratic party. Co-editor with Judah P. Benjamin (q.v.) of a Digest of the Reported Decisions of the Superior Court of the Late Territory of Orleans and of the Supreme Court of the State of Louisiana (1834); later revised and enlarged by Slidell in 1840. Elected, 1844, to state senate to fill an unexpired term; 1845 appointed by Gov. Isaac Johnson (q.v.) asociate justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court; under the 1852 constitution, elected chief justice for a ten-year term, but served only to July 1855. Attacked by thugs in New Orleans during the turbulent November 1856 state elections. Not long after, removed to Newport, R. I. Died, Newport, April 20, 1864, leaving a "numerous family." M.C. Sources: Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Louisiana, II (1892; reprint ed., 1975); Louisiana Courier, November 6, 1856; obituary, New York Herald, April 23, 1864.

SMITH, Ambrose Dudley
, town developer. Born, Cincinnati, Ohio; son of Ohio senator John Smith. Education: classical mode judging from his extensive library in frontier Feliciana. After Kemper Rebellion, 1804, arising from decision by Spanish magistrates in favor of John Smith for whom the Kempers had been agents, A. D. Smith assumed management of disputed land at mouth of Bayou Sara, Feliciana Parish, which he developed into town he called New Valentia (later Hispanicized into Valencia), hiring Ira C. Kneeland to lay out grid, 1806-1808; town failed to develop despite purchase of lots by Spanish governor Carlos de Grand Pré (q.v.), but landing place flourished after Smith's death and grew into Mississippi River port of Bayou Sara, incorporated ca. 1835. Died at sea aboard the Orleans, May 4, 1817. E.K.D. Sources: WPA translations, Spanish Archives; West Feliciana Parish Records.

SMITH, G. W. H.
, Campbellite religious leader and journalist. During the 1850s, Smith, the city's most conspicuous proponent of the Disciples of Christ (Christian) Denomination, published a religious weekly known as the Christian Light. The newspaper lasted only three years, and focused its proselytizing among members of the established Protestant community. Smith's church group dispersed in 1858 after having made enemies among the local Baptists and other local fundamentalists. T.F.R. Source: Timothy F. Reilly, "Religious Leaders and Social Criticism in New Orleans, 1800-1861" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Missouri at Columbia).

SMITH, George Luke
, congressman. Born, New Boston, N. H., December 11, 1837. Education: completed preparatory studies and attended Union College, Schenectady, N. Y. During the Civil War served in the Union Army. After war, removed to Shreveport and engaged in mercantile pursuits. Held several local offices; member, state house of representatives, 1870-1872; proprietor, Shreveport Southwestern Telegram; president, Shreveport Savings Bank & Trust Co.; elected as a Republican to Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative-elect Samuel Peters and served from November 24, 1873, to March 3, 1875. Unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1874. Appointed collector of customs at the port of New Orleans by President Hayes and served from May 4, 1878, to February 20, 1879. Removed to Hot Springs, Ark., and engaged in the real-estate business until his death in that city, July 9, 1884; interred West Street Cemetery, Milford, N. H. J.B.C. Source: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1874-1949 (1950).

SMITH, Gerald Lyman Kenneth, clergyman, orator, political organizer, publisher. Born, Pardeeville, Wis., February 27, 1898; son of the Rev. and Mrs. Lyman Z. Smith. Education: Viola, Wis.; Viroqua, Wis.; Valparaiso University; Butler University. Minister: Deep River, Wis.; Soldier's Grove, Wis.; Footeville, Wis.; Beloit, Wis.; Seventh Christian Church and University Place Christian Church, Indianapolis, Ind.; Kings Highway Christian Church, Shreveport. Married Elna Marion Sorenson, 1922. Child (adopted): Gerald L. K. Smith, Jr. (b. 1929). Removed to Shreveport., because of wife's respiratory illness. 1931, met Huey Long (q.v.); 1934, became national organizer of Long's Share-Our-Wealth Society. 1935, with Long when Long assassinated; delivered Long's funeral oration. 1935, left Louisiana. 1936, joined Father Charles E. Coughlin and Dr. Francis E. Townsend as organizer of Union Party. 1937, founded Committee of One Million. 1939, removed to Detroit. 1942, ran for United States senator. 1944, ran for president on ticket of America First Party. 1942, began publication of his monthly, The Cross and the Flag. Increasingly anti-Semitic and anti-black. Created Nationalist News Service to provide wirecopy for extreme conservative and nationalist journals. Opposed Franklin D. Roosevelt; prior to Pearl Harbor an isolationist lecturer and pamphleteer. 1947, removed to St. Louis. Organized Nationalist Veterans of World War II. Issued hundreds of tracts opposing New Deal, United Nations, racial mixing, sex education, gun control, drugs, abortion, pornography, water fluoridation, communism, the CIO. Spoke to more Americans than any other orator in the 1940s. 1953, removed to Los Angeles, Jewish groups limit press coverage of Smith; following declines. 1966, constructed seven-story "Christ of Ozarks." Staged "Passion Play," in Eureka Springs, Ark., depicting last week of Christ's life. Also constructed Bible Museum and religious art gallery. Died, April 15, 1976; interred at foot of Christ of Ozarks. G.J. Sources: Glen Jeansonne, "Preacher, Populist, Propagandist: Gerald L. K. Smith," Biography, II (1979); "Partison Parsan: An Oral History Account of the Louisiana Years of Gerald L. K. Smith," Louisiana History, XXIII (1982); Harnett T. Kane, Louisiana Hayride (1941); T. Harry Williams, Huey Long (1969); Isabel B. Price, "Gerald L. K. Smith and Anti-Semitism" (M.A. thesis, University of New Mexico, 1965).

SMITH, Henry Martyn, clergyman. Born, Carlisle, Pa., June 24, 1828. Education: attended Dickinson College; Jefferson College; Allegheny Theological Seminary; Columbia Theological Seminary, graduated 1854. A young professor and life-long friend, B. M. Palmer (q.v.), was called to the First Presbyterian Church in New Orleans, and sent Smith ahead to supply the church for two months until he could arrive. After Palmer's arrival, Smith was called to be pastor of the Third Presbyterian Church of New Orleans in 1857, where he remained for the rest of his life. During the occupation of the city by Union forces, Smith left and served as chaplain for Confederate forces in Trans-Mississippi Department under General Kirby Smith (q.v.). Returning to the city he found Third Church almost without members, and burdened with a heavy building debt. Under his leadership the problems were overcome and the church prospered. In 1869, became the founding editor of the Southwestern Presbyterian, continuing as pastor and editor until failing health forced his withdrawal from the pastorate in 1888 and from the paper in 1894. Married Lucy Coleman of Vicksburg, 1859. Two daughters. Received Doctor of Divinity degree from Oakland College in 1866, and in 1873 served as moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, U. S., highest office in the denomination. Died, New Orleans, June 24, 1894. W.D.L. Sources: E. C. Scott, Ministerial Directory of the Presbyterian Church in the United States, 1861-1941 (1941); Louis Voss, Presbyterianism in New Orleans (1931); Penrose St. Amant, History of the Presbyterian Church in Louisiana (1961).

SMITH, Isaac A., physician, politician. Arrived in St. Francisville, La., ca. 1811; practiced medicine, 1811-1831. Married (1) Elizabeth Ravencamp, step-daughter of Moses Kirkland, 1811. Married (2) Elizabeth Bradford, daughter David Bradford (q.v.), June 28, 1824. Incorporator, St. Francisville Library, 1816. Incorporator Baptist church, St. Francisville, 1823; president, board of trustees, College of Louisiana, Jackson, 1825-1831; member, Louisiana senate, 1823-1831, president, 1830-1831. Died, July 17, 1831. E.K.D. Sources: Senate Journal; William H. Nelson, A Burning Torch and a Flaming Fire (1931); Lislet's Louisiana Digest, 1813-1824; West Feliciana Public Records.

SMITH, James Monroe, academic. Born Jackson Parish, La., October 9, 1888; son of John Henry Smith and Mary Adney Sims. Education: Valparaiso University, Pd. B., 1913; Louisiana State University, B. A., 1921; University of Chicago, graduate work, 1922; Teacher's College (Columbia), M. A., 1925; Columbia, Ph. D., 1927. Married Thelma Ford, July 3, 1914. Children: Marjorie Lee, James Monroe. Teacher, rural schools, 1908-1910; instructor, high school, Eros, 1911-1912; teacher, summer, State Normal College (now Northwestern State University), 1917; LSU, 1918; instructor, Southwestern Louisiana Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana), Lafayette, 1920-1923, dean of College of Education, 1923-1930; president, LSU, 1930-1939, enrollment increases, 2,000-8,000. Pleaded guilty to three charges of forgery, one of embezzlement, 1940; sentenced to eight-to-twenty-four years at Louisiana State Penitentiary at Angola; sentenced to thirty months, federal prison at Atlanta on charges of mail fraud and tax evasion. 1945, state sentence commuted by Gov. Jimmie Davis; served 10 months in federal prison, paroled February 1945. July, 1946, accepted position as head of academic studies, Burritt Preparatory School for Boys, Spencer, Tenn. Returned to New Orleans, involved in real estate, September, 1948; appointed director of vocational rehabilitation, Louisiana State Prison at Angola. Hobbies: golf, football, bridge, reading. Member: American Academy of Political Science, Phi Kappa Phi, Phi Kappa Delta. Democrat. Baptist. Mason. Author: Training of High School Teachers in Louisiana (1927). Died, of heart attack, Angola, La., June 6, 1949. G.J. Sources: Albert Nelson Marquis, Who's Who in America, 1932-1933 (1932), XVII; Harnett T. Kane, Louisiana Hayride (1941); T. Harry Williams, Huey Long (1969); Baton Rouge State-Times, obituary, May 27, 1949; New Orleans Times-Picayune, May 28, 1949.

SMITH, Jo Ellen, twenty-two-year-old senior nursing student, Louisiana State University School of Nursing, New Orleans, La.; resident of Algiers, La. Daughter of James W. Smith (Fifth District Assessor, Orleans Parish) and Jeanne Modenbach; murdered while visiting home-care patient in Fischer Housing Project, Algiers, April 10, 1973; posthumously awarded Bachelor of Science in Nursing, LSU School of Nursing, New Orleans, May 1973, and Outstanding Senior Award given by LSU Associated Student Nurses, June 1973; one-hundred-and-twenty-five-bed Jo Ellen Smith Hospital, Algiers, named in her honor, May 1973. Interred McDonogh Cemetery, Gretna, La. C.A.D. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, April 11, 1973; May 18, 1973; May 29, 1973; June 3, 1973.

SMITH, Marshall J.
, naval, infantry, and artillery officer. Born, Warrenton, Va., 1824; father died when he was seven. Education: St. Mary's College, Baltimore, 1837-1841, U. S. Naval Academy, graduated 1847. Appointed a midshipman in U. S. Navy,1841; served in the West Indies and the Gulf of Mexico; fought at Vera Cruz; commanded a small, four-gun vessel. Married Mary M. Taylor (d. 1893), daughter of Anne Saunders and Arthur Taylor, 1849. Children: Carrie, Marshall J. (q.v.), and Alice. Resigned in 1851; engaged in the mercantile business in Mobile, Ala.; removed to New Orleans in 1854. Civil War service: helped organize the Twenty-fourth Louisiana Infantry, a ninety-day unit nicknamed the "Crescent Regiment"; mustered into Confederate service as colonel of the Twenty-fourth Louisiana on March 6, 1862; unit distinguished itself at the Battle of Shiloh; resigned because of poor health following that battle; traveled first to Mississippi and then to Richmond, Va.; was commissioned a lieutenant colonel of artillery; ordered to Port Hudson, La., where he became the chief of heavy artillery for Brig. Gen. William N. R. Beall and later for Maj. Gen. Franklin Gardner (q.v.); largely responsible for the failure of five of Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut's (q.v.) seven vessels to pass the batteries there on March 14, 1863; served aboard the U.S.S. Mississippi, which was destroyed during the passage of Port Hudson; commanded the heavy guns during the siege of Port Hudson from May 22 to July 9, 1863; was captured and imprisoned at New Orleans, 1863; Ft. McHenry, and Ft. Delaware; exchanged at Charleston, S. C., November 1864. Resided in New Orleans after the war; worked as an insurance agent. Died, June 19, 1904. L.L.H. Sources: Clement A. Evans, ed., Confederate Military History, 12 vols. (1899); Lawrence L. Hewitt, Port Hudson, Confederate Bastion on the Mississippi (1987).

SMITH, Marshall Joseph, Jr.
, artist, landscapist. Born, Norfolk, Va., December 1, 1854; son of Marshall Joseph Smith (q.v.) and Mary Taylor. Married, 1877, Louisville, Ky., Bettie P. Belknap (b. 1855). Children: Eleanore (b. 1880), Mary (b. 1883), Belknap (b. 1884), Bettie (b. 1887), Mattie B. (b. 1889), and Euclid (b. 1895). Brought to New Orleans as a child, showed an early passion for drawing and painting. During the Civil War the family lived in a log cabin in the interior of Mississippi. After the war attended preparatory school and received art lessons privately from Adolph J. Jacquet. Attended college in Virginia, 1867-1869, studying art in the latter year. Returned to New Orleans, engaged in mercantile pursuits and studied under Richard Clague. In 1873 held first exhibit. After Clague's death in 1874, Theodore Sidney Moise took him into his studio. In 1874, Smith went to Europe and entered the studio of J. O. de Montalent. Also studied at the Accademia de Medici in Rome and travelled to Naples, Sorrento, Capri, Pompeii, Herculaneum, Vesuvius and Paestum. In 1875, he visited Florence, Perugia, Venice, Milan, Parma, Bologna, Verona, Genoa and Assisi. Next went to Bavaria, submitted a drawing to the board of professors of the Royal Bavarian Academy of Fine Arts in Munich and was passed in 1876. Preceptor there was Prof. Rensür. Visited Dresden, Nuremburg, Paris, Versailles, and Cologne. In Paris Gustave Doré presented him with an artist's proof etching of Rossini. In 1876 Smith opened a studio in Atlanta, Ga. In 1879 returned to New Orleans and worked in father's firm as an insurance agent, which lasted at least until 1886. A founding member of the Mardi Gras Krewe of Proteus, he designed many of their early floats and tableaux. A founder of the Southern Art Union in 1880. In 1889 opened own studio in New Orleans, which he maintained until 1906, after which he seems to have left New Orleans, perhaps removing to Covington, La. Around the turn of the century he taught painting at St. Mary's Dominican Academy and worked intermittently as a painter and in insurance. He exhibited frequently in New Orleans, including twice at the annual exhibitions of the Artists' Association of New Orleans in 1889 and 1890. Died, Covington, La., October 20, 1923. C.S.B. Sources: The Historic New Orleans Collection, Encyclopaedia of New Orleans Artists, 1718-1918 (1987); 1900 U. S. Census, reel 576; May W. Mount, Some Notables of New Orleans (1896).

SMITH, Persifor Frazer, soldier. Born, Philadelphia, Pa., November 16, 1798. Education: College of New Jersey, graduated 1815. Studied law and removed to New Orleans, 1819. Married (1), January 19, 1822, Frances J. Bureau. One son. Commanded a company and later a battalion in the state militia; adjutant general, 1836-1843. Colonel, Louisiana volunteers, February 2, 1836; fought in Seminole War of that year and again in 1838. Judge, city of Lafayette, Jefferson Parish. Brigadier general, Louisiana volunteers, May 15, 1846; colonel, U. S. Army, May 27, 1846. Commanded a brigade under Zachary Taylor (q.v.) and Winfield Scott in the Mexican War; brevet brigadier general, September 23, 1846, and brevet major general, August 20, 1847. Military governor of Mexico City. Commanded several military departments in the West, 1850-1858. Brigadier general, U. S. Army, December 30, 1856. Married (2), April 18, 1854, Anne M. (Millard) Armstrong. Died, Fort Leavenworth, Kan., May 17, 1858. A.W.B. Sources: "Persifor Frazer Smith," Dictionary of American Biography, XVII; Francis B. Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, 2 vols. (1903).

SMITH, Ralph Smith
, civil engineer, planter, entrepreneur, educator. Born, Middle Haddam, Conn., August 10, 1806. Smith, who was involved in the construction of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, came to New Orleans to lay out the Carrollton-New Orleans track. He purchased one of the first newspapers in Rapides Parish in order to advetise for investors for the first railroad laid west of the Mississippi River. This 16-mile road was laid in 1837; six additional miles were laid to Smith's Landing (Lecompte) by 1841. The original terminal was at Lamourie. By 1857, helped secure an appropriation from the legislature to construct immense locks to control the water flow into Bayou Boeuf from Lamourie Bayou. Locks still exist. Envisioned a transportation empire to include a packet of keelboats and flatboats running from the town of Washington, La., to Smith's Landing; the railroad connecting the landing with the Red River port at Alexandria; and three large steamboats plying the waters between New Orleans and Natchitoches. By the time of the Civil War he had accomplished this but during the war lost everything but the Bayou Boeuf packets. He owned at different times New Hope Plantation above Cheneyville and Waverly Plantation, the largest sugar plantation in the entire area with the largest sugar mill. Waverly Plantation lay south of Cheneyville. The train depot, warehouses, his residence, were burned May 13, 1864, when the Union Army fired Alexandria. The tracks of his railroad were used in the construction of Bailey's Dam, and his three steamboats were confiscated by the Confederate government and later sunk by Union forces. Smith was a member of the first board of directors of Louisiana State Seminary at Pineville and chairman of the Committee of Public Safety formed in 1862. Married (1) Leocadia Bayham. Two children. Married (2) Lydia Tracy Barstow. Four children. Died, 1883; interred cemetery of Trinity Episcopal Church, Cheneyville, La. S.E. Source: Author's research.

SMITH, Solomon Franklin, actor, theatre manager. Born, Norwich, N. Y., April 20, 1801. After a checkered career as a printer, editor, organist, singing teacher, prompter, riverboat pilot, storekeeper, choir director, farm hand, and actor, he embarked on a career as a theatre manager. His partnership with Noah Ludlow (q.v.) helped to establish New Orleans as a major theatrical center during the nineteenth century. On November 10, 1840, the partners opened the New American Theatre. Fire destroyed the theatre on July 30, 1842, and Ludlow and Smith opened their New St. Charles Theatre on January 18, 1843. For ten years they dominated the Mississippi Valley until both men retired from theatre management and dissolved the partnership in 1853. Their farewell "benefit" performance took place on April 30, 1853. Married (1) Martha Thérèse Mathews, 1822. Four sons, two daughters. Married (2) Elizabeth Pugsly. Died, St. Louis, Mo., February 15, 1869; interred Bellefontaine Cemetery. K.D.* Sources: T. Allston Brown, History of the American Stage (1870; reprint ed., 1969); James K. Dormon, Jr., Theater in the Ante Bellum South, 1815-1861 (1967); Solomon Smith, Theatrical Management in the West and South for Thirty Years (1868; reprint ed., 1968).

SMYLIE, James H.
, clergyman, polemicist. Born, New Hampshire, ca. 1805. Educated in New England, became a Congregationalist, later a Methodist minister for four years, and afterward joined the ministry of the Baptist church for 12 years. Finally applied to the Presbytery of New Orleans and remained a Presbyterian for the rest of his life. Smylie's chief notoriety came in 1847, when he authored a lengthy and controversial publication entitled Brief History of the Trial of the Rev. William A. Scott, D.D. Scott was a popular pastor of New Orleans' First Presbyterian Church who had purportedly sabotaged Whig nominee Henry Clay in his 1844 presidential bid. Smylie's critical book attempted to prove Scott's guilt in the matter, even though the embarrassed clergyman had earlier been declared innocent in an ecclesiastical trial. For the last five years of his life, Smylie was pastor at Union Church, Mississippi, where he died of tuberculosis, May 11, 1862. T.F.R. Sources: Minutes of the Synod of Mississippi, from 1861 to 1867 (1880); James Smylie, Brief History of the Trial of the Rev. William A. Scott, D. D. (1847).

SOILEAU, Leo, Cajun musician (violin), singer, bandleader. Born January 19, 1904. Second Cajun musician to record (October, 1928) with Mayus Lafleur; particularly influential during string band period of the 1930s and 1940s. Headed several popular groups such as Three Aces, Four Aces, Rhythm Boys. Retired with return of accordion bands in the late 1940s. Died, Ville Platte, La., August 2, 1980. B.J.A. Source: Author's research.

SOILEAU, Noël, administrator. Born, Mémières, France, November 22, 1700; son of Jean-Baptiste Soileau and Elizabeth Pellerin. Emigrated to Louisiana in 1718, sailing on Le Comte de Toulouse with his uncle Gerard Pellerin, a concessioner who established near Natchez. During the Natchez massacre, the plantation was destroyed, but Noël escaped. On June 27, 1737, Noël Soileau, widower of Marie Bordeaux, signed a marriage contract with the widow of Jean Fradin dit Saintonge, Marie Josephe Richaume, daughter of Pierre Richaume and Jeanne Françoise Maroy. Children: Marie-Anne, married, 1758, Etienne Robert de la Morandière (q.v.); Noël-Etienne (q.v.); Marie-Catherine-Françoise, married, 1761, Nicolas, Comte de Longueval; Marguerite; Augustin; Jean-Baptiste "Richaume," married, ca. 1774, Marie-Jeanne Vidrine; Hélène-Elisabeth, married, 1771, Gabriel Fuselier de la Claire (q.v.). He served as royal warehousekeeper at Natchez, a post he held until his death in 1757. J.O.V. Sources: Spain, Archivo General de Indias, Audiencia de Santo Domingo; France, Dept. Ardennes, Paris, Archives Nationales, Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal;, Louisiana civil and ecclesiastical records; Vidrine, "The Family of Noël Soileau, Attakapas Gazette, XIII, (1981).

SOILEAU, Noël Etienne
, administrator. Born on the German Coast of Louisiana, April 30, 1745; son of Noël Soileau (q.v.) and Marie Joseph Richaume. In 1776, made a second lieutenant in the militia. By 1782 he was an officer in the infantry. Had seen action with the Spanish troops as a member of the expedition that captured Mobile in 1780. Married, August 19, 1771, Angélique Fontenot, daughter of Pierre Bellevue Fontenot and Louise Doucet. Children: Angélique, Marianne, Céleste, Victoire, Hortense, Sophie, Jean-Baptiste, Mathilde, Etienne, Louis, Charles, Celerina, Henri, Brigitte, Joséphine, Marie-Anne, Emélie. Lived at the Opelousas Post from 1777 until at least 1785, when he was listed as an ensign with the militia there. In 1788, living at the Avoyelles Post. Became commandant and served there until ca. 1792, then removed a few years later to Opelousas. Died, Opelousas, March 7, 1810. J.O.V. Sources: Civil and ecclesiastical archives, Louisiana; Spain. Archivo General de Indias, Papeles Procedentes de Cuba; Jack D. L. Holmes, Honor and Fidelity (1965); Jacqueline K. Voorhies, Some Eighteenth Century Louisianians (1973).

SOMDAL, Dewey A., architect. Born, Mansfield, Ill., June 5, 1898. Education: University of Illinois; Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Began career, 1918, in New Orleans with firm of Favrot and Livaudais. Removed to Shreveport, 1923, practiced with Edward F. Neild, Sr. (q.v.). Designed numerous major buildings in Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas. In Missouri he helped design the Harry Truman Presidential Library and in Shreveport his many works include the Shreveport City Hall, Civic Theater, Veterans' Administration Hospital, Schumpert Hospital, and the Federal Building. Was the first chairman of Shreveport Metropolitan Planning Commission and the Louisiana Architects Association; named "Mr. Shreveport" in 1958; chairman, Downtown Development Committee; president, Industrial Development Commission. Director, Historic Preservation Society of Shreveport; president, Rotary Club of Shreveport; president, Shreveport Country Club. Fellow of the American Institute of Architects; served on advisory board for Barksdale Air Force Base; chairman, Community Chest United Fund. Member, Arthritis Foundation, Shreveport Chamber of Commerce and St. John Berchman's Catholic Church. Member, Army Corps of Engineers in World War I and lieutenant commander in U. S. Naval Reserve during World War II. Was a recognized authority on steamboats. Married, Eugenie Watson of New Orleans. Children: Karen Somdal Bryant and Dudley A. Somdal. Died, October 14, 1973. P.L.M. Source: Dewey A. Somdal Collection, Louisiana State University-Shreveport Archives.

SOMPAYRAC, Alexander E., businessman, planter, politician. Born, Natchitoches, La., November 7, 1843; son of Ambrose Bernard Sompayrac and Rosaline DeBlieux. Education: Tiger Island Plantation, State Seminary of Learning (now Louisiana State University), 1860-1862. Volunteered for Confederate service, 1862. Served as corporal in Company K, Twenty-seventh Louisiana Regiment; captured at Vicksburg, paroled, transferred to west bank of Mississippi River; reported for exchange at Shreveport, April 1, 1864, and at the time of surrender was at Mansfield, La. Returned home and worked on father's plantation. Married (1) Anette Airey (d. 1891), July 14, 1866. One son. Married (2) Stella DeBlieux of Willow Plantation, opposite Grand Ecore on Red River. Children: Myrtle (b. 1893), Alexander E. B. (b. 1895), Irma Rosalind (b. 1897). In 1890, owned 2,200 acres of land. Worked with relative, Captain Marston, to establish steamboat line. Raised race horses and operated a race track north of St. Maurice Lane and Williams Ave., Natchitoches. Served in Louisiana legislature, 1888-1892; member of Ways and Means Committee and State Printing Board; cast a decisive vote against renewal of Louisiana Lottery charter. At turn of the century, sponsored establishment of local hospital by two dermatologists at corner of Front and Washington streets, Natchitoches. Helped establish Louisiana State Normal School (now Northwestern State University), Natchitoches. Died, 1909. I.S.W. Sources: Archives of Natchitoches Parish Courthouse; Immaculate Conception Church; Trinity Episcopal Church; Louisiana State University, Hill Memorial Library; Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Northwest Louisiana (1890); Official Journal of the Proceedings of the House of Representatives; Official Register, Officers and Cadets of State Seminary of Learning and Military Academy of Louisiana (1962); recollections of Irma Sompayrac Willard; recollections of Justice Harold A. Moise; recollections of Hall Roosevelt, ca. 1918; recollections of Mrs. John M. Parkers (née Airey), 1919, New Orleans; recollections of Mrs. B. S. Swett; Encyclopedia Brittanica; Miscellaneous Lottery sources.

SONGY, A. A., educator, religious and civic leader. Born, Evergreen Plantation, Wallace, St. John the Baptist Parish, La., March 1, 1903; son of Prudent G. Songy and Elia Simon. Education: local schools; St. Stanislaus College, Bay St. Louis, Miss.; Loyola University, New Orleans. Educational career—forty-four years; classroom teacher, high school athletic and drama coach, glee-clubs, elementary- and high-school principal, elementary- and high-school supervisor, acting parish superintendent of schools, accrediting committee, Southern School Association, pilot advisory committee--WYES T.V. Education Station. Met post-World War II school enrollment growth and St. Charles Parish growth with construction of new school facilities; A. A. Songy Elementary School, Luling, La., named in his honor. Religious activities: Lifelong Roman Catholic, choir, Holy Name Society, St. Vincent de Paul Society, Knight of Columbus, CCD instruction, rosary crusader, Papal Honor bestowed by Pope Pius XII Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice, 1958, church parish councils, financial drives, yearly closed religious retreats. Civic activities: National Red Cross, parish chairman; Civil Defense Parish Committee, World War II; scout master and committeeman, Boy Scouts of America; semi-pro baseball league umpire and league president; member, National Census Committee. Married, September 2, 1925, Philomene Stewart. Children: Russell (b. 1926), Margaret (b. 1928), Aubin, Jr. (b. 1930), Phyllis (b. 1933), Jeanne (b. 1934), Annette (b. 1936), Linda (b. 1941), Sylvia (b. 1943). Died, Harahan, La., July 4, 1975; interred St. John the Baptist Cemetery, Edgard, La. F.L.* Sources: Russell D. Songy; family records; public records.

SONIAT DU FOSSAT, Gui de
, soldier, planter. Born Gui de Saunhac du Fossat, Gascony, France, September 17, 1726 or 1727. Married Françoise Claudine Dreux of New Orleans, 1753. Children: Françoise; Agathe Antoinette, married Jean Enoul de Beaumont de Livaudais; François Gui; Lucie; Jeanne; Elisabeth, married Antoine Doriocourt; Gui Joseph (1770-1851); Marie Emilie, married Jean Baptiste Bermudez; Catalina; Jean Baptiste. Volunteered for service in French army, 1746; lieutenant in Regiment of Monaco, 1747; wounded in the siege of Maestricht, 1748; sent to Louisiana in Detached Corps of Marines, 1751; promoted to rank of captain and sent to construct forts in Illinois, 1759; recalled to New Orleans, 1761; continued to serve France until Spain took possession of Louisiana, 1766; by permission of king of France, entered service of Spain as a captain of Battalion of Louisiana, 1769; retired from active service, 1772; appointed alcalde, 1775, 1778, 1786; retired to plantation, St. Bernard Parish, 1778; later exchanged it with Bernard Marigny (q.v.) for plantation above New Orleans and moved there. Changed surname from Saunhac to Soniat sometime after move to America. Died, New Orleans, June 22, 1794. F.M.J. Sources: Grace King, Creole Families of New Orleans (1921; reprint ed., 1971); Stanley Clisby Arthur, Old Families of Louisiana (1931; reprint ed., 1971); Estelle M. Fortier Cochran, The Fortier Family and Allied Families (1963).

SORREL, Jacques Joseph
, pioneer. Born, Albese, Department of Isère, Dauphiné, France, ca. 1741; son of Claude François Sorrel and Ann Antoinette Combet de la Rayne. Arrived in Louisiana as an officer in the French Army, ca. 1762; settled in the Attakapas District, 1763; received land grant in 1768, upon which he established a 4,000-acre vacherie, raising cattle for the New Orleans market; helped to open the trade route through the lakes and bayous from the lower Bayou Teche to the Mississippi River. Catholic; remained a bachelor; joined by his two nephews, Dr. Solange Sorrel and Martial Sorrel, the latter sole heir of Jacques Sorrel and progenitor of the Sorrel families of Iberia and St. Mary parishes. Died, June 11, 1816; interred Pellerin family cemetery near Jeanerette, La. G.C.T.† Source: Author's research.

SOTO, Hernando de
, Spanish conquistador, adelantado, discoverer of the Mississippi River, first European to traverse what is now the southeastern United States. Born, Jerez de los Caballeros (Extremadura), ca. 1497; son of Francisco Méndez de Soto and Leonor Arias Tinoco. Born of hidalgo parents in the age of discovery, Soto grew to young manhood in western Spain. What formal education he received was undoubtedly brief, but he was early caught upin the dream of conquest. His prowess as a horseman was readily recognized, which helped gain him a place on the 1514 expedition of Pedrarias Davila to the Indies. By 1520, Soso had already made his mark in Panama as a trader and conqueror. Over the next decade, he earned sizable profits by his Central American exploits. By 1531, he had accumulated enough capital to join Pizarro in Peru, the conquest of which earned him huge shares of gold and silver. These shares enabled Soto to plan an independent expedition which he hoped would place him on equal footing with Cortés and Pizarro. Soto returned to Spain in 1536. After entering into marriage with Pedrarias' daughter, Isabel de Bobadilla, and being accepted into the Order of Santiago, Soto was granted permission by the crown in 1537 to conquer La Florida. In addition, he was made governor of Cuba and given the title of adelantado. In April 1538, Soto sailed from the Spanish port of Sanlucar de Barrameda in command of seven hundred men and nine ships. After a sojourn in Cuba, he landed his men on the west coast of Florida and began exploration of the interior. His searches for such wealth as he had found in Peru took him across the entire southeastern United States. At the Indian village of Coza he found rich farmlands, but at Mauvila in present-day South Alabama he was drawn into battle with the natives. In a costly victory, Soto was wounded and the damages to his supplies were extensive. Turning northwestward, Soto crossed the Mississippi River in May 1541. Continuing westward, he reached what is now Oklahoma, but finding little of value, returned to present-day Louisiana, where he died on May 21, 1542. His body was buried in the Mississippi somewhere north of the Red River mouth. The expedition's remnants, under Luis de Moscoso, continued down the Mississippi, reaching Mexico in 1543. As a conquistador, Hernando de Soto, though never attaining the stature of a Cortes or Pizarro, was the archetype of the New World captain of horse. J.H. Sources: James Alexander Robertson, ed. and trans., True Relation of the Hardships Suffered by Governor Fernando de Soto . . .; John R. Swanton, ed., Final Report of the United States De Soto Expedition Commission; Antonio del Solar Y Taboada and José de Rujula y de Ochotorena, El Adelantado Hernando de Soto.

SOTO Y BERMUDES, Antonio Emanuel de
, colonial political defector from Spanish Texas, planter of Natchitoches and Opelousas. Born in the parish of San Juan Dorron, archbishopric of Santiago de Gutierce in the old province of Galicia (presently La Coruña), Spain; son of Dominique Bermudes and Maria Josefa de Soto. As minor official of Spain, Soto came to historical attention in 1752 as secretary to Gov. Jacinto de Barrios y Jauregui. Dispatched on a reconnoitering mission through Texas to discover extent to which Louis Antoine Juchereau de St-Denis (q.v.) and his associates at the French post of St-Jean-Baptiste des Natchitoches had succeeded in capturing the trade and allegiance of the western tribes, Soto's marked lack of success, and attending political problems, prompted him to defect temporarily from the Spanish province. Filed at Natchitoches, January 15, 1753, a formal protestation against Governor Barrios, and investigation of own actions ensued. Married, June 2, 1754, Marie des Neiges Juchereau de St-Denis (q.v.), daughter of the late founder of the Natchitoches Post. Children: Marie Emanuelle (b. 1756); Joseph Antoine Marcel (b. 1758); Marie Josephe Demascene (b. 1760); Louis Joseph Firmin (b. 1761); Joseph François (b. 1763); Eulalie Marianne (b. 1764); and Severine Antoinée Gertrude (b. 1766). Marriage provided Soto with political shelter in the French colony. At close of proceedings against him, appears to have divided time between Spanish Los Adaes and French Natchitoches as well as to have been an active participant in the St. Denis enterprises among the western Indians. It was apparently in this period, also, that his alleged "conquest of the Attakapas and Opelousas" on behalf of Spain transpired. Soto's questionable activities climaxed in Texas with Pacheco affair, 1764, at which time he sought permanent asylum at Natchitoches. From that base he continued to rankle competing Spanish officials until charges were again leveled against him in 1768, this time of inciting several of the Texas nations to arms. Concurrent transfer of Louisiana's government to Spain provided the latter with the political means to bring Soto to trial. After apparently ten years of incarceration in Mexico City, Soto returned to Natchitoches and allegedly remained active in intrigue and underground politics. In 1779 removed his family to the interior post of Opelousas. Again incurred official ire. Opelousas records chronicle the extensive activities of Mme. de Soto in 1780s, acting in all cases without reference to the consent of husband; Soto himself is inexplicably absent, for many years after 1781, from both notarial records and the census enumerations of his wife's household. Died, it is thought, in September, 1799. E.S.M. Sources: Registers 1-4, Parish of St. François des Natchitoches (numerous entries), January 15, 1753; Protestation du Sr. Dn Manuel Antoine Soto Bermudes, in Inventaire des pieces du Greffe et du Notarial du Poste des Natchitoches, Legajo 201, Papeles Procedentes de Cuba (hereafter PPC), Archivo General de Indias, Seville, Spain; De Vaugine to Governor, August 9, 1782, Legajo 195, PPC; 1785 Recensements des Postes Opelousas et Atacapas, Legajo 2360, PPC; and 1788 Recensement du Poste de Opelousas, Legajo 2361, PPC; Book 1, p. 42 (burials), Parish of St. Landry des Opelousas; Elizabeth Shown Mills, Natchitoches, 1729-1803: Abstracts of the Catholic Church Registers of the French and Spanish Post of St. Jean Baptiste des Natchitoches in Louisiana (1977); Herbert Eugene Bolton, Texas in the Middle of the Eighteenth Century (reprint ed., 1970); Herbert Eugene Bolton, Athanase De Mézières and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier, 1768-1780, 2 vols. (1914); Winston De Ville and Jacqueline O. Vidrine, Marriage Contracts of the Opelousas Post, 1766-1803 (1961); De Ville, "Joachin de Ortega y Prieto: The Spanish Ancestry of a Gateway Pioneer in Colonial Louisiana," Louisiana Genealogical Register, XXIX (1982); William S. Coker and G. Douglas Inglis, The Spanish Censuses of Pensacola, 1784-1820 (1980); American State Papers: Documents Legislative and Executive of the Congress of the United States, Public Lands Series, 8 vols. (1832-1861), III; David J. Bjork, ed., "Documents Relating to Alexandro O'Reilly and an Expedition Sent Out by Him from New Orleans to Natchitoches, 1769-1770," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, VII (1924).

SOUBY, Andrew William, clergyman, poet. Born, New Orleans, October 21, 1871; son of Paul Joseph Souby (q.v.) and Dorothée Aune. Educated in local schools; attended seminary in Genes, ordained there June 1894. Pastor of Sacred Heart Catholic Church, Morgan City, La., 1898-1938. Published Redemption, an epic poem on the history of salvation (1924). Created many of the parishes in the Morgan City-Berwick-Stephensville area. Died, Thibodaux, La., October 14, 1938; interred Sacred Heart Cemetery, Morgan City. M.J.F. Sources: Rev. William A. Souby Collection, Morgan City Archives, Morgan City, Louisiana.

SOUBY, Paul Joseph, educator, poet. Born, New Orleans, March 23, 1839; son of Pierre Edward Souby and Marguerite Boisdoré. Taught school in New Orleans and throughout French Louisiana. Married Dorothée Aune. Children: Marie Constance (b. 1868); Marguerite Hermine (d. 1870?); Andrew William (q.v.); Judith Marie (b. 1875?); and Laura Theresa (b. 1877?). Published many poems in French in New Orleans papers; left behind a large body of unpublished works with his son, the Rev. Andrew William Souby. Died, New Orleans, October 14, 1910; interred St. Vincent De Paul Cemetery I. M.J.F. Source: Rev. Andrew William Souby Collection, Morgan City Archives, Morgan City, Louisiana.

SOUCHON, Edmond I, physician, surgeon, anatomist. Born, Opelousas, La., December 1, 1841; son of Dr. Eugene Souchon and Caroline Bertilde Petit. Education: private and public schools of St. Martinville, La., Mobile, Ala., New Orleans, La.; went to Paris, France, to complete his academic work and visit family relatives; finished his studies and prepared to study medicine when the Civil War began in America cutting his allowance; combined work with study and after five years finished fourth in a class of 350 students; was engaged as an interpreter and assistant to Dr. J. Marion Sims, an American who was in Paris to demonstrate one of his discoveries in surgery. Returned to New Orleans and resumed medical studies at the University of Louisiana (now Tulane University); was aided by Dr. T. G. Richardson and worked as his prosecutor; performed the necessary dissections for the doctor's lectures on anatomy; graduated from the university in 1867. Married Corinne Lavie in New Orleans, 1869. Children: Marion Sims (q.v.), Corinne, and Selika. Became Dr. Richadson's chief of clinic at Charity Hospital, New Orleans; was appointed demonstrator of Anatomy at the University of Louisiana, 1872; named professor of anatomy and clinical surgery at Tulane, 1885; selected by Mrs. Richardson in 1892 to design the floor plan and supervise construction of the T. G. Richardson Medical Building; a memorial tablet commending him for his work was mounted in the entrance hall; appointed by Governor Wiltz (q.v.) to the board of administrators of Charity; Governor Foster (q.v.) appointed him to the presidency of the Louisiana State Board of Health in 1898; served in that capacity under the next two administrations. His numerous articles on anatomy, surgery, and sanitation were published in local and naitonal medical journals; invented the Souchon Intratracheal Anesthetizer; the original speciman on the use of this anathetizer is in the Smithsonian Institution. Retired from Tulane in 1908 with a Carnegie pension; devoted his time to the founding of the Souchon Museum of Anatomy which the university placed in the Richardson Building; especially noteworthy is the display of the method he devised for preserving the natural color in veins, arteries, and muscles. Member, Louisiana State Medical Society, Society of American Anatomists; board of governors, Boston Club for two consecutive terms, president, American Surgical Association, the New Orleans Medical and Surgical Association, and the Orleans Medical Society; vice president, American Medical Association; founder of the Southern Surgical and Gynecological Association. Died, New Orleans, August 5, 1924. J.B.C. Sources: Alcée Fortier, Louisiana (1909); The Story of Louisiana (1960), II; New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, August 6, 1924; Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1973-1983).

SOUCHON, Edmond II
, physician, jazz historian, musician. Born, New Orleans, October 25, 1897; son of Dr. Marion Sims Souchon (q.v.) and Dolly Gabrielle Burthe. Education: attended Newman's Manual Training School; received pre-medical training at Tulane University, New Orleans; Loyola University, Chicago, B. S., M. D., 1923; interned at Chicago's Mercy Hospital, 1923-1925. Married Marie Louise Estoup in New Orleans, October 25, 1923. Children: Marie (b. 1924), Dolly Ann (b. 1928). Medical career: began New Orleans medical practice in father's office, 1925; served on staffs of Mercy Hospital, Hotel Dieu, Charity Hospital, DePaul Sanitarium, and Crippled Children's Hospital; chief of staff, Hotel Dieu, 1948-1949; credited with pioneering the use of sodium penothal as an intravenous general anesthetic; contributed to medical knowledge about the diseases of pregnancy. Was a founding member of the Louisiana Surgical Association; life fellow of both the American and International College of Surgeons. Musical career: interest in music began at age of ten; formed his own group, "The Six and 7/8 String Band of New Orleans," in 1912 or 1913; played with the group throughout his life; sang, played the guitar and banjo; sat in with other jazz groups; co-founded the National Jazz Foundation in early 1940s; began recording career in 1949; recorded more than 500 jazz songs; was president of the New Orleans Jazz Club in 1948; instituted the newspaper of that club which evolved in 1950 into the jazz magazine, Second Line, of which he was editor; magazine attracted old-time jazz musicians who came out of retirement and played benefits for the Crippled Children's Hospital; contributed articles to Life, Newsweek, Time, Le Jazz Hot (Paris), Jazz Journal (London), and The Jazz Review; mixed music and medicine in article, "Music: A Physchotherapeutic Adjunct," which appeared in Theme in 1956; was one of the founders of the New Orleans Jazz Museum which is not a part of the Louisiana State Museum; lectured on the "Story of New Orleans Music" at Tulane and Loyola universities and before the national convention of Music Educators of America; presented the Dr. Edmond Souchon Folk and Jazz Collection, consisting of 5,000 records and a library of literature on jazz, to the New Orleans Public Library. Honors include selection as "Salesman at Large" by the New Orleans Chamber of Commerce; was awarded a bronze plaque by the Louisiana Heart Association; a nationally televised program on his life aired in 1961. Member, New Orleans Country Club, Washington Artillery, Institute for Jazz Studies, France-Amérique, Society for the Preservation of African Music; a director of Pan-American Life Insurance Company and Krewe of Rex. Died, August 24, 1978, while playing the guitar for family and friends at his home in New Orleans; interred Metairie Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: The Story of Louisiana (1960), II; Al Rose and Edmond Souchon, New Orleans Jazz, A Family Album (1967); Second Line, XIV (1963); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, August 25, 1968.

SOUCHON, Marion Sims, surgeon, artist. Born, New Orleans, October 9, 1870; son of Dr. Edmond Souchon I (q.v.) and Corinne Lavie. Education: attended Springhill College, Mobile, Ala.; University of Virginia; Tulane Medical School, graduated 1894; interned, Charity Hospital, New Orleans, 1894-1896. Married Dolly Gabrielle Burthe, 1896. Children: Edmond II (q.v.), Harry, and daughter, Marion. Assistant demonstrator of Anatomy and chief of Clinic to the chair of Clinical Surgery at Tulane until 1903; taught anatomy and Osteology at Tulane, 1910-1925; house surgeon at Hotel Dieu Hospital for twenty-five years; served on board of administrators and was visiting surgeon at Charity Hospital; surgeon at Touro Shakspeare Home; chief surgeon at French Hospital. A founder in 1944 and medical director and vice president of the Pan-American Life Insurance Company. Retired in early 1930s and began career as an artist; at first style was conventional; went on to simplified forms and use of vivid colors; held one-man shows in New Orleans and at the Julian Levy Gallery in New York, 1935; of his 1939 show in New York a critic said he had a penchant for deep rich color and was a kind of primitive with a bit of sophisticated artlessness; by 1942 he had completed some 500 paintings and won eight or ten prizes; won prizes in New York, San Frnacisco, New Orleans, Baton Rouge, and Jackson, Miss.; several of his paintings toured the South and were acquired by universities for their art departments; one prize painting, To the Day Nursery, is in the permanent collection of the New Orleans Museum of Art; many of his canvasses are in galleries throughout the nation, among them the Museum of Modern Art in New York City; exhibitions of his work were sponsored by the Southern States Art League, the Carnegie Institution in 1941, and the Corcoran Gallery of Art in 1945. Possessed an unusual collection of historical manuscripts; donated his books on the evolution and development of history to the Howard-Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane in memory of his father. Member, American College of Surgeons, medical societies of Orleans Parish and Louisiana, American and Southern Medical associations, Southern States Art League, New Orleans and Mississippi Art associations, Knights of Columbus, Boston Club, New Orleans Country Club, several carnival clubs. Died, New Orleans, April 2, 1954; interred Metairie Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: The Story of Louisiana (New Orleans, 1960), II; Alcée Fortier, Louisiana (1914); Who's Who in American Art (1947); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, April 3, 1954; New York Times,, November 19, 1939.

SOUEL, Jean, clergyman, missionary. Came to Louisiana in 1726. Missionary to the Yazoos. Murdered December 11, 1729, when the tribe joined the Natchez in their uprising. According to Father Mathurin Le Petit, he was then 35 or 36 years of age. M.A. Sources: Reuben Gold Thwaites, The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents (reprint ed., 1959), LXVII.

SOULE, George, mathematician, educator. Born, Barrington, N. Y., May 14, 1834; son of Ebenezer G. Soulé and Cornelia Elizabeth Hogebroom. Education: in New York and DeKalb County, Ill.; Sycamore Academy, Sycamore, Ill., graduated 1853; attended McDowell Medical College; St. Louis Law School, St. Louis, Mo.; Jones Business College, St. Louis, Mo., graduated 1856. Founded Soulé Commercial College and Literary Institute, New Orleans, December, 1856. Civil War service: captain, Company A, Crescent Regiment of Louisiana Volunteers, May 5, 1862; Army of Tennessee and Trans-Mississippi Department; wounded, Battle of Shiloh, April 7, 1862; prisoner at Johnson's Island on Lake Erie; exchanged at Vicksburg, Miss., September 17, 1862; major, Crescent Regiment, fall, 1862; lieutenant colonel, October 27, 1862; served in campaigns at Labadieville, Bayou Teche, Berwick Bay, Bisland through November 3, 1863; served post duty and later chief of the Labor Bureau of Western Louisiana under Gen. E. Kirby Smith (q.v.); paroled June 9, 1865. Married, September 6, 1860, Mary Jane Reynolds of Mobile, Ala., daughter of Jonathan Reynolds and Mary E. Cleveland. Children: George, Jr. (b. 1861), Marie Louise (b. 1863), Albert Lee (b. 1865), Edward Everett (b. 1867), Mary Elizabeth (b. 1868), William Holcomb (b. 1870), Frank (b. 1867), Robert Spencer (b. 1873), Lillie Cornelia (b. 1875). Awarded honorary LL. D., Tulane University, 1918. Lecturer and author of numerous pamphlets and books: Soulé's Philosophic Practical Mathematics (1895), Analytical and Philosophic Commercial and Exchange Calculator (1872), Soulé's Contractions in Numbers (1874), Soulé's Intermediate Philosophic Arithmetic (1874), Soulé's New Science and Practice of Accounts (1881), Soulé's Bookkeeping and Accounting (1881), Soulé's Introductory Philosophic Arithmetical Drill Problems (1882), Soulé's Scientific and Practical System of Bookkeeping (1883), Gems of Business Problems (1886), Soulé's Manual of Auditing (1892), Soulé's Partnership and Financial Settlements (1893), Carnival in New Orleans, Its Story and Its Sentiment (1922). Member: Unitarian church; Democratic party; National Educational Association; National Commercial Teachers' Federation; Business Educator's Association of America, president; Institute of Accounts of New York; Associated Accountants of New Orleans; Southern Sociological Congress; Louisiana Historical Society; National Institute of Social Sciences; Federation of Business Colleges; National Geographic Society; Luther Burbank Society; American Social Purity Association; New Orleans Association of Commerce; Louisiana Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children; Conference of Charities; International Longfellow Society; La Variété Association, president; Shakespeare Club; New Orleans School of Design. American Unitarian Association of Boston (Southern vice-president). Member: Grand Encampment Knights Templar of Louisiana; Grand Encampment, Knights Templar of the U. S., past grand commander Scottish Rite Mason, Thirty-Third Degree. Reigned as "Rex", King of Carnival, 1887. Died, New Orleans, January 26, 1926; interred Metairie Cemetery. C.B.H. Sources: Dictionary of American Biography, XVII; National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, I; John S. Kendall, History of New Orleans, II (1922); G. T. Ridlon, A Contribution to the History, Biography and Genealogy of the Families Named Sole, Solly, Soule, Sowle, Soulis . . . (1926); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, January 26, 1926.

SOULE, Pierre, attorney, U. S. senator, diplomat, author of the Ostend Manifesto. Born, Castillon, France, August 28, 1801; son of Joseph Soulé and Jeanne La Croix. Education: Collège de l'Esquille, Toulouse; studied law, Paris. Founded, 1824, newspaper Nouveau Nain Jaune. Published editorial critical of church and state, tried and sentenced to prison; emigrated to U. S., 1826, to avoid prison term. Arrived New Orleans and set up law practice. Married, 1828, Armatine Mercier, sister of Drs. Armand and Alfred Mercier (q.v.). One child: Neville, married granddaughter of Bernard de Marigny de Mandeville (q.v.). Gained prominence, 1828-1847, as lawyer, financier, orator and politician. Appointed U. S. senator, 1847, to fill unexpired term of Alexander Barrow (q.v.); following year elected to full six-year term. On death of John C. Calhoun, assumed leadership of states rights Southern Democrats. Passed over for appointment as U. S. attorney general, 1853; resigned from Senate to enter diplomatic service. Rebuffed by tsar in a bid for appointment to Russia, named instead to the court of Spain. As ambassador became controversial; severely wounded French ambassador in duel; accused of complicity in Madrid revolt of August 28, 1854. That year, in collaboration with James Buchanan and John Y. Mason, drew up Ostend Manifesto which proposed compelling Spain to sell Cuba. Manifesto ignored by U. S. officials; Soulé resigned and returned to law practice in New Orleans. Successfully defended, Nicaraguan filibusterer William Walker, but failed in his attempt to promote a canal through Mexico. After fall of New Orleans to Federal forces, arrested as a provocateur and sent to prison in New York. While on parole, fled to South, appointed brigadier general in Confederate Army, served as aide-de-camp to Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard (q.v.) for remainder of war. Embittered and paranoid in final years. Died New Orleans, March 26, 1870. J.H. Sources: Alfred Mercier, Biographie de Pierre Soulé (1848); Leon Soulé, Notice sur Pierre Soulé; Arthur Freeman, The Early Career of Pierre Soulé (1942); A. A. Ettinger, The Mission to Spain of Pierre Soulé (1932);

SOULIER, Edward Emile, banker, businessman. Born, New Iberia, La., March 20, 1890; son of Edward Emile Soulier and Eugénia Oliver. Education: St. Martinville, La. public schools. Employed with Southern Pacific Railroad, Lafayette, La., 1906; served as chief clerk, San Antonio, Texas Southern Pacific Railway Office; returned to Lafayette, 1915, as cashier of the Lafayette Bank and Trust Co.; cashier, First National Bank, Lafayette, 1928, president, 1940. Past president, Louisiana Bankers Association; Fourth Degree, Knight of Columbus, past grand knight, Council No. 1286; member and treasurer, board of directors, Lafayette Chamber of Commerce; member, Lafayette Housing Authority; Lafayette Parish chairman, First and Second War Loan Campaigns. Married Stella Roy. Children: Emile, Arthur Roy, and Stella. Died, August 28, 1943; interred St. John Cemetery, Lafayette, La. V.B.S. Source: Abbeville Meridional, obituary, August 28, 1943.

SOUTHWELL, Owen James Trainor
, architect, artist. Born, New Iberia, La., September 20, 1892; son of Catherine Trainor and William D. Southwell. Education: primary school, New Iberia; high school, Beaumont, Tex.; attended Tulane University, 1910-1912; Carnegie Tech, graduated, 1915. Married, August 2, 1945, Yvonne Arnandez Patout, daughter of Eugénie Céleste Pellerin and Jules Arnandez and the widow of Frédéric Patout. No children. Instructor at Carnegie Tech and University of Illinois, 1916-1918. Served in United States Navy, World War I. Worked for architectural firm of Henry Hornbostel in New York City, Pittsburgh, and Atlanta. Instruc¬tor in design at Georgia Tech while in Atlanta. Entered private practice, 1922. Removed to New Iberia, 1931. The J. H. Phelan home in Beaumont is one of his outstanding works. Designed the Sugar Festival Building, New Iberia. Among outstanding Louisiana churches he designed are Our Lady of Perpetual Help and St. Peter's, New Iberia; St. Bernard's, Breaux Bridge; Our Lady of the Sacred Heart, Church Point. Water color painting and photography were his hobbies and exhibitions were held at the Art Institute of Chicago; the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia; Worcester, Mass., and Baltimore art museums; and Delgado (now New Orleans Museum of Art). Honors: won the Carnegie Tech medal of the American Institute of Architects, 1915; received the certificate of the Beaux Arts Institute of Design, 1919. Died, New Iberia, April 7, 1961; interred St. Peter's Cemetery. G.L.D. & J.B.C. Sources: Owen Southwell Papers, Southwestern Archives and Manuscript Collection; Glenn R. Conrad, comp., New Iberia: Essays on the Town and Its People (1979); New Iberia Daily Iberian, April 7, 1961.

SPARROW, Edward
, attorney, politician. Born, Dublin, Ireland, December 29, 1810. As a youth immigrated to America; attended Kenyon College in Ohio, studied law, admitted to Ohio bar. Removed to Louisiana, 1831. Married Minerva Parker of Natchez. Several children born to the marriage. Served as clerk of court and sheriff of Concordia Parish, 1834-1840. Brigadier general in state militia during Mexican War. Active in Louisiana Whig politics, candidate for lieutenant governor, 1846. Removed to Carroll Parish, La., 1852, to practice law; entered into partnership with Vail Montgomery, 1858. Member of the Baton Rouge convention in 1860, voted for secession at Louisiana convention of 1861. One of six delegates to provisional Confederate Congress at Montgomery, Ala.; served on several important committees. With Thomas Semmes (q.v.) served as senator in Confederate Congress. After Civil War served as an original member of the Board of Levee Commissioners while continuing the practice of law. Died, Lake Providence, La., July 4, 1882. G.R.C. Sources: Jon L. Wakelyn, Biographical Dictionary of the Confederacy (1977); William H. Adams, The Whig Party of Louisiana (1973); Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Louisiana (1892; reprint ed., 1975); "A History of Concordia Parish," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XV.

SPATES, Catherine Chevis
, telephone operator. Born, Washington, La., April 25, 1886; daughter of Stewart Gibbon Chevis and Alzina de La Morandière. Education: St. Landry Parish schools. Married David Clarence Spates, son of David Lawrence Spates and Viola Elender. Children: Dwight C. (b. 1913), Stuart T. (b. 1916). Charter member, Henning Memorial United Methodist Church. First Sulphur, La., telephone operator, 1918, retired, 1948. During early days office was communication center of area, locating doctors and businessmen and advising citizens of emergency situations. Died, Sulphur, January 5, 1973; interred Mimosa Pines Cemetery, south of Sulphur. G.S.P. Sources: Spates Family Papers.

SPEARING, James Zacharie
, congressman. Born, Alto, Cherokee County, Tex., April 23, 1864; son of John F. and Margaretta Sanders Spearing. Removed to New Orleans with parents in 1866; attended the public schools; left school and went to work in commercial capacity in 1877. In 1884 commenced study of law at Tulane University, graduated 1886 as valedictorian. Admitted to the bar in 1886 and began practice in New Orleans. Married Lucille M. Cooke, November 20, 1889. Children: Cora and Margaretta. Member, Episcopal church; Orleans Parish School Board member, 1908-1912, 1916-1920, president in 1919 and 1920; member, State Board of Education, 1912-1916. A Mason. Member, Knights of Pythias, the Pickwick Club, and various Carnival organizations. Alternate delegate to the Democratic National Convention, Baltimore, 1912; elected as a Democrat to Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of H. Garland Dupré (q.v.) and served from April 22, 1924, to March 3, 1931; unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1930. Resumed the practice of law in New Orleans; chairman, Times-Picayune Doll and Toy Fund from 1931 until his death. Died, New Orleans, November 2, 1942; interred Metairie Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1971 (1971); Official Congressional Directory, 68th Congress (1925); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, November 3, 1942.

SPELLMAN, Oliver Bassett
, attorney, academic. Born, Alexandria, La., February 22, 1923; son of Dr. Frank J. Spellman and Altonette Dier Spellman. Education: Talladega College, Talladega, Ala., 1936; Brooklyn Law School, B. A., 1944; bachelor of laws, 1940; further study at the Southern University School of Law. Married Iris Lawson. Children, Oliver, Jr., Iris Ann, and Ricki Renée. Professor of Law, Southern University Law School; attorney in practice in Baton Rouge. Member, Louisiana Bar Association; Young Men's Christian Association; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity; the Bunche Club. Died, February 5, 1964. C.T. Source: "In Memoriam," Louisiana Education Association Journal, XLII (March, 1964).

SPENCER, William Brainerd
, attorney, soldier, congressman, jurist. Born Home Plantation, Catahoula Parish, La., February 5, 1835. Education: Centenary College, graduated 1855; University of Louisiana Law Department (now Tulane University), graduated 1857. Admitted to bar in 1857, established practice in Harrisonburg, La. During Civil War, served in Confederate Army; rose to rank of captain. After war, resumed practice of law in Vidalia, La. Successfully contested as Democrat the election of Frank Morey to Congress; served from June 1876 to January 1877. Resigned to accept appointment as associate justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court, January 9, 1877. Retired from the bench, 1879; resumed law practice in New Orleans. Died, Cordova, Mexico, where he had gone for health reasons, April 29, 1882; interred Magnolia Cemetery, Baton Rouge. G.R.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950); New Orleans Daily Picayune, April 30, May 7, 1882; Henry Denis, Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Supreme Court of Louisiana, 1882 (1883), XXXIV; Alcée Fortier, Louisiana . . . , 3 vols. (1914).

SQUIRES, Ralph Anthony
, concert pianist, academic. Born, Morgan City, La., February 18, 1906; son of Ralph Anthony Squires, Sr., and Jane O'Brien. Education: Morgan City High School; University of Southwestern Louisiana; Chicago Musical College. Studied piano in New Orleans with Corinne Meyer, with Robert Casadesus in Paris, with Harold Bauer in Boston and Rudolph Ganz in Chicago. Taught music at Iowa State Teachers College, Cedar Falls, Iowa; joined Centenary College, Shreveport, as associate professor and rose to rank of department head and full professor during fifteen years with that college. Served with the U. S. Army field artillery of the Tenth Mountain Division in Italy during World War II. In 1956 was appointed dean of Fine Arts at McNeese University, Lake Charles, where he remained until death. Appeared as soloist with the Minneapolis and other symphony orchestras. Heard frequently in recitals throughout Louisiana. Did not marry. Died, Lake Charles, April 27, 1962; interred Morgan City Cemetery. The Ralph Squires Recital Hall on the McNeese campus named in his honor. L.K.L. Source: Squires Family Papers, Morgan City Archives.

STAFFORD, David Theophilus, sheriff, adjutant general. Born, Edgefield Plantation near Cheneyville, La., September 12, 1849; son of Leroy Stafford (q.v.) and Sarah Catherine Wright. Education: local schools and Louisiana Seminary of Learning (now Louisiana State University). Settled in Alexandria; entered steamboat and warehouse business under name Stafford and Cullen. Became a Knight of the White Camelia and was with the Citizens League on Canal Street, New Orleans, during events of Septem¬ber 14, 1874. Married, on Tyrone Plantation, December 30, 1874, Amy Blanchard Graham (1853-1940), daughter of George Mason Graham (q.v.) and Mary Eliza Wilkinson. Children: George Mason Graham (b. 1876), Leroy Augustus I (b. 1877); Catharine (b. 1878), Eleanor (b. 1880), Duncan (b. 1881), Thomas (b. 1882), Donald (b. 1884), David (b. 1886), Marion (b. 1888), Leroy Augustus II (b. 1890), Margaret (b. 1891), and Amy (b. 1893). Removed to Montrose Plantation, Rapides Parish, 1876. Remained in farming until 1888 when elected sheriff of Rapides Parish; served sixteen years. Appointed, 1904, adjutant general of Louisiana by Gov. Newton Crain Blanchard (q.v.) and reappointed four years later by Gov. J. Y. Sanders (q.v.). Died, Alexandria, La., January 18, 1926; interred Rapides Cemetery, Pineville, La. TAG, LA Source: Author's research.

STAFFORD, Leroy Augustus, planter, soldier. Born Greenwood Plantation, Rapides Parish, La., April 13, 1822; son of Leroy Stafford and Elizabeth Susan Callihan. Education: Bardstown, Ky.; Nashville, Tenn. Married, 1843, Sarah Catherine Wright, daughter of Dr. Jesse D. Wright and Sarah R. Grimball. Nine children, one of whom was David Theophilus Stafford (q.v.). Operated his plantation until elected sheriff of Rapides Parish, 1845. Enlisted as a private and served in the Mexican War, 1846-1847. Resumed his plantation work after being mustered out. Raised a volunteer company when the Civil War began and became captain of Company B, Ninth Louisiana Infantry Regiment, July 7, 1861. Elected colonel of his regiment, April 24, 1862. Frequently commanded his brigade and often mentioned by his superiors for his gallant conduct in battle. Wounded in the foot at the Battle of Sharpsburg, Md., September 17, 1862. Promoted to rank of brigadier general, October 8, 1863. Mortally wounded in the Battle of the Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864. Died, Richmond, Va., May 8, 1864; interred, Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond; reinterred, Greenwood Plantation, 1866. A.W.B. Sources: George M. G. Stafford, General Leroy Agusutus Stafford, His Forebears and Descendants (1943); Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Gray (1959); Clement A. Evans, Confederate Military History, 13 vols. (1899).

STAGG, Julius James, Jr., physician, civic leader, politician. Born, Eunice, La., May 18, 1909; son of Julius James Stagg, Sr., and Lucille Berthelotte. Education: Eunice High School; Millsaps College, Jackson, Miss.; Tulane University, M. D. degree. Interned three years at New Orleans Charity Hospital. World War II service: served two-and-a-half years with the United States Army Medical Corps. Discharged with rank of major. Medical practice, 1936-1975, general practice and surgeon. Chief of staff, Moosa Memorial Hospital. Later appointed director of St. Landry Parish Health Unit. Married, September 18, 1936, Mobile, Ala., Martha Ann Carnes, daughter of Charles Norman Carnes and Edna Chaffee of New York. Children: Julius James Stagg, III and Julia Ann Stagg. Served as mayor of Eunice, 1949-1961. Member: Eunice Rotary Club, president, 1939-1940. Received citizen of the year award and Eunice Lions Club Humanitarian of the Year Award. Posthumously awarded a U. S. presidential citation for humanitarian service, April 26, 1983. Served as a director of St. Landry Land Bank and Trust Co. Died, Eunice, Novem¬ber 10, 1982; interred Mt. Cavalry Cemetery. K.P.F. Sources: Eunice News, November 14, 1982; St. Anthony of Padua Catholic Church, Baptismal Register, Vol. V, p. 123, #171, Stagg Family Papers.

STAGG, Julius James, Sr.
, physician. Born, Whiteville, St. Landry Parish, La., March 2, 1875; son of Louis Stagg and Laure Latour. Education: local schools; St. Charles College, Grand Coteau, La.; Springhill College, Mobile, Ala.; Tulane University, New Orleans. Removed to Eunice, La., 1906, physician. Married, April 14, 1908, Lucille Berthelotte, of Thibodaux, La., daughter of Adam Berthelotte and Anita Breaux. Six childen: Julius James (q.v.), Lester Philip (b. 1910), Roland Ashton (b. 1912), Earl Ray (b. 1915), Rebecca Lucille (b. 1923), Jack Ralph (b. 1925). Removed to Morton, Miss., 1922, mill doctor, Adams-Banks Lumber Co., 1922-1931. Removed to Eunice, La., 1931, physician. Member: American Medical Association; Louisiana State Medical Society; Harmony Lodge #410, F. & A. M.; Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine; Knights Templar. Died, Eunice, February 19, 1934; interred St. Louis Cemetery. J.L.F. Sources: obituary, Eunice New Era, February 23, 1934; Opelousas Daily World, July 29, 1982; Stagg family.

STANTON, Gideon Townsend
, painter, stockbroker. Born, Morris, Minn., July 14, 1885; grandson of Edwin M. Stanton, President Lincoln's secretary of war, and Mary Ashley Townsend, Southern author. Removed to New Orleans at age 3 and attended school New Orleans; studied art in New York and Baltimore. Returned to New Orleans to join investment firm of Louis H. Stanton, but resumed painting in 1900, exhibited regularly from 1907 forward. Married Lillian Jung of New Orleans. Children: Gideon Stanton, Jr., E. J. Stanton, Lillian Stanton Merilh. Member, Art Association of New Orleans; New Orleans Art League; charter member, 1937, of Southern States Art Association; American Federation of Arts; Arts and Crafts Club; and served as state director of Federal Art Project of the Works Progress Administration. Painted country landscapes of New Orleans area and Negro studies, principally in oil, but also in water colors and pastel. Died, New Orleans, November 23, 1964; interred Metairie Cemetery. R.L.W. Sources: New Orleans Southern States Art League Papers, Art File, Louisiana Collection, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library, Tulane University; obituary, New Orleans States-Item, November 23, 1964, p. 14.

STANTON, Robert Livingston
, clergyman, scholar, abolitionist. Born, Pachaug, Conn., March 28, 1810; son of Joseph Stanton and Susan Brewster. Education: local schools of Connecticut and western New York; Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio, graduated 1836. Ordained in the Mississippi Presbytery, 1839; resident pastor at Pine Ridge, Miss., 1839-1841; Woodville, 1841-1843; and New Orleans, 1843-1851, at Second Presbyterian Church, Prytania and Calliope streets in the Second Municipality. Married, 1843, Anna Maria Stone, daughter of Charles Henry Stone of Newark, N. J. Child: Robert Brewster Stanton (b. 1844). In New Orleans, Stanton first proselytized among blacks as well as whites. At the Second Church he quietly supported anti-slavery cause while upholding a conservative Calvinist theology. Circumstantial evidence supports his authorship of New Orleans As It Is: Truth Is Stranger Than Fiction (anonymous). Written by a "Resident," this 1849 abolitionist pamphlet has long served as a critical analysis and guide to antebellum New Orleans and adjacent areas of Louisiana and Mississippi. Stanton wrote and published many other pamphlets, books and articles on Christian theology, Southern society, and political and moral philosophy. His most famous was The Church and the Rebellion (1864) in which he blamed Southern church leaders for contributing to the outbreak of the Civil War. After his return to the North, Stanton received the D. D. degree from Princeton and from Washington College, Va., in 1852. He then served as pastor at Chillicothe, Ohio, 1855-1862; professor at Danville Theological Seminary, 1862-1866; moderator of the Presbyterian General Assembly in St. Louis, 1866, and government visitor at West Point; president, Miami University, 1866-1871; editor in New York City, 1871-1872; editor at Cincinnati, 1872-1878. During the Civil War, Stanton served as an advisor to President Abraham Lincoln, based on his experiences in the South. Retired to Washington, D. C. Died at sea in spring of 1885. T.F.R. Sources: Timothy F. Reilly, "Robert L. Stanton, Abolitionist of the Old South," Journal of Presbyterian History, XIII (1975); "Robert Livingston Stanton, D. D.," Encyclopedia of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (1884); The National Cyclopedia of American Biography (1921), XXVI; Henry B. Stanton, Random Recollections, 2nd ed. (1886); Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography (1888), V.

STARK, Thomas, physician
, politician. Born, Breaux Bridge, La., 1866. Education: local private schools, Tulane University Medical School. Established home at Thibodaux, La. Married Jeanne Fourton. Children: Lillian, Alma, Louise. Medical practice: medical examiner for Knights of Pythias and Washington Life Insurance Co., 1901; president, Lafourche Parish Board of Health, 1901. Business interests: board of directors, Bank of Lafourche; member, board of directors, Lafourche Oil and Mineral Co.; major stockholder, Thibodaux Building Association. Active in Democratic party: member, Lafourche Parish School Board, 1900-1912(?), president, 1908(?)-1912(?); coroner, 1912-1916; sheriff, 1917-1944. Died, Thibodaux, February 10, 1944. C.A.B. Sources: The Southern Manufacturer (New Orleans), (November, 1901); New Orleans Times-Picayune, February 11, 1948.

STECKLER, Ernestine Edith, civic leader, humanitarian. Born, Iberia Parish, La., December 4, 1889; daughter of Henry Steckler, Jr., and Celeste Judice. Education: in local schools; Jeanerette High School; State Normal College (now Northwestern State University), Natchitoches, La. Taught at Steckler School, served as postmistress in Jeanerette, worked in the office at Evangeline Pepper Products in St. Martinville, owned and operated a gift shop known as Fille du Sud in St. Martinville. In 1949 spearheaded a movement by the Business and Professional Women's Club (later to become a civic club) to establish a library in St. Martin Parish; served as president, St. Martin Parish Library Board of Control, 1954-1969 at which time she was designated president emeritus; earned the Louisiana Library Association Modisette Award for Trustees in 1958. Awarded the St. Martinville Lions Club Outstanding Citizen Award in 1965. Wrote the information sheet on the community for the St. Martinville telephone directory. Compiled a local industrial pamphlet, wrote an illustrated brochure on St. Martinville; designed and patented a spoon featuring the Evangeline Oak and statue of Evangeline. Assisted in organizing the first recreation program, active in preparation for the Chariot Parade and children's carnival; conducted tours for visitors; assisted with gifts, time and ideas for Tourist Appreciation Day. Member: Roman Catholic church. Died November 29, 1973; interred Rosehill Cemetery, New Iberia, La. D.S. Sources: St. Martin Parish Library Files; Steckler family papers.

STECKLER, Henry
, planter, businessman. Born, New Orleans, September 14, 1844; son of Henry Steckler, Sr. (1816-1893) and Caroline Hines. Served in Confederate Army. Married (1), April 14, 1869, Ernestine Judice (1850-1880), daughter of Alexandre Judice (1802-1880) and Marie Celeste Judice. Children: Joseph (b. 1870); Richard (b. 1872); Marie Caroline (b. 1874); Annie (b. 1876); Marie Emelie (b. 1879). Married (2), July 12, 1881, Alice Judice (1850-1884) of Lafayette, La., daughter of Gustave Judice and Eliza Doucet. Two children: Corinne (b. 1882); Helen (b. 1883). Married (3), October 10, 1885, Celeste Judice (1860-1939) of Lafayette, La., daughter of Gustave Judice and Eliza Doucet. Children: Maude Theresa (b. 1886), Henry Anthony (b. 1887), Ernestine Edith (q.v.), Marie Dieudonné (b. 1891), Margreait Celeste (b. 1895), Jefferson James (b. 1898). Established Steckler school; maintained Steckler landing on Bayou Teche for mercantile trade; invented a planting machine; active in civic affairs in New Iberia and Loreauville. Member, Iberia Masonic Lodge #3155 Knights of Honor. Died, New Orleans, November 21, 1897; interred Rosehill Cemetery, New Iberia. D.S. Sources: Family papers; Donald J. Hébert, comp., Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984).

STEPHENS, Edwin Lewis
, academic. Born Stephens Mill, Natchitoches Parish, La., November 27, 1872; son of Joseph Henry Stephens and Isabella Caroline Whitfield. Paternal grandfather, a pioneer lumberman, had come to Louisiana from his native state of South Carolina in the early 1800s. Education: private teachers; private schools; public schools; Keachi College, a Baptist academy at Keachi, La.; Nacogdoches, Tex., from September, 1883 to June, 1888. Learned telegraphy from local railroad agent, summers of 1885-1887; became telegraph operator for Iowa Central Railroad. Entered Louisiana State University at the sophomore level, October 1889; A. B., 1892; New York University on Helen Gould Scholarship, Master of Pedagogy, 1897; Ph. D., 1899. Did summer study Glenn Falls, N. Y., 1892; Cook County Normal School, Chicago, 1893; Harvard University, 1894 and travel-study in Europe, 1907. Professor, Latin and Science, Louisiana State Normal, 1892-1896; professor, Louisiana State Summer Schools, Fort Jesup, 1897; Marksville, 1898; Alexandria, 1899; professor, Physics and Chemistry, Boys High School, New Orleans, 1899; professor, History of Education, Summer School of the South, Knoxville, Tenn., 1909. Served as president, LSU Alumni Federation, 1922-1926. When named president, January 3, 1900, at the age of 27, of the newly created Southwestern Louisiana Industrial Institute it had no campus, no faculty and no students. Married, July 14, 1902, to Beverly Randolph, teacher of Drawing and Gymnastics at SLII. Children: Beverly Randolph (Mrs. Frederick Hard); Caroline Parham (Mrs. Crafton Harris); Margaret Fitz-Randolph (Mrs. Margaret Jochem). Retired as president emeritus, May, 1938. Founded the unique Live Oak Society. President, Louisiana Teachers Association, 1903. Editor, Louisiana School Review, 1905-1908. Died, New Orleans, November 5, 1938. M.M. Sources: Institute Bulletin, Southwestern Louisiana Institute of Liberal and Technical Learning, Lafayette, La., 36th Annual Catalog (1936); Joel L. Fletcher, "Founder of USL's Predecessor Highly Respected Educator," Lafayette Daily Advertiser, July 28, 1960; Joel L. Fletcher, "The First President: Edwin L. Stephens and the Early Years of Southwestern Louisiana Institute," Southwestern Louisiana Institute, September, 1950; Margaret Stephens Jochem, "A History of Southwestern Louisiana Institute" (M. Ed. thesis, George Peabody College, Nashville, Tenn., 1937); Margaret Jochem, "The Life Story of Edwin Lewis Stephens," Southwestern Journal, IV, (1960); Frank Patti, "Life and Work of Edwin Lewis Stephens" (M. Ed. Thesis, Louisiana State University, 1971).

STEPHENSON, Shirley Knowles
, librarian, academic. Born Harriott Shirley Collier, Jackson, Miss., October 31, 1907. Education: elementary school, Jackson, Miss.; secondary school, Fort Smith, Ark.; Millsaps College; Tulane University, B.A. degree, University of Alabama; Louisiana State University, B.S. M.A., Ph.D.. Married (1) —— Knowles, divorced; (2) Richard Stephenson. Divorced. Teacher, Enochs Junior High School, Jackson, Miss., 1933-1934; supervisor of elementary public school libraries, Jackson, Miss., 1934-1937; librarian, Bailey Junior High School, Jackson, Miss., 1937-1939; assistant librarian, New Orleans Public Library, 1939-1941; supervisor, Mississippi Library Extension Project, WPA, 1941-1942; librarian, Louisiana Library Commission, 1943; instructor, 1943-1956, assistant professor, 1956-1959, associate professor, 1959-1963, professor, 1963-1972, professor emeritus, 1972-death, LSU Library School. Elected president, Louisiana Library Association (LLA), 1964-1965; received LLA Essae M. Culver Award, 1975, for many accomplishments and contributions to library field. Active in social organizations. Contributed to professional publications. Died, Baton Rouge, September 13, 1976. F.M.J. Sources: Who's Who in Library Science, 4th ed. (1966); LLA Bulletin (Fall, 1976); vertical file, Louisiana Division, Louisiana State Library.

STEPHENSON, Wendell Holmes, academic, author, editor. Born, Cartersburg, Ind., March 13, 1899; son of Robert W. Stephenson and Virginia Rupe. Education: attended Earlham College, 1916-1917; Indiana University, A. B., 1923; A. M., 1924; University of Michigan, Ph. D., History, 1928; honorary degrees of Litt. D. from Duke University, 1950, and LL. D. from the University of North Carolina, 1953. Married Hildagarde Voyles, August 31, 1924. Child: Lamar V. Stephenson. Religion: Quaker. Taught grade school in Plainfield, Ind., 1917-1918; was principal of Fairwood (Ind.) Grade School, 1918-1919; and principal of Clayton (Ind.) High School, 1919-1921. After receiving master's degree, served as instructor of History and Political Science, 1924-1925, and as assistant professor in those fields, 1925-1926, at the University of Kentucky. Was the Carl Braun Fellow in History at the University of Michigan, 1926-1927. Held the positions of associate professor of American History, 1927-1932, professor, 1932-1945, and dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, 1941-1945, at Louisiana State University. Was on leave to do research, 1944-1945. Taught at the University of Kentucky and served as editor of the University of Kentucky Press, 1946-1953. Filled the posts of professor of Southern History and chairman of the Division of Social Sciences at Tulane University, 1946-1953. Served as professor of History, 1953-1980, and as special assistant to the president, 1965-1970, at University of Oregon. Visiting professor: Teachers' summer sessions at Indiana University, 1931, and Duke University, 1939-1940; University of Birmingham, England, 1950; Fullbright professor, University of Southampton, England, 1959-1960; Indian School of International Studies, New Delhi, India, 1962; American Studies Workshop, Mussori, India, 1963. Delivered the Walter Fleming Lecture in Southern History at Louisiana State University, 1955. Member of grant committee, Hayes Foundation, 1939-1942. Scholarly affiliations: Southern Historical Association, served as president, 1944, editor, Journal of Southern History, 1935-1941; Mississippi Valley Historical Association, served as president, 1958, editor of its Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 1946-1953; Agricultural Historical Society, president, 1940-1941; American Historical Association; Louisiana Historical Association; Phi Beta Kappa; Phi Kappa Phi, Phi Gamma Mu; Phi Delta Kappa; and Omicron Delta Kappa. Publications: Political Career of General James H. Lane (1930); Alexander Porter, Whig Planter of Old Louisiana (1934); Isaac Franklin, Slave-Trader and Planter of the Old South (1938); The South Lives in History: Southern Historians and Their Legacy (1955); A Basic History of the Old South (1959); Southern History in the Making: Pioneer Historians of the Old South (1964); editor and author of Foreword, Charles William Ramsdell, Behind the Lines of the Southern Confederacy (1969); Reconstruction in Texas (1970). One of his most memorable contributions to Southern history was his co-editorship of two distinguished series of books: A History of the South, 10 vols., beginning 1938 with Charles William Ramsdell and E. M. Coulton, and the Southern Biography series (1939-1946) with Fred Cole. Died, April 1970. J.J.J. Sources: W. J. Burke and Will D. Howe (revised by Irving Weiss and Anne Weiss), American Authors and Books, 1640 to the Present Day, 3rd ed. rev. (1972); Ann Evory, ed., Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series (1981), III; Who's Who in America, 1968-1969 (Chicago, 1968), XXXV.

STERN, Edgar, philanthropist. Born, New Orleans January 23, 1886; son of Maurice Stern and Hannah Bloom. Education: McDonogh Public High School, New Orleans; Tulane University; Harvard, B. A., 1907; M. A., 1908; member of Phi Beta Kappa and the debating team. Returned to New Orleans and entered family firm of Lehman, Stern and Co., Ltd., cotton merchants; treasurer of firm, 1911-1936. Active in civic affairs: member, Orleans Parish School Board, 1912; Charity Hospital Board, 1912-1916; Association of Commerce, 1916-1919, president, 1916; president, Audubon Park Commission, 1915-1917; director, New Orleans Public Belt Railroad, 1916-1919; director, New Orleans branch, Federal Reserve Bank, 1917-1918; director, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, 1917-1918. World War I service: captain, U. S. Army. Married Edith Rosenwald (q.v.). Children: two boys and a girl. Trustee, Tuskegee Institute, 1924-1934; president, Board of Trustees, Dillard University, 1930-1959; president, Board of Trustees, Flint-Goodridge Hospital, 1930-1934. Received New Orleans Times-Picayune Loving Cup, 1930. As president of Pontchartrain Park homes, developed 1,000-unit section of Pontchartrain Park for blacks. President, New Orleans Cotton Exchange, 1927-1928; president, New Orleans Community Chest, 1928; director, New Orleans Parkway Commission, 1929; trustee, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library, 1932-1959; trustee, Julius Rosenwald Fund, 1932-1948; vice-president, Bureau of Governmental Research, 1933-1944; president, Mermentau Mineral and Land Co. of New Orleans, 1939-1959; vice-president, Southern States Land and Timber Co., 1943-1959; director, Times-Picayune Publishing Co., 1927-1948; director, Whitney National Bank, 1919-1926. Founder and member, Phi Beta Kappa Associates, 1940. Appointed by Gov. Sam Jones (q.v.) to Louisiana State Welfare Board, 1940-1942; chairman, transportation committee, War Production Board, 1940-1942; chairman, Louisiana Economic Development Commission, 1940-1942. Consultant to Louisiana Department of Commerce and Industry, 1943. Member, board of administrators, Tulane University, 1944-1959. Founding member, International House of New Orleans, 1945; member, Mayor's Advisory Committee, 1946; member, Executive Committee, American Jewish Committee and Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1946; sponsor, International Trade Mart at New Orleans, 1948; trustee, Public Affairs Research Council of Louisiana, 1950; member, New Orleans City Charter Committee, 1950-1952; chairman, development committee, United Fund of New Orleans. With son, Edgar Bloom Stern, Jr., established WDSU-TV, New Orleans, 1948. Established Stern Fund, 1948. Forty-five years of civic service recognized through selection as "Mr. Citizen of 1953." Named to college grants committee, Ford Foundation, 1955. With wife, contributed $300,000 to New Orleans Symphony. Donated $70,000 to Tulane, Dillard, and Harvard universities, 1956. Member, President's Advisory Committee on Education Beyond High School, 1956-1957. Honored at a special dinner at New Orleans, January 23, 1953. Died, Price, Utah, August 24, 1959. E.N. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, August 26, 1959; New Orleans States-Item, August 25, 1959; Charles "Pie" Dufour, "Edgar Stern Takes His Place with Legendary Benefactors of City," New Orleans States-Item, August 27, 1959; National Cyclopaedia of American Biographies, XLVII; W. K. Patrick, Club Men of Louisiana in Caricature (1917), p. 63; Who's Who in the South and Southwest (1950); The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography.

STERN, Edith, philanthropist. Born, Chicago, Ill., 1895; daughter of Julius Rosenwald, former head of Sears Corporation. Education: attended progressive school, Chicago; German finishing school. Married Edgar Bloom Stern (q.v.), 1921. Children: two boys and a girl. Established New Orleans Nursery School and Metairie Park Country Day School. President, board of trustees, Dillard University, 1959. Led march of broom-carrying women on behalf of mayorial candidate deLesseps S. "Chep" Morrison (q.v.). Appointed by Mayor Morrison to New Orleans Parkway and Park Commission; later named executive secretary of New Orleans Housing projects. Named to national committee on women in armed forces. Active in Voters' Registration League, Inc., early 1950s. With husband, donated $300,000 to New Orleans Symphony. Appointed by President Kennedy to National Cultural Center Advisory Committee on the Arts, 1961. With husband, established the Stern Fund, which has contributed over $10 million to charitable causes. Awarded Times-Picayune Loving Cup, 1964; Weiss Brotherhood Award from National Conference on Christians and Jews; with husband, named outstanding New Orleans philanthropists of century by New Orleans States-Item, June 1977. Died, New Orleans, September 11, 1980. E.N. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune/States-Item, obituary, September 12, 1980; editorial in ibid.; iconography: portrait in Edwin Adams Davis, The Story of Louisiana (1960), II; concerning the Voters' Registration League, see New Orleans Times-Picayune, November 29, 1951; December 4, 1951; New Orleans Item, November 29, 1951; New Orleans States, November 29, 1951; December 19, 1951.

STERN, Joseph, merchant. Born, Weisbaden, Germany, April 1, 1848. Arrived Philadelphia, 1867, found brother in U. S. Army; arrived New Orleans, 1868, and removed to St. Francisville, La., as store clerk. Established general mercantile business, 1873-1914. Married Marie Harris of Bayou Sara, November 3, 1872. Was an organizer of Hebrew Rest Cemetery and Temple Sinai, St. Francisville, 1893-1901; alderman, St. Francisville, 1894-1916. Died, April 2, 1924; interred Hebrew Rest Cemetery, St. Francisville. E.K.D. Sources: True Democrat, April 5, 1924; Records, Hebrew Rest Cemetery.

STERN, Simonne Trey
, volunteer, art patroness. Born, Marseilles, France, November 23, 1922; daughter of Jules Trey and Jeanne Laugier. Education: local French schools; studied medicine at the University of Aix-Marseilles. Married, 1945, S. Walter Stern, Jr., of New Orleans, La., son of S. Walter Stern and Josephine E. Mayer of Chicago. Children, Catherine (b. 1946) and Carole Anne (b. 1950). Volunteer at the Delgado Museum of Art (New Orleans Museum of Art) and headed successful fund-raising efforts, 1960s. Owned and operated the Galerie Simonne Stern, 1967; one of the first French Quarter dealers to emphasize the work of local avant-garde artists, by 1970 leading art gallery in the city. Author of "The Deadly Guest" an eleven-part newspaper series dealing with her personal struggle with cancer. Member: Catholic church. Died, New Orleans, October 25, 1975; interred Metairie Cemetery. B.R.O. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, April 1, 1973; obituary, October 27, 1975; "The Deadly Guest," New Orleans States-Item, October 13-17, 20-21, 1975; October 4, 1975; obituary, October 26, 1975.

STERNBERG, Erich, businessman. Born, Aurich, Germany, August 18, 1907; son of Jacob and Rose Sternberg. Education: high school equivalency in Germany. Married, August 14, 1927, Lea Knurr, also of Aurich, daughter of Lipmann Knurr, Aurich retailer, and Ida Beinheim Knurr. Children: Josef (b. 1928), Insa (b. 1930), and Hans (b. 1935). Removed to Philadelphia, then Jackson, Miss., New Orleans, and finally settled in Baton Rouge, 1936. Naturalized, 1942. Employed by and later bought retail establishment of Bernard and Harry Goudchaux. Became a major Baton Rouge retail concern. Store cited for national merit award, 1962, by National Association of Manufacturers and by the President's Committee on Employment of the Physically Handicapped. Active in Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce. Organized Sternberg Realty Co., 1945, president at time of death, and Fifteen-Fifty Realty Co., 1958, treasurer at time of death. Also a director WLCS Radio Station, Baton Rouge. Active in Masonic Lodge activities and private philanthropic functions. Member and director of City of Hope Hospital; member and board member, B'nai Israel Temple. Died, July 3, 1965; interred Baton Rouge Jewish Cemetery. C.C.C. Sources: Interviews with Josef and Lea Sternberg, July 28, 1982; Who's Who in America, 1967; State-Times, obituary, July 3, 1965.

STERNE, Nicholas Adolphus, businessman, politician. Born, Cologne, Germany, April 5, 1801; son of Emmanuel and Helen Sterne. Immigrated to New Orleans, 1817; worked in mercantile stores and read law; peddled wares northward to Tennessee and westward to Texas; moved to Nacogdoches, Tex., 1826. Active in abortive Fredonia Rebellion, sentenced to death but pardoned. Married Eva Catherine Roseine Ruff, adopted daughter of Placide Bossier, June 2, 1838. Children: Eva Helena Eugenia, Charles Adolphus, Joseph Amador, William Logan, Placide Rusk, Laura Theresa, and Rosine Sterne. Held such local offices in Nacogdoches as delegate to Convention of 1833 which requested separate statehood from Coahuila, postmaster, deputy clerk of county court, justice of the peace, primary judge, deputy clerk of Board of Land Commissioners and commissioner of roads and revenues; served on local board of health, and as overseer of streets and roads; represented Nacogdoches in the Texas house of representatives of the Second and Third Legislatures; Texas Senate in Fourth Legislature. Charter member Milam Lodge A. F. A. M., and of Grand Lodge of Texas. Also member Sons of Temperance, American Legal Association, Order of Eastern Star, all York and Scottish Rite bodies. Commanded a militia company at Battle of the Neches against Cherokees, July 1839. Financed two companies of New Orleans Greys for the Texas Revolution. Died, New Orleans, March 27, 1852; interred there. Reinterred Nacogdoches, April, 1852. A.P.M. Sources: Archie P. McDonald, Hurrah for Texas! The Diary of Adolphus Sterne (1969; reprinted, 1986); W. P. Zuber, "Captain Adolphus Sterne," Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, II (1898-99).

STEVENS, William Louis, soldier. Born, Endt Plantation, Ascension Parish, La., October 17, 1872. Education: local schools, Magruder's Collegiate Institute, Louisiana State University, and Tulane School of Architecture. Removed to Baton Rouge. Married Stella S. Schorten. Child, William, Jr. Commissioned as colonel, First Louisiana Volunteer Infantry Regiment. Served as assistant adjutant general of Louisiana, 1894-1898. Veteran of Spanish-American War. Died, Baton Rouge, May 3, 1924; interred National Cemetery, Baton Rouge. TAG, LA Sources: Military records, Jackson Barracks Library, compiled by Mary B. Oalmann, military historian.

STEVENSON, William, missionary. Born near old Ninety-six Station, S. C., 1768; son of James and Elizabeth Stevenson. Considered father of Methodism in Arkansas and first Protestant to preach in Texas and Oklahoma. Moved to North Louisiana frontier, 1826, and became first presiding elder in upland Louisiana, 1827. Continued missionary activities throughout northern Louisiana until age 79. Married (1) Jane Campbell (d. 1846) of Tennessee, 1794. Married (2) Mrs. Elizabeth Ann Jones Hoghland of Louisiana, date unknown. Children: Betsy Johnson Fowler, Jane Ann Bilbo, Sally Dyer Honeycutt, Polly Dyer, David Y., Henry W., and Rev. James P. Stevenson. Died, March 5, 1857, at home of son-in-law Major James Dyer, first state representative from Claiborne Parish. Interred either Dyer Plantation or nearby Forest Grove Methodist Church Cemetery, six miles east of Homer, La. P.C.C. Source: Walter Vernon, William Stevenson: Riding Preacher.

STEWART, William Wallace, academic, author. Born, Gibsland, La., January 23, 1904. Education: local schools; Morehouse College, Atlanta, Ga.; University of Nebraska, M.A.; University of Michigan; University of Nebraska, Ph. D., 1945. High school instructor, athletic coach, 1927-1931; high school principal, 1931-1939; director of Teacher Training, 1939-1945, Southern University; head, Department of Education, 1945-1948, Southern University; founder, Louisiana Association of Negro High School Principals; member, Commission on Higher Education, Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools for Negroes, 1937-1940; chairman, Research Committee, Louisiana Colored Teacher Association, 1937-1944; member, Planning Committee, Louisiana State-Wide Program for Curriculum Study, 1936-1941. Married. Child: William Wallace, Jr.. Member: Palestine Baptist Church. Died, Baton Rouge, April 14, 1948. C.V. Source: W. W. Stewart File, Southern University Archives, Baton Rouge; personal interview with Mrs. William "Ace" Mumford, July 17, 1984, Baton Rouge; Pittsburgh Courier, April 23, 1948.

STIRE, James Alvin, businessman, politician. Born, Abita Springs, La., January 5, 1920; eldest of four children of James Alfred Stire and Estelle Smith. Brother and sisters: Charles Herbert, Margie (Mrs. Frank Cazanove) and Betty (Mrs. L. T. Patenotte). Removed to Hammond, La., as a young child. Education: public school; Southeastern Louisiana University. First job as assistant manager at F. W. Woolworth in Hammond. At nineteen, when he enlisted in the United States Navy, was ticket agent and assistant manager of Teche Greyhound Lines in Baton Rouge. Served for four years in the Navy from September 10, 1941, to October 31, 1945. Attended submarine school for six weeks in New London, Conn., and electrical school in St. Louis, Mo., for sixteen weeks. Saw active duty aboard two submarines, the S-20 and the Seadevil. Returned to civilian life, worked for his father at the Stire strawberry cold-packing plant. Later worked for Rosenblum's clothing firm where he became manager of the Hammond store while supervising three others. Spent one year in Bogalusa directing the Rosenblum's store in that city. After eleven years with this firm, went into automobile sales. Was manager of Community Chevrolet and later Hammond Motors. His father, James Stire, was mayor of Hammond for sixteen years and clerk of court of Tangipahoa Parish until his death in 1965. His mother Estelle was appointed to fill the vacant post of clerk of court left by her husband's death and served from 1965 until 1976. Son Alvin served as her chief deputy. After her retirement, he was elected as clerk of court in 1976. During the period served as clerk of court, 1976-1978, improved the efficiency of the clerk's office through the microfilming of records, computerized indexing, restoration of old records and books, and faster election results. Also achieved a closer working relationship with the district court. Married Dauphine Pearson of Kentwood, La., April 13, 1946. Children: James Alvin II, (b. 1947); and Nancy (Mrs. Larry Blomquis, b. 1950). Member of the St. Paul Lutheran Church in Hammond and served as president of the congregation. Was a member of the American Legion Post 156, of the Louisiana Clerks of Court Association, and was president of the Amite Kiwanis. Served as Louisiana State Commander for submarine veterans of World War II and as commissioner of Dixie Youth Baseball for eleven years. Active in the Little League Baseball program for twenty-one years as both a coach and commissioner, was responsible for Hammond's merging of their little league programs with the Dixie Youth and Dixie Boys programs. The electric scoreboard erected in Zemurray Park was dedicated to him in memory of his contribution to youth baseball. Died, May 13, 1978, as a result of injuries sustained in an automobile accident. Interred Hammond, La. J.J.J. Sources: Interview with Dauphine Pearson Stire and Nancy Stire Blomquist on March 17, 1986; Honorable Discharge from the United States Navy of James Alvin Stire; Hammond Daily Star, May 14, 1978.

STIRLING, Alexander, planter. Born, Forfar, Scotland, 1753. Immigrated to America ca. 1778; overseer for Dr. Benjamin Farrar in Pointe Coupée, 1781. Joined Bernardo de Gálvez in Pensacola campaign, 1781. Married Ann Alston, May 26, 1784. Received Spanish land grant on Thompson's Creek, 1787. Merchant, Thompson's Creek, 1787-1790. Removed to Alexander's Creek where he acquired a plantation twelve miles square, 1794-1799. Sub-lieutenant, First Company, Third Battalion, First Regiment Grenadiers, Royal Legion of Mixed Militia of the Mississippi, 1792. Alcalde, Third Division, New Feliciana, 1794-1808. Died, January 8, 1808; interred Stirling Cemetery, Beechwood Plantation in present-day West Feliciana Parish, La. E.K.D. Sources: Jack D. L. Holmes, Marcha de Gálvez; American State Papers; Stirling Family Papers.

STITH, Gerard, mayor of New Orleans. Born, Fairfax County, Va.; son of Griffin Stith and Mary Dent Alexander. Worked first as a printer in Washington, D. C.; later employed by Washington Globe. Married Clara Morsell of Washington, D. C., daughter of Judge Morsell. Four children. Removed to New Orleans, 1845. Foreman of composing room, New Orleans Daily Picayune, 1845-1856; foreman of composing room, New Orleans Daily Delta, 1862; foreman of composing room, Picayune, ca. 1863-1880. First president, New Orleans Typographical Union; subsequently served several terms as union president. Active in American (Know-Nothing) party. Member, New Orleans City Council, 1854-1856; recorder, City of New Orleans, 1856-1858; mayor of New Orleans, 1858-1860. Administration noteworthy because he was first mayor of New Orleans to bring to office a public improvements program; member, New Orleans City Council, 1860-1862; arrested by Federal authorities and imprisoned at Fort Pickens, Fla., for voting to give city funds to Confederate Gen. Mansfield Lovell (q.v.), 1862. Died, Wytheville, Va., June 10, 1880; interred Virginia. C.A.B. Sources: New Orleans Daily Picayune, June 13, 1880; Goodspeed's Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Louisiana (1892); John Smith Kendall, History of New Orleans (1922).

STODDARD, Amos
, soldier, author. Born, Woodbury, Conn., October 26, 1762. Enlisted in the Continental Army in 1779 and served until the end of the war; legal career in Maine interrupted by military service during Shay's Rebellion; after a term in the Massachusetts legislature, accepted a commission, 1798, in the regular army. After Louisiana Purchase, was commissioned civil and military commandant of Upper Louisiana; acting as agent for France, he received Upper Louisiana from Spain in a ceremony at St. Louis on March 9, 1804; the next day he formally raised the United States colors. During brief tenure as acting governor of Louisiana from March 9, 1804, to September 30, 1804, he emphasized the maintenance of good relations with the French-speaking population and sought to locate and preserve the colonial archives. Re-assigned to Lower Louisiana, Stoddard toured the country and collected material on its physical and cultural geography, which he incorporated into his Sketches, Historical and Descriptive, of Louisiana (1812). During War of 1812 worked on the defenses of Fort Meigs, where wounded in action and died of tetanus, May 11, 1813. R.C.V. Sources: Louis Houck, History of Missouri, 3 vols. (1908); Stoddard MSS, Missouri Historical Society.

STOER, Newton Blanchard
, realtor, civic leader. Born, Mugginsville (now part of Shreveport), La., April 9, 1891. Education: attended Mrs. Kate Nelson's seminary; St. John's Catholic High School; Centenary College. Entered the real estate business in the office of J. G. Hester, his brother-in-law. Opened his own office, N. B. Stoer, on May 1, 1914. During World War I was six months in Officers Candidate School in Atlanta. Founder and first president of the Shreveport-Bossier Board of Realtors. Served on the Louisiana State Real Estate Board. Belonged to the Elks Club; Shreveport Club; Petroleum Club; Shreveport Lions Club; and the Shreveport Chamber of Commerce. Died, Shreveport, April 7, 1982. M.A. Sources: Shreveport Magazine, May 1977; Shreveport Times, April 9, 1978; April 15, 1978.

STONE, Sarah Katherine (Kate)
, diarist, author of Brokenburn: The Journal of Kate Stone, 1861-1868. Born, Mississippi Springs, Miss., January 8, 1841; daughter of William Patrick Stone and Amanda Susan Ragan. Education: Dr. Elliott's Academy, Nashville, Tenn. Removed to Louisiana in her youth and began her journal of the Civil War on May 15, 1861, continued diary through September 28, 1868. Married, December 8, 1869, at Walton Bend Plantation, Henry Bry Holmes. Children: Emmet, William (a former district attorney), twins, Kate Bry (died in infancy) and Amanda Julia. Active in civic life of Tallulah, La., throughout her adult life. Assisted in organizing the Madison Parish Book Club, partly responsible for the Tallulah Confederate memorial, and founded the Madison Infantry Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. Died, Tallulah, December 28, 1907. K.D.* Sources: John Q. Anderson, ed., Brokenburn: The Journal of Kate Stone, 1861-1868 (1955); Edmund Wilson, Patriotic Gore (1962).

STORCK, Ambrose Howell, physician, general surgeon, and teacher. Son of Jacob Ambrose Storck, M. D. and Minnie Edna Howell Storck. Education: Newman and Boys High School; Tulane University, B. S., 1923; Tulane School of Medicine, M. D., 1925; postgraduate training, Tulane School of Medicine, M. S., 1934. Thesis: "The Relative Values of Simple Release of Obstruction and Stripping of the Intestine in the Treatment of Acute Mechanical Obstruction." Internship at Charity Hospital of Louisiana, New Orleans, 1925-1926; Admitting Officer, 1926-1927; House Surgeon, 1927-1931. Certified American College of Surgeons, October 21, 1932; and American Board of Surgery, November 20, 1946. Practiced and taught general surgery in New Orleans from 1931 to 1973 at Tulane University School of Medicine and Charity Hospital of Louisiana at New Orleans, except for active military duty, March 1942 to March 1946. Enjoyed promoting medical research and public preventive medicine activities. Took a broad view of urban life, appreciating the need for historical preservation amidst the disappearing folkways and native customs of Louisiana. Assisted development of a rural life museum at Louisiana State University. Died, July 9, 1975; interred Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans. J.P.M. Sources: Rudolph Matas Medical Library, Tulane University Medical Center; letter, Robert F. Ryan, M. D., representative of the Department of Surgery, to the author, June 15, 1982; American Men and Women of Science, editions 9-12; Orleans Parish Medical Society Bulletin, XLVI (1975).

STOW, John, pioneer. Born, South Carolina, January 3, 1780; married Dorcas Freeman of North Carolina. Children: Abraham, Talitha Anderson, and Mary Roane. Lived in Tennessee and Arkansas before removing to Ft. Miro (present-day Monroe), La., 1802. Obtained Spanish land grant, first permanent settler in hill country east of Ouachita River. Established farm seven miles northeast of present city of Ruston, near Lincoln-Union parish line. Claimed to have had first farm in North Louisiana hills, lived under three flags during first crop, 1803. Died, July 28, 1861; interred Stow Cemetery, Ruston-Farmerville highway (La. 33). P.C.C. Sources: John D. Calhoun, "Notes on John Stow: Pioneer Planter of North Louisiana," North Louisiana Historical Association Journal, X (1979); Ruston Daily Leader, September 26, 1973; May 22, 1979; interview, Col. John D. Calhoun, October 1, 1982.

STREET, Henry, adjutant general. Born, Brooklyn, N. Y. Arrived in New Orleans as member of Seventh New York Regiment during Civil War. Settled in New Orleans at war's end. Active in Republican politics; held a position in the Office of Internal Revenue. Commanded First Regiment, Knights of Pythias, with rank of colonel. A Mason. Appointed adjutant general of Louisiana, November 13, 1872, by Gov. Henry Clay Warmoth (q.v.) and also served under Governor Kellogg (q.v.). Died, New Orleans, 1897; interred Brooklyn, N.Y. TAG, LA Source: Author's research.

STUART, Ruth McEnery
, author. Born, near Marksville, La., May 21, 1849. Daughter of James McEnery and Martha Routh. Family lived in New Orleans part of the year and on the Avoyelles Parish plantation at other times. Educated in New Orleans; taught school briefly in the city. Married Alfred Oden Stuart, widower, from Washington, Ark. Stuarts owned two plantations populated by many blacks. Child: Stirling McEnery Stuart who died at 21 in 1881. Husband died after four years and the author moved to New York where she continued to write about plantation people. Wrote several dozen plantation stories and verse over a period of twenty-three years. Among the most important are Daddy Do-Funny's Wisdom Jingles, A Golden Wedding and Other Tales; Carlotta's Intended; In Simpkinsville; Sonny, Napoleon, George Washington Jones, and Plantation Songs. Died, New York, May 16, 1917. S.E. Source: Ruth McEnery Stuart Collection, Manuscripts Department, Special Collections Division, Tulane University Library.

STUBBS, William Carter
, agriculturist. Born, Gloucester County, Va., December 7, 1843; son of Jefferson W. Stubbs and Ann Walker Carter. Education: William and Mary College; Randolph-Macon. Civil War: served in Confederate Army. After war, returned to academics; degree in science, University of Virginia, 1868. Professor of Natural Sciences, East Alabama College, 1869-1872; professor of Chemistry, Alabama A & M College, 1872-1885. Removed to Louisiana; organized, 1885, the Louisiana sugar experiment station in Kenner, then in New Orleans. Served as director of this facility until retirement in 1905. Also became professor of Agriculture, Louisiana State University, and director of state experiment station. In 1886 named state chemist. Named director, 1887, North Louisiana experiment station, Calhoun, La. In 1892 authorized by legislature to make geological survey of Louisiana. Same year named director of newly established Audubon Sugar School. Although never a sugar planter, was instrumental in the modern development of the industry in Louisiana. Wrote extensively on cultivation of sugarcane and the manufacture of sugar; a recognized authority on these subjects. Served as the executive commissioner for Louisiana at several national expositions. Founder of the Louisiana State Museum. An ardent genealogist, wrote several books on Virginia families. Married, July 28, 1875, Elizabeth Saunders of Mobile. No children. Died, New Orleans, July 7, 1924. G.R.C. Sources: National Cyclopedia of American Biography, XXIV; Who Was Who in America, 1897-1942.

STUBBS, William King
, architect, planter. Born, Monroe, La., December 31, 1909; son of Guyton Palmer and India King Stubbs. Education: Monroe public schools; Tulane University, Bachelor of Architecture degree, 1931; pledged DKE fraternity, was member of the T Club and captain of the tennis team. Received architectural license, 1936. Married Sue Graves, 1936. Children: Sue Graves, William King, Jr., and John Howell. Upon release from the United States Navy resumed practice in Monroe; firm responsible for building many churches, public buildings, and homes in Louisiana, Arkansas, and Mississippi. Associated with father in cultivation of pecans, serving as executive director of Stubbs Pecanland, Inc. Member, American Institute of Architects; Bicentennial Commission in Monroe; Bayou DeSiard Country Club; Masonic Lodge; Mayflower Society; and Rotary Club; on board of directors of Lotus Club; member and former vestryman, Grace Episcopal Church; served as a director of First Federal Savings and Loan Association and Central Bank of Monroe. Died, October 30, 1986; interred Old City Cemetery, Monroe. F.L.M. Source: Author's research.

SUDDUTH, H. E., banker. Veteran of World War I. Married Marie Williams of Many, La. Children: Joseph and Ann Sudduth Middleton. President, Bank of Saline, Saline, La., 1928-1958. Died, December 7, 1959. G.L.B. Source: Mrs. J. O. Evans, Saline, La.

SULAKOWSKI, Valery
, civil engineer, soldier. Born in Poland, 1827. As young revolutionary, took part in Hungarian rebellion led by Louis Kossuth against Austria, 1848; upon collapse of uprising, immigrated to America. Civil War service: took command of First Regiment, Polish Brigade, organized by Maj. Gaspard Tochman at Camp Pulaski near New Orleans, 1861; First Regiment (later redesignated Fourteenth Louisiana Infantry) was rushed to Virginia to bolster Gen. John B. Magruder's Army of the Peninsula. Assigned command of Seventh Brigade, comprised of Fourteenth and Fifteenth Louisiana regiments; fortified defensive positions along Warwick River; resigned commission over alleged failure of Confederate government to promote him. Sulakowski's fortifications proved to be formidable obstacle to advance of Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac. Service in Texas: In 1863, Sulakowski returned to duty as military engineer to Gen. Magruder, now commanding District of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona; fortified Texas coastline from Sabine Pass to Brownsville against seizure by Union forces. In 1864, proposed bold plan to raise Polish Legion of 30,000 men for the South; Confederate government approved but plan failed to materialize. Although Magruder recommended Sulakowski for promotion, he did not rise above rank of colonel. In post-bellum life, became surveyor for U. S. Land Office in Louisiana. Married, but evidently no offspring. Died unexpectedly, New Orleans, June 19, 1873. F.C.K. Sources: Francis C. Kajencki, "The Louisiana Tiger," Louisiana History, XV (1974); references to Sulakowski in Official Records of the War of the Rebellion; Napier Bartlett, Military Record of Louisiana (1964); New Orleans Times, obituary, June 20, 1873.

SULLIVAN, William Henry (Colonel Bill)
, forester. A Canadian, removed to Louisiana 1907 to supervise construction and operation of Great Southern Lumber Company sawmill, Bogalusa, La. First sawmill constructed of steel and world's largest sawmill with capacity of one million board feet of lumber per day. Adopted the reforestation policy of Henry Hardtner (q.v.) in 1920; planted 800 acres with loblolly pine seed; over 23,000 acres planted with slash pine seedlings by time of Sullivan's death, 1929. A.C.B. Source: Author's research.

SULLY, Thomas
, architect. Born, Mississippi City, Miss., November 24, 1855; son of George Washington Sully and Harriet Jane Green. Largely self-trained, began architectural studies in office of Lahnour and Wheelock, Austin, Texas. Also studied with H. R. Marshall and J. Morgan Slade, New York architects. Opened office, New Orleans, 1881. Married, 1884, Mary Eugenia Rocchi. One daughter. Designed many large residences, especially on St. Charles Avenue in New Orleans, also public buildings, New Orleans and elsewhere, including the Hennen (Maritime) Building, the original Whitney Building, Milliken Memorial Hospital, and St. Charles Hotel, all in New Orleans; Vicksburg Hotel, Vicksburg, Miss.; Shreveport Charity Hospital, Shreveport; Caffery Sugar Mill, near Franklin, La. Grand-nephew of the painter Thomas Sully. Member: Boston Club, Elks, and Southern Yacht Club. Died, New Orleans, March 14, 1939. B.L. Sources: The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, X; New Orleans Times-Picayune, March 15, 1939.

SUMMERLIN, George Thomas, diplomat. Born, Rayville, La., November 11, 1872; son of John S. Summerlin and Mary Davis. Education: Louisiana State University; West Point Academy, graduated, 1896. Military service in the Spanish-American War and Philippine insurrection. Resigned as captain of cavalry, 1904. Married Henrietta Virginia Loomis, 1900. Three children, one son and two daughters. Instructor at West Point, 1900-1903; clerk in State Department, 1909-1910; second secretary, Tokyo, 1910-1911; second secretary, Peking, 1911-1914; secretary, Santiago, Chile, 1914-1917; secretary, Mexico, 1917-1919; chargé d'affaires, Mexico, 1919-1924; counselor, Rome, 1925; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Honduras from March 12, 1925, to December 27, 1929; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Venezuela from September 11, 1929, to January 15, 1935; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Panama from December 10, 1934, to July 7, 1937; at the State Department, 1937-1946. Member, American Geographical Society; Army and Navy Club, Washington, D. C.; India House, New York. Died, Bethesda, Md., July 1, 1947. T.D.S. Sources: National Cyclopedia of American Biography, XLIII; Henry E. Chambers, A History of Louisiana (1925); U. S. Department of State, United States Chiefs of Mission, 1778-1973 (1973).

SUMMEY, George, clergyman, journalist, academic. Born, Asheville, N.C., June 3, 1853. Married Elisabeth Rebekah Worth of Asheville, December 15, 1875. Children: Caroline Arthur (Mrs. A. B. Dinwiddie), Albert, George, Mary Williamson (Mrs. Cleve Smith). Education: University of Georgia, Davidson College, B. A., 1870; M. A., 1873, LL. D., 1900; Union Theological Seminary of Virginia, B. D., 1873. Early pastorates: Bolivar, Tenn., 1873-1875; Covington, Ky., 1875-1880; Graham, N. C., 1881-1884; Purity Church, Chester, S. C., 1884-1892. Chancellor, Southwestern Presbyterian University, then at Clarksville, Tenn., 1892-1903. Removed to New Orleans, 1903, as editor of the Southwestern Presbyterian and pastor of the Third Presbyterian Church, which he served until 1928. The Southwestern Presbyterian was sold to the Presbyterian of the South in 1909, and Dr. Summey continued as contributing editor of that journal. Professor, Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary, 1927-1940. Moderator, Synod of Louisiana, 1911, Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, U. S., 1925, highest office in the denomination. Secretary, Board of Trustees for Presbyterian Publications until 1951. Died, February 21, 1954, after a ministry of more than eighty years, and four careers, as pastor, college president, editor, and seminary professor. W.D.L. Sources: E. C. Scott, Ministerial Directory of the Presbyterian Church, U. S., 1861-1951; Penrose St. Amant, A History of the Presbyterian Church in Louisiana (1961).

SWAYZE, Rachel, antebellum plantation mistress and correspondent. Born in either New Jersey or Mississippi, March 13, 1774; location uncertain because of family's removal from New Jersey to Mississippi; daughter of Stephen Swayze, Jr., and Rachel Hopkins. After father's death, mother married William Weeks, probably in Natchez, ca. 1778. Rachel thereby became half-sister of David Weeks (q.v.), master of several plantations in the Teche country. Married (1), 1789, Richard Bell. Child: Stephen (d. 1821). Removed to Feliciana to take up land grant to Bell, 1791. Married (2), 1797, Hercules O'Connor. Child: James. Survived both sons. Operated O'Connor's 500-acre plantation after his death in 1821 and until her death. Corresponded frequently with her half-brother, David Weeks, about her trials and tribulations as a plantation mistress. Rachel's correspondence is the subject of Avery O. Craven's Rachel of Old Louisiana (1975) and Allie Bayne Windham Webb's Mistress of Evergreen Plantation (1983). Died, Memphis, Tenn., May 22, 1846. E.K.D. Sources: Frances Preston Mills, The History of the Descendants of the Jersey Settlers, Adams County, Mississippi, 2 vols.; Avery Craven, Rachel of Old Louisiana (1975); American State Papers; West Feliciana Parish Records; Weeks Family Papers.

SWORDS, Marion L., law enforcement officer. Born, Big Cane section of St. Landry Parish, La., February 24, 1857; son of James T. Swords and Mary E. Morse. Married Ola V. Ward, daughter of T. C. Ward of Avoyelles Parish, La., in 1879. Children: Merrick W., Mary (Mrs. C. H. Masters), Collins V., Alex W., and Rosalie. Engaged in saw milling, steamboating, plantation work and clerking; was a merchant in Pointe Coupée Parish at age 21; flood of 1882 destroyed his business; was a cotton seed factor for ten years. Chairman, parish Democratic Central Committee; led parish fight against the Louisiana Lottery; appointed assessor and registrar of voters in 1892; jailed for refusing to register Negroes; his position sustained by state supreme court; in 1896 led the fight for white supremacy in St. Landry Parish; elected sheriff in 1900 and served for sixteen years. Member, Opelousas Lodge 1048, B.P. O. E., Hope, Hook and Ladder Company, Baptist church. President of Sheriffs' Association for twelve yeras. Killed, July 17, 1916, as he was trying to arrest a fugitive in Mallet Woods; interred Protestant cemetery, Opelousas, La. J.B.C. Sources: St. Landry Clarion, obituary, July 22, 1916; New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, July 18, 1916.

SYLVESTER, Harold Joseph, educator, civic leader, politician. Born, Opelousas, La., August 23, 1921; son of Robert Lee Sylvester and Alice Himes. Education: local schools; Southwestern Louisiana Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana); Louisiana State University. Received degrees in Agriculture and Education. Married, June 9, 1944, Helen Carey, of Mt. Holley, N. C., daughter of William Henry Carey and Perlie Poole. Children: Sandra, Robert, Terry, Debra, Ronnie, Kenneth and Alice. St. Landry Parish clerk of court, 1964-1977. Active in St. Landry Parish Classroom Teachers Association, St. Landry Parish Teachers Association, University of Southwestern Louisiana Alumni Association, and member of the USL board of governors. Member: Our Lady of Mercy Council of the Knights of Columbus; Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, serving as past exalted ruler of the Opelousas Elks lodge; past district deputy grand exalted ruler, past state president of the Louisiana Elks Association; Louisiana Clerks of Court Association. Died, Opelousas, September 10, 1977; interred St. Landry Cemetery. K.P.F. Sources: Opelousas Daily World, obituary, September 11, 1977; Sylvester Family Papers, Louisiana Secretary of State Testimonial, September 15, 1977.

SYPHER, Jacob Hale
, congressman. Born near Millerstown, Perry County, Pa., June 22, 1837. Education: Alfred (N.Y.) University, 1859. Taught school in Cleveland, Ohio. During the Civil War entered the Union Army as a private in Company A, First Ohio Light Artillery. Promoted to rank of first lieutenant of Company B, October 8, 1861; resigned February 3, 1864; later, on August 11, 1864, served as colonel of the Eleventh United States Colored Heavy Artillery; brevetted brigadier general of Volunteers March 13, 1865, "for faithful and meritorious services during the war"; honorably mustered out October 2, 1865. After the war bought a plantation in northern Louisiana, but about two years later commenced the study of law; admitted to the bar and practiced in New Orleans. Delegate to the Republican National Convention at Chicago in 1868; upon readmission of the state of Louisiana to representation was elected as a Republican to Congress and served from July 18, 1868, to March 3, 1869; contested the subsequent election of Louis St. Martin (q.v.) to Congress, but the House decided that neither was entitled to the seat. Subsequently elected to Congress to fill the vacancy thus created; reelected to Congress and served from November 7, 1870, to March 8, 1875, when he was succeeded by Effingham Lawrence (q.v.), who contested the election. Unsuccessful candidate for election, 1874. Resumed the practice of law in Washington, D. C.. Died, Baltimore, Md., May 9, 1905; interred Arlington National Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950).

SZYMANSKI, Ignatius, soldier; exchange agent for prisoners of war between North and South during the Civil War. Born, Poland, 1806. Participated in Polish uprising against Russia, 1830-1831; immigrated to United States about 1833. Contributed to Harro Haring's Poland Under the Domination of Russia, 1834. Removed to New Orleans, 1835, owner of plantation, a cotton press, race-horse stable and yacht. Became colonel of the Chalmette Regiment of Louisiana, 1861, and in April, 1862 sent to the Quarantine Station below New Orleans to impede approach of Federal fleet. Szymanski surrendered with his men and his boat to Federal gunboat Cayuga. Later paroled, applied for permanent position in Confederate Army, while temporarily assigned acting assistant inspector general, headquarters, First District, Department of Mississippi & Eastern Louisiana, Jackson, Miss., where he was also commanding paroled and exchanged prisoners. Became acting assistant adjutant general, January 1863, and on May 15, 1863, appointed to Confederate States Army with rank of major. Became assistant adjutant general and assistant agent of exchange for prisoners of war, District of Trans-Mississippi, with headquarters, at Alexandria, La., and commander of the parolee camp at nearby Pineville. For nearly a month after the war ended he was still military agent of prisoner-exchange. After that records of his activity as a civilian are not readily available. Died, New Orleans, 1874. L.S. Sources: Jerzy Jan Lerski, A Polish Chapter in Jacksonian America (1958); Mieczyslaw Haiman, Historia Udzialu Polaków w Amerykanskiej Wojnie Domowej (History of the Participation of the Poles in the American Civil War); John D. Winters, The Civil War in America (1963); The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies; Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion.

a bachelor; joined by his two nephews, Dr. Solange Sorrel and Martial Sorrel, the latter sole heir of Jacques Sorrel and progenitor of the Sorrel families of Iberia and St. Mary parishes. Died, June 11, 1816; interred Pellerin family cemetery near Jeanerette, La. G.C.T.† Source: Author's research.

SOTO, Hernando de,
Spanish conquistador, adelantado, discoverer of the Mississippi River, first European to traverse what is now the southeastern United States. Born, Jerez de los Caballeros (Extremadura), ca. 1497; son of Francisco Méndez de Soto and Leonor Arias Tinoco. Born of hidalgo parents in the age of discovery, Soto grew to young manhood in western Spain. What formal education he received was undoubtedly brief, but he was early caught upin the dream of conquest. His prowess as a horseman was readily recognized, which helped gain him a place on the 1514 expedition of Pedrarias Davila to the Indies. By 1520, Soso had already made his mark in Panama as a trader and conqueror. Over the next decade, he earned sizable profits by his Central American exploits. By 1531, he had accumulated enough capital to join Pizarro in Peru, the conquest of which earned him huge shares of gold and silver. These shares enabled Soto to plan an independent expedition which he hoped would place him on equal footing with Cortés and Pizarro. Soto returned to Spain in 1536. After entering into marriage with Pedrarias' daughter, Isabel de Bobadilla, and being accepted into the Order of Santiago, Soto was granted permission by the crown in 1537 to conquer La Florida. In addition, he was made governor of Cuba and given the title of adelantado. In April 1538, Soto sailed from the Spanish port of Sanlucar de Barrameda in command of seven hundred men and nine ships. After a sojourn in Cuba, he landed his men on the west coast of Florida and began exploration of the interior. His searches for such wealth as he had found in Peru took him across the entire southeastern United States. At the Indian village of Coza he found rich farmlands, but at Mauvila in present-day South Alabama he was drawn into battle with the natives. In a costly victory, Soto was wounded and the damages to his supplies were extensive. Turning northwestward, Soto crossed the Mississippi River in May 1541. Continuing westward, he reached what is now Oklahoma, but finding little of value, returned to present-day Louisiana, where he died on May 21, 1542. His body was buried in the Mississippi somewhere north of the Red River mouth. The expedition's remnants, under Luis de Moscoso, continued down the Mississippi, reaching Mexico in 1543. As a conquistador, Hernando de Soto, though never attaining the stature of a Cortes or Pizarro, was the archetype of the New World captain of horse. J.H. Sources: James Alexander Robertson, ed. and trans., True Relation of the Hardships Suffered by Governor Fernando de Soto . . .; John R. Swanton, ed., Final Report of the United States De Soto Expedition Commission; Antonio del Solar Y Taboada and José de Rujula y de Ochotorena, El Adelantado Hernando de Soto.

SOTO Y BERMUDES, Antonio Emanuel de, colonial political defector from Spanish Texas, planter of Natchitoches and Opelousas. Born in the parish of San Juan Dorron, archbishopric of Santiago de Gutierce in the old province of Galicia (presently La Coruña), Spain; son of Dominique Bermudes and Maria Josefa de Soto. As minor official of Spain, Soto came to historical attention in 1752 as secretary to Gov. Jacinto de Barrios y Jauregui. Dispatched on a reconnoitering mission through Texas to discover extent to which Louis Antoine Juchereau de St-Denis (q.v.) and his associates at the French post of St-Jean-Baptiste des Natchitoches had succeeded in capturing the trade and allegiance of the western tribes, Soto's marked lack of success, and attending political problems, prompted him to defect temporarily from the Spanish province. Filed at Natchitoches, January 15, 1753, a formal protestation against Governor Barrios, and investigation of own actions ensued. Married, June 2, 1754, Marie des Neiges Juchereau de St-Denis (q.v.), daughter of the late founder of the Natchitoches Post. Children: Marie Emanuelle (b. 1756); Joseph Antoine Marcel (b. 1758); Marie Josephe Demascene (b. 1760); Louis Joseph Firmin (b. 1761); Joseph François (b. 1763); Eulalie Marianne (b. 1764); and Severine Antoinée Gertrude (b. 1766). Marriage provided Soto with political shelter in the French colony. At close of proceedings against him, appears to have divided time between Spanish Los Adaes and French Natchitoches as well as to have been an active participant in the St. Denis enterprises among the western Indians. It was apparently in this period, also, that his alleged "conquest of the Attakapas and Opelousas" on behalf of Spain transpired. Soto's questionable activities climaxed in Texas with Pacheco affair, 1764, at which time he sought permanent asylum at Natchitoches. From that base he continued to rankle competing Spanish officials until charges were again leveled against him in 1768, this time of inciting several of the Texas nations to arms. Concurrent transfer of Louisiana's government to Spain provided the latter with the political means to bring Soto to trial. After apparently ten years of incarceration in Mexico City, Soto returned to Natchitoches and allegedly remained active in intrigue and underground politics. In 1779 removed his family to the interior post of Opelousas. Again incurred official ire. Opelousas records chronicle the extensive activities of Mme. de Soto in 1780s, acting in all cases without reference to the consent of husband; Soto himself is inexplicably absent, for many years after 1781, from both notarial records and the census enumerations of his wife's household. Died, it is thought, in September, 1799. E.S.M. Sources: Registers 1-4, Parish of St. François des Natchitoches (numerous entries), January 15, 1753; Protestation du Sr. Dn Manuel Antoine Soto Bermudes, in Inventaire des pieces du Greffe et du Notarial du Poste des Natchitoches, Legajo 201, Papeles Procedentes de Cuba (hereafter PPC), Archivo General de Indias, Seville, Spain; De Vaugine to Governor, August 9, 1782, Legajo 195, PPC; 1785 Recensements des Postes Opelousas et Atacapas, Legajo 2360, PPC; and 1788 Recensement du Poste de Opelousas, Legajo 2361, PPC; Book 1, p. 42 (burials), Parish of St. Landry des Opelousas; Elizabeth Shown Mills, Natchitoches, 1729-1803: Abstracts of the Catholic Church Registers of the French and Spanish Post of St. Jean Baptiste des Natchitoches in Louisiana (1977); Herbert Eugene Bolton, Texas in the Middle of the Eighteenth Century (reprint ed., 1970); Herbert Eugene Bolton, Athanase De Mézières and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier, 1768-1780, 2 vols. (1914); Winston De Ville and Jacqueline O. Vidrine, Marriage Contracts of the Opelousas Post, 1766-1803 (1961); De Ville, "Joachin de Ortega y Prieto: The Spanish Ancestry of a Gateway Pioneer in Colonial Louisiana," Louisiana Genealogical Register, XXIX (1982); William S. Coker and G. Douglas Inglis, The Spanish Censuses of Pensacola, 1784-1820 (1980); American State Papers: Documents Legislative and Executive of the Congress of the United States, Public Lands Series, 8 vols. (1832-1861), III; David J. Bjork, ed., "Documents Relating to Alexandro O'Reilly and an Expedition Sent Out by Him from New Orleans to Natchitoches, 1769-1770," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, VII (1924).

SOUBY, Andrew William
, clergyman, poet. Born, New Orleans, October 21, 1871; son of Paul Joseph Souby (q.v.) and Dorothée Aune. Educated in local schools; attended seminary in Genes, ordained there June 1894. Pastor of Sacred Heart Catholic Church, Morgan City, La., 1898-1938. Published Redemption, an epic poem on the history of salvation (1924). Created many of the parishes in the Morgan City-Berwick-Stephensville area. Died, Thibodaux, La., October 14, 1938; interred Sacred Heart Cemetery, Morgan City. M.J.F. Sources: Rev. William A. Souby Collection, Morgan City Archives, Morgan City, Louisiana.

SOUBY, Paul Joseph
, educator, poet. Born, New Orleans, March 23, 1839; son of Pierre Edward Souby and Marguerite Boisdoré. Taught school in New Orleans and throughout French Louisiana. Married Dorothée Aune. Children: Marie Constance (b. 1868); Marguerite Hermine (d. 1870?); Andrew William (q.v.); Judith Marie (b. 1875?); and Laura Theresa (b. 1877?). Published many poems in French in New Orleans papers; left behind a large body of unpublished works with his son, the Rev. Andrew William Souby. Died, New Orleans, October 14, 1910; interred St. Vincent De Paul Cemetery I. M.J.F. Source: Rev. Andrew William Souby Collection, Morgan City Archives, Morgan City, Louisiana.

SOUCHON, Edmond I
, physician, surgeon, anatomist. Born, Opelousas, La., December 1, 1841; son of Dr. Eugene Souchon and Caroline Bertilde Petit. Education: private and public schools of St. Martinville, La., Mobile, Ala., New Orleans, La.; went to Paris, France, to complete his academic work and visit family relatives; finished his studies and prepared to study medicine when the Civil War began in America cutting his allowance; combined work with study and after five years finished fourth in a class of 350 students; was engaged as an interpreter and assistant to Dr. J. Marion Sims, an American who was in Paris to demonstrate one of his discoveries in surgery. Returned to New Orleans and resumed medical studies at the University of Louisiana (now Tulane University); was aided by Dr. T. G. Richardson and worked as his prosecutor; performed the necessary dissections for the doctor's lectures on anatomy; graduated from the university in 1867. Married Corinne Lavie in New Orleans, 1869. Children: Marion Sims (q.v.), Corinne, and Selika. Became Dr. Richadson's chief of clinic at Charity Hospital, New Orleans; was appointed demonstrator of Anatomy at the University of Louisiana, 1872; named professor of anatomy and clinical surgery at Tulane, 1885; selected by Mrs. Richardson in 1892 to design the floor plan and supervise construction of the T. G. Richardson Medical Building; a memorial tablet commending him for his work was mounted in the entrance hall; appointed by Governor Wiltz (q.v.) to the board of administrators of Charity; Governor Foster (q.v.) appointed him to the presidency of the Louisiana State Board of Health in 1898; served in that capacity under the next two administrations. His numerous articles on anatomy, surgery, and sanitation were published in local and national medical journals; invented the Souchon Intratracheal Anesthetizer; the original specimen on the use of this anathetizer is in the Smithsonian Institution. Retired from Tulane in 1908 with a Carnegie pension; devoted his time to the founding of the Souchon Museum of Anatomy which the university placed in the Richardson Building; especially noteworthy is the display of the method he devised for preserving the natural color in veins, arteries, and muscles. Member, Louisiana State Medical Society, Society of American Anatomists; board of governors, Boston Club for two consecutive terms, president, American Surgical Association, the New Orleans Medical and Surgical Association, and the Orleans Medical Society; vice president, American Medical Assocaition; founder of the Southern Surgical and Gynecological Association. Died, New Orelans, August 5, 1924. J.B.C. Sources: Alcée Fortier, Louisiana (1909); The Story of Louisiana (1960), II; New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, August 6, 1924; Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1973-1983).

SOUCHON, Edmond II
, physician, jazz historian, musician. Born, New Orleans, October 25, 1897; son of Dr. Marion Sims Souchon (q.v.) and Dolly Gabrielle Burthe. Education: attended Newman's Manual Training School; received pre-medical training at Tulane University, New Orleans; Loyola University, Chicago, B. S., M. D., 1923; interned at Chicago's Mercy Hospital, 1923-1925. Married Marie Louise Estoup in New Orleans, October 25, 1923. Children: Marie (b. 1924), Dolly Ann (b. 1928). Medical career: began New Orelans medical practice in father's office, 1925; served on staffs of Mercy Hospital, Hotel Dieu, Charity Hospital, DePaul Sanitarium, and Crippled Children's Hospital; chief of staff, Hotel Dieu, 1948-1949; credited with pioneering the use of sodium penothal as an intravenous general anesthetic; contributed to medical knowledge about the diseases of pregnancy. Was a founding member of the Louisiana Surgical Association; life fellow of both the American and International College of Surgeons. Musical career: interest in music began at age of ten; formed his own group, "The Six and 7/8 String Band of New Orleans," in 1912 or 1913; played with the group throughout his life; sang, played the guitar and banjo; sat in with other jazz groups; co-founded the National Jazz Foundation in early 1940s; began recording career in 1949; recorded more than 500 jazz songs; was president of the New Orleans Jazz Club in 1948; instituted the newspaper of that club which evolved in 1950 into the jazz magazine, Second Line, of which he was editor; magazine attracted old-time jazz musicians who came out of retirement and played benefits for the Crippled Children's Hospital; contributed articles to Life, Newsweek, Time, Le Jazz Hot (Paris), Jazz Journal (London), and The Jazz Review; mixed music and medicine in article, "Music: A Physchotherapeutic Adjunct," which appeared in Theme in 1956; was one of the founders of the New Orleans Jazz Museum which is now a part of the Louisiana State Museum; lectured on the "Story of New Orleans Music" at Tulane and Loyola universities and before the national convention of Music Educators of America; presented the Dr. Edmond Souchon Folk and Jazz Collection, consisting of 5,000 records and a library of literature on jazz, to the New Orleans Public Library. Honors include selection as "Salesman at Large" by the New Orleans Chamber of Commerce; was awarded a bronze plaque by the Louisiana Heart Association; a nationally televised program on his life aired in 1961. Member, New Orleans Country Club, Washington Artillery, Institute for Jazz Studies, France-Amérique, Society for the Preservation of African Music; a director of Pan-American Life Insurance Company and Krewe of Rex. Died, August 24, 1978, while playing the guitar for family and friends at his home in New Orleans; interred Metairie Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: The Story of Louisiana (1960), II; Al Rose and Edmond Souchon, New Orleans Jazz, A Family Album (1967); Second Line, XIV (1963); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, August 25, 1968.

SOUCHON, Marion Sims
, surgeon, artist. Born, New Orleans, October 9, 1870; son of Dr. Edmond Souchon I (q.v.) and Corinne Lavie. Education: attended Springhill College, Mobile, Ala.; University of Virginia; Tulane Medical School, graduated 1894; interned, Charity Hospital, New Orleans, 1894-1896. Married Dolly Gabrielle Burthe, 1896. Children: Edmond II (q.v.), Harry, and daughter, Marion. Assistant demonstrator of Anatomy and chief of Clinic to the chair of Clinical Surgery at Tulane until 1903; taught Anatomy and Osteology at Tulane, 1910-1925; house surgeon at Hotel Dieu Hospital for twenty-five years; served on board of administrators and was visiting surgeon at Charity Hospital; surgeon at Touro Shakspeare Home; chief surgeon at French Hospital. A founder in 1944 and medical director and vice president of the Pan-American Life Insurance Company. Retired in early 1930s and began career as an artist; at first style was conventional; went on to simplified forms and use of vivid colors; held one-man shows in New Orleans and at the Julian Levy Gallery in New York, 1935; of his 1939 show in New York a critic said he had a penchant for deep rich color and was a kind of primitive with a bit of sophisticated artlessness; by 1942 he had completed some 500 paintings and won eight or ten prizes; won prizes in New York, San Frnacisco, New Orleans, Baton Rouge, and Jackson, Miss.; several of his paintings toured the South and were acquired by universities for their art departments; one prize painting, To the Day Nursery, is in the permanent collection of the New Orleans Museum of Art; many of his canvasses are in galleries throughout the nation, among them the Museum of Modern Art in New York City; exhibitions of his work were sponsored by the Southern States Art League, the Carnegie Institution in 1941, and the Corcoran Gallery of Art in 1945. Possessed an unusual collection of historical manuscripts; donated his books on the evolution and development of history to the Howard-Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane in memory of his father. Member, American College of Surgeons, medical societies of Orleans Parish and Louisiana, American and Southern Medical associations, Southern States Art League, New Orleans and Mississippi Art associations, Knights of Columbus, Boston Club, New Orleans Country Club, several carnival clubs. Died, New Orleans, April 2, 1954; interred Metairie Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: The Story of Louisiana (New Orleans, 1960), II; Alcée Fortier, Louisiana (1914); Who's Who in American Art (1947); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, April 3, 1954; New York Times,, November 19, 1939.

SOUEL, Jean
, clergyman, missionary. Came to Louisiana in 1726. Missionary to the Yazoos. Murdered December 11, 1729, when the tribe joined the Natchez in their uprising. According to Father Mathurin Le Petit, he was then 35 or 36 years of age. M.A. Source: Reuben Gold Thwaites, The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents (reprint ed., 1959), LXVII.

SOULE, George, mathematician, educator. Born, Barrington, N. Y., May 14, 1834; son of Ebenezer G. Soulé and Cornelia Elizabeth Hogebroom. Education: in New York and DeKalb County, Ill.; Sycamore Academy, Sycamore, Ill., graduated 1853; attended McDowell Medical College; St. Louis Law School, St. Louis, Mo.; Jones Business College, St. Louis, Mo., graduated 1856. Founded Soulé Commercial College and Literary Institute, New Orleans, December, 1856. Civil War service: captain, Company A, Crescent Regiment of Louisiana Volunteers, May 5, 1862; Army of Tennessee and Trans-Mississippi Department; wounded, Battle of Shiloh, April 7, 1862; prisoner at Johnson's Island on Lake Erie; exchanged at Vicksburg, Miss., September 17, 1862; major, Crescent Regiment, fall, 1862; lieutenant colonel, October 27, 1862; served in campaigns at Labadieville, Bayou Teche, Berwick Bay, Bisland through November 3, 1863; served post duty and later chief of the Labor Bureau of Western Louisiana under Gen. E. Kirby Smith (q.v.); paroled June 9, 1865. Married, September 6, 1860, Mary Jane Reynolds of Mobile, Ala., daughter of Jonathan Reynolds and Mary E. Cleveland. Children: George, Jr. (b. 1861), Marie Louise (b. 1863), Albert Lee (b. 1865), Edward Everett (b. 1867), Mary Elizabeth (b. 1868), William Holcomb (b. 1870), Frank (b. 1867), Robert Spencer (b. 1873), Lillie Cornelia (b. 1875). Awarded honorary LL. D., Tulane University, 1918. Lecturer and author of numerous pamphlets and books: Soulé's Philosophic Practical Mathematics (1895), Analytical and Philosophic Commercial and Exchange Calculator (1872), Soulé's Contractions in Numbers (1874), Soulé's Intermediate Philosophic Arithmetic (1874), Soulé's New Science and Practice of Accounts (1881), Soulé's Bookkeeping and Accounting (1881), Soulé's Introductory Philosophic Arithmetical Drill Problems (1882), Soulé's Scientific and Practical System of Bookkeeping (1883), Gems of Business Problems (1886), Soulé's Manual of Auditing (1892), Soulé's Partnership and Financial Settlements (1893), Carnival in New Orleans, Its Story and Its Sentiment (1922). Member: Unitarian church; Democratic party; National Educational Association; National Commercial Teachers' Federation; Business Educator's Association of America, president; Institute of Accounts of New York; Associated Accountants of New Orleans; Southern Sociological Congress; Louisiana Historical Society; National Institute of Social Sciences; Federation of Business Colleges; National Geographic Society; Luther Burbank Society; American Social Purity Association; New Orleans Association of Commerce; Louisiana Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children; Conference of Charities; International Longfellow Society; La Variété Association, president; Shakespeare Club; New Orleans School of Design. American Unitarian Association of Boston (Southern vice-president). Member: Grand Encampment Knights Templar of Louisiana; Grand Encampment, Knights Templar of the U. S., past grand commander Scottish Rite Mason, Thirty-Third Degree. Reigned as "Rex", King of Carnival, 1887. Died, New Orleans, January 26, 1926; interred Metairie Cemetery. C.B.H. Sources: Dictionary of American Biography, XVII; National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, I; John S. Kendall, History of New Orleans, II (1922); G. T. Ridlon, A Contribution to the History, Biography and Genealogy of the Families Named Sole, Solly, Soule, Sowle, Soulis . . . (1926); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, January 26, 1926.

SOULE, Pierre, attorney, U. S. senator, diplomat, author of the Ostend Manifesto. Born, Castillon, France, August 28, 1801; son of Joseph Soulé and Jeanne La Croix. Education: Collège de l'Esquille, Toulouse; studied law, Paris. Founded, 1824, newspaper Nouveau Nain Jaune. Published editorial critical of church and state, tried and sentenced to prison; emigrated to U. S., 1826, to avoid prison term. Arrived New Orleans and set up law practice. Married, 1828, Armatine Mercier, sister of Drs. Armand and Alfred Mercier (q.v.). One child: Neville, married granddaughter of Bernard de Marigny de Mandeville (q.v.). Gained prominence, 1828-1847, as lawyer, financier, orator and politician. Appointed U. S. senator, 1847, to fill unexpired term of Alexander Barrow (q.v.); following year elected to full six-year term. On death of John C. Calhoun, assumed leadership of states rights Southern Democrats. Passed over for appointment as U. S. attorney general, 1853; resigned from Senate to enter diplomatic service. Rebuffed by tsar in a bid for appointment to Russia, named instead to the court of Spain. As ambassador became controversial; severely wounded French ambassador in duel; accused of complicity in Madrid revolt of August 28, 1854. That year, in collaboration with James Buchanan and John Y. Mason, drew up Ostend Manifesto which proposed compelling Spain to sell Cuba. Manifesto ignored by U. S. officials; Soulé resigned and returned to law practice in New Orleans. Successfully defended, Nicaraguan filibusterer William Walker, but failed in his attempt to promote a canal through Mexico. After fall of New Orleans to Federal forces, arrested as a provocateur and sent to prison in New York. While on parole, fled to South, appointed brigadier general in Confederate Army, served as aide-de-camp to Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard (q.v.) for remainder of war. Embittered and paranoid in final years. Died New Orleans, March 26, 1870. J.H. Sources: Alfred Mercier, Biographie de Pierre Soulé (1848); Leon Soulé, Notice sur Pierre Soulé; Arthur Freeman, The Early Career of Pierre Soulé (1942); A. A. Ettinger, The Mission to Spain of Pierre Soulé (1932);

SOULIER, Edward Emile
, banker, businessman. Born, New Iberia, La., March 20, 1890; son of Edward Emile Soulier and Eugénia Oliver. Education: St. Martinville, La. public schools. Employed with Southern Pacific Railroad, Lafayette, La., 1906; served as chief clerk, San Antonio, Texas Southern Pacific Railway Office; returned to Lafayette, 1915, as cashier of the Lafayette Bank and Trust Co.; cashier, First National Bank, Lafayette, 1928, president, 1940. Past president, Louisiana Bankers Association; Fourth Degree, Knight of Columbus, past grand knight, Council No. 1286; member and treasurer, board of directors, Lafayette Chamber of Commerce; member, Lafayette Housing Authority; Lafayette Parish chairman, First and Second War Loan Campaigns. Married Stella Roy. Children: Emile, Arthur Roy, and Stella. Died, August 28, 1943; interred St. John Cemetery, Lafayette, La. V.B.S. Source: Abbeville Meridional, obituary, August 28, 1943.

SOUTHWELL, Owen James Trainor
, architect, artist. Born, New Iberia, La., September 20, 1892; son of Catherine Trainor and William D. Southwell. Education: primary school, New Iberia; high school, Beaumont, Tex.; attended Tulane University, 1910-1912; Carnegie Tech, graduated, 1915. Married, August 2, 1945, Yvonne Arnandez Patout, daughter of Eugénie Céleste Pellerin and Jules Arnandez and the widow of Frédéric Patout. No children. Instructor at Carnegie Tech and University of Illinois, 1916-1918. Served in United States Navy, World War I. Worked for architectural firm of Henry Hornbostel in New York City, Pittsburgh, and Atlanta. Instruc¬tor in design at Georgia Tech while in Atlanta. Entered private practice, 1922. Removed to New Iberia, 1931. The J. H. Phelan home in Beaumont is one of his outstanding works. Designed the Sugar Festival Building, New Iberia. Among outstanding Louisiana churches he designed are Our Lady of Perpetual Help and St. Peter's, New Iberia; St. Bernard's, Breaux Bridge; Our Lady of the Sacred Heart, Church Point. Water color painting and photography were his hobbies and exhibitions were held at the Art Institute of Chicago; the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia; Worcester, Mass., and Baltimore art museums; and Delgado (now New Orleans Museum of Art). Honors: won the Carnegie Tech medal of the American Institute of Architects, 1915; received the certificate of the Beaux Arts Institute of Design, 1919. Died, New Iberia, April 7, 1961; interred St. Peter's Cemetery. G.L.D. & J.B.C. Sources: Owen Southwell Papers, Southwestern Archives and Manuscript Collection; Glenn R. Conrad, comp., New Iberia: Essays on the Town and Its People (1979); New Iberia Daily Iberian, April 7, 1961.

SPARROW, Edward
, attorney, politician. Born, Dublin, Ireland, December 29, 1810. As a youth immigrated to America; attended Kenyon College in Ohio, studied law, admitted to Ohio bar. Removed to Louisiana, 1831. Married Minerva Parker of Natchez. Several children born to the marriage. Served as clerk of court and sheriff of Concordia Parish, 1834-1840. Brigadier general in state militia during Mexican War. Active in Louisiana Whig politics, candidate for lieutenant governor, 1846. Removed to Carroll Parish, La., 1852, to practice law; entered into partnership with Vail Montgomery, 1858. Member of the Baton Rouge convention in 1860, voted for secession at Louisiana convention of 1861. One of six delegates to provisional Confederate Congress at Montgomery, Ala.; served on several important committees. With Thomas Semmes (q.v.) served as senator in Confederate Congress. After Civil War served as an original member of the Board of Levee Commissioners while continuing the practice of law. Died, Lake Providence, La., July 4, 1882. G.R.C. Sources: Jon L. Wakelyn, Biographical Dictionary of the Confederacy (1977); William H. Adams, The Whig Party of Louisiana (1973); Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Louisiana (1892; reprint ed., 1975); "A History of Concordia Parish," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XV.

SPATES, Catherine Chevis, telephone operator. Born, Washington, La., April 25, 1886; daughter of Stewart Gibbon Chevis and Alzina de La Morandière. Education: St. Landry Parish schools. Married David Clarence Spates, son of David Lawrence Spates and Viola Elender. Children: Dwight C. (b. 1913), Stuart T. (b. 1916). Charter member, Henning Memorial United Methodist Church. First Sulphur, La., telephone operator, 1918, retired, 1948. During early days office was communication center of area, locating doctors and businessmen and advising citizens of emergency situations. Died, Sulphur, January 5, 1973; interred Mimosa Pines Cemetery, south of Sulphur. G.S.P. Source: Spates Family Papers.

SPEARING, James Zacharie
, congressman. Born, Alto, Cherokee County, Tex., April 23, 1864; son of John F. and Margaretta Sanders Spearing. Removed to New Orleans with parents in 1866; attended the public schools; left school and went to work in commercial capacity in 1877. In 1884 commenced study of law at Tulane University, graduated 1886 as valedictorian. Admitted to the bar in 1886 and began practice in New Orleans. Married Lucille M. Cooke, November 20, 1889. Children: Cora and Margaretta. Member, Episcopal church; Orleans Parish School Board member, 1908-1912, 1916-1920, president in 1919 and 1920; member, State Board of Education, 1912-1916. A Mason. Member, Knights of Pythias, the Pickwick Club, and various Carnival organizations. Alternate delegate to the Democratic National Convention, Baltimore, 1912; elected as a Democrat to Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of H. Garland Dupré (q.v.) and served from April 22, 1924, to March 3, 1931; unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1930. Resumed the practice of law in New Orleans; chairman, Times-Picayune Doll and Toy Fund from 1931 until his death. Died, New Orleans, November 2, 1942; interred Metairie Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1971 (1971); Official Congressional Directory, 68th Congress (1925); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, November 3, 1942.

SPELLMAN, Oliver Bassett
, attorney, academic. Born, Alexandria, La., February 22, 1923; son of Dr. Frank J. Spellman and Altonette Dier Spellman. Education: Talladega College, Talladega, Ala., 1936; Brooklyn Law School, B. A., 1944; bachelor of laws, 1940; further study at the Southern University School of Law. Married Iris Lawson. Children, Oliver, Jr., Iris Ann, and Ricki Renée. Professor of Law, Southern University Law School; attorney in practice in Baton Rouge. Member, Louisiana Bar Association; Young Men's Christian Association; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity; the Bunche Club. Died, February 5, 1964. C.T. Source: "In Memoriam," Louisiana Education Association Journal, XLII (March, 1964).

SPENCER, William Brainerd
, attorney, soldier, congressman, jurist. Born Home Plantation, Catahoula Parish, La., February 5, 1835. Education: Centenary College, graduated 1855; University of Louisiana Law Department (now Tulane University), graduated 1857. Admitted to bar in 1857, established practice in Harrisonburg, La. During Civil War, served in Confederate Army; rose to rank of captain. After war, resumed practice of law in Vidalia, La. Successfully contested as Democrat the election of Frank Morey to Congress; served from June 1876 to January 1877. Resigned to accept appointment as associate justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court, January 9, 1877. Retired from the bench, 1879; resumed law practice in New Orleans. Died, Cordova, Mexico, where he had gone for health reasons, April 29, 1882; interred Magnolia Cemetery, Baton Rouge. G.R.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950); New Orleans Daily Picayune, April 30, May 7, 1882; Henry Denis, Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Supreme Court of Louisiana, 1882 (1883), XXXIV; Alcée Fortier, Louisiana . . . , 3 vols. (1914).

SQUIRES, Ralph Anthony
, concert pianist, academic. Born, Morgan City, La., February 18, 1906; son of Ralph Anthony Squires, Sr., and Jane O'Brien. Education: Morgan City High School; University of Southwestern Louisiana; Chicago Musical College. Studied piano in New Orleans with Corinne Meyer, with Robert Casadesus in Paris, with Harold Bauer in Boston and Rudolph Ganz in Chicago. Taught music at Iowa State Teachers College, Cedar Falls, Iowa; joined Centenary College, Shreveport, as associate professor and rose to rank of department head and full professor during fifteen years with that college. Served with the U. S. Army field artillery of the Tenth Mountain Division in Italy during World War II. In 1956 was appointed dean of Fine Arts at McNeese University, Lake Charles, where he remained until death. Appeared as soloist with the Minneapolis and other symphony orchestras. Heard frequently in recitals throughout Louisiana. Did not marry. Died, Lake Charles, April 27, 1962; interred Morgan City Cemetery. The Ralph Squires Recital Hall on the McNeese campus named in his honor. L.K.L. Source: Squires Family Papers, Morgan City Archives.

STAFFORD, David Theophilus, sheriff, adjutant general. Born, Edgefield Plantation near Cheneyville, La., September 12, 1849; son of Leroy Stafford (q.v.) and Sarah Catherine Wright. Education: local schools and Louisiana Seminary of Learning (now Louisiana State University). Settled in Alexandria; entered steamboat and warehouse business under name Stafford and Cullen. Became a Knight of the White Camelia and was with the Citizens League on Canal Street, New Orleans, during events of Septem¬ber 14, 1874. Married, on Tyrone Plantation, December 30, 1874, Amy Blanchard Graham (1853-1940), daughter of George Mason Graham (q.v.) and Mary Eliza Wilkinson. Children: George Mason Graham (b. 1876), Leroy Augustus I (b. 1877); Catharine (b. 1878), Eleanor (b. 1880), Duncan (b. 1881), Thomas (b. 1882), Donald (b. 1884), David (b. 1886), Marion (b. 1888), Leroy Augustus II (b. 1890), Margaret (b. 1891), and Amy (b. 1893). Removed to Montrose Plantation, Rapides Parish, 1876. Remained in farming until 1888 when elected sheriff of Rapides Parish; served sixteen years. Appointed, 1904, adjutant general of Louisiana by Gov. Newton Crain Blanchard (q.v.) and reappointed four years later by Gov. J. Y. Sanders (q.v.). Died, Alexandria, La., January 18, 1926; interred Rapides Cemetery, Pineville, La. TAG, LA Source: Author's research.

STAFFORD, Leroy Augustus, planter, soldier. Born Greenwood Plantation, Rapides Parish, La., April 13, 1822; son of Leroy Stafford and Elizabeth Susan Callihan. Education: Bardstown, Ky.; Nashville, Tenn. Married, 1843, Sarah Catherine Wright, daughter of Dr. Jesse D. Wright and Sarah R. Grimball. Nine children, one of whom was David Theophilus Stafford (q.v.). Operated his plantation until elected sheriff of Rapides Parish, 1845. Enlisted as a private and served in the Mexican War, 1846-1847. Resumed his plantation work after being mustered out. Raised a volunteer company when the Civil War began and became captain of Company B, Ninth Louisiana Infantry Regiment, July 7, 1861. Elected colonel of his regiment, April 24, 1862. Frequently commanded his brigade and often mentioned by his superiors for his gallant conduct in battle. Wounded in the foot at the Battle of Sharpsburg, Md., September 17, 1862. Promoted to rank of brigadier general, October 8, 1863. Mortally wounded in the Battle of the Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864. Died, Richmond, Va., May 8, 1864; interred, Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond; reinterred, Greenwood Plantation, 1866. A.W.B. Sources: George M. G. Stafford, General Leroy Agusutus Stafford, His Forebears and Descendants (1943); Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Gray (1959); Clement A. Evans, Confederate Military History, 13 vols. (1899).

STAGG, Julius James, Jr., physician, civic leader, politician. Born, Eunice, La., May 18, 1909; son of Julius James Stagg, Sr., and Lucille Berthelotte. Education: Eunice High School; Millsaps College, Jackson, Miss.; Tulane University, M. D. degree. Interned three years at New Orleans Charity Hospital. World War II service: served two-and-a-half years with the United States Army Medical Corps. Discharged with rank of major. Medical practice, 1936-1975, general practice and surgeon. Chief of staff, Moosa Memorial Hospital. Later appointed director of St. Landry Parish Health Unit. Married, September 18, 1936, Mobile, Ala., Martha Ann Carnes, daughter of Charles Norman Carnes and Edna Chaffee of New York. Children: Julius James Stagg, III and Julia Ann Stagg. Served as mayor of Eunice, 1949-1961. Member: Eunice Rotary Club, president, 1939-1940. Received citizen of the year award and Eunice Lions Club Humanitarian of the Year Award. Posthumously awarded a U. S. presidential citation for humanitarian service, April 26, 1983. Served as a director of St. Landry Land Bank and Trust Co. Died, Eunice, Novem¬ber 10, 1982; interred Mt. Cavalry Cemetery. K.P.F. Sources: Eunice News, November 14, 1982; St. Anthony of Padua Catholic Church, Baptismal Register, Vol. V, p. 123, #171, Stagg Family Papers.

STAGG, Julius James, Sr.
, physician. Born, Whiteville, St. Landry Parish, La., March 2, 1875; son of Louis Stagg and Laure Latour. Education: local schools; St. Charles College, Grand Coteau, La.; Springhill College, Mobile, Ala.; Tulane University, New Orleans. Removed to Eunice, La., 1906, physician. Married, April 14, 1908, Lucille Berthelotte, of Thibodaux, La., daughter of Adam Berthelotte and Anita Breaux. Six childen: Julius James (q.v.), Lester Philip (b. 1910), Roland Ashton (b. 1912), Earl Ray (b. 1915), Rebecca Lucille (b. 1923), Jack Ralph (b. 1925). Removed to Morton, Miss., 1922, mill doctor, Adams-Banks Lumber Co., 1922-1931. Removed to Eunice, La., 1931, physician. Member: American Medical Association; Louisiana State Medical Society; Harmony Lodge #410, F. & A. M.; Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine; Knights Templar. Died, Eunice, February 19, 1934; interred St. Louis Cemetery. J.L.F. Sources: obituary, Eunice New Era, February 23, 1934; Opelousas Daily World, July 29, 1982; Stagg family.

STANTON, Gideon Townsend, painter, stockbroker. Born, Morris, Minn., July 14, 1885; grandson of Edwin M. Stanton, President Lincoln's secretary of war, and Mary Ashley Townsend, Southern author. Removed to New Orleans at age 3 and attended school New Orleans; studied art in New York and Baltimore. Returned to New Orleans to join investment firm of Louis H. Stanton, but resumed painting in 1900, exhibited regularly from 1907 forward. Married Lillian Jung of New Orleans. Children: Gideon Stanton, Jr., E. J. Stanton, Lillian Stanton Merilh. Member, Art Association of New Orleans; New Orleans Art League; charter member, 1937, of Southern States Art Association; American Federation of Arts; Arts and Crafts Club; and served as state director of Federal Art Project of the Works Progress Administration. Painted country landscapes of New Orleans area and Negro studies, principally in oil, but also in water colors and pastel. Died, New Orleans, November 23, 1964; interred Metairie Cemetery. R.L.W. Sources: New Orleans Southern States Art League Papers, Art File, Louisiana Collection, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library, Tulane University; obituary, New Orleans States-Item, November 23, 1964, p. 14.

STANTON, Robert Livingston
, clergyman, scholar, abolitionist. Born, Pachaug, Conn., March 28, 1810; son of Joseph Stanton and Susan Brewster. Education: local schools of Connecticut and western New York; Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio, graduated 1836. Ordained in the Mississippi Presbytery, 1839; resident pastor at Pine Ridge, Miss., 1839-1841; Woodville, 1841-1843; and New Orleans, 1843-1851, at Second Presbyterian Church, Prytania and Calliope streets in the Second Municipality. Married, 1843, Anna Maria Stone, daughter of Charles Henry Stone of Newark, N. J. Child: Robert Brewster Stanton (b. 1844). In New Orleans, Stanton first proselytized among blacks as well as whites. At the Second Church he quietly supported anti-slavery cause while upholding a conservative Calvinist theology. Circumstantial evidence supports his authorship of New Orleans As It Is: Truth Is Stranger Than Fiction (anonymous). Written by a "Resident," this 1849 abolitionist pamphlet has long served as a critical analysis and guide to antebellum New Orleans and adjacent areas of Louisiana and Mississippi. Stanton wrote and published many other pamphlets, books and articles on Christian theology, Southern society, and political and moral philosophy. His most famous was The Church and the Rebellion (1864) in which he blamed Southern church leaders for contributing to the outbreak of the Civil War. After his return to the North, Stanton received the D. D. degree from Princeton and from Washington College, Va., in 1852. He then served as pastor at Chillicothe, Ohio, 1855-1862; professor at Danville Theological Seminary, 1862-1866; moderator of the Presbyterian General Assembly in St. Louis, 1866, and government visitor at West Point; president, Miami University, 1866-1871; editor in New York City, 1871-1872; editor at Cincinnati, 1872-1878. During the Civil War, Stanton served as an advisor to President Abraham Lincoln, based on his experiences in the South. Retired to Washington, D. C. Died at sea in spring of 1885. T.F.R. Sources: Timothy F. Reilly, "Robert L. Stanton, Abolitionist of the Old South," Journal of Presbyterian History, XIII (1975); "Robert Livingston Stanton, D. D.," Encyclopedia of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (1884); The National Cyclopedia of American Biography (1921), XXVI; Henry B. Stanton, Random Recollections, 2nd ed. (1886); Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography (1888), V.

STARK, Thomas
, physician, politician. Born, Breaux Bridge, La., 1866. Education: local private schools, Tulane University Medical School. Established home at Thibodaux, La. Married Jeanne Fourton. Children: Lillian, Alma, Louise. Medical practice: medical examiner for Knights of Pythias and Washington Life Insurance Co., 1901; president, Lafourche Parish Board of Health, 1901. Business interests: board of directors, Bank of Lafourche; member, board of directors, Lafourche Oil and Mineral Co.; major stockholder, Thibodaux Building Association. Active in Democratic party: member, Lafourche Parish School Board, 1900-1912(?), president, 1908(?)-1912(?); coroner, 1912-1916; sheriff, 1917-1944. Died, Thibodaux, February 10, 1944. C.A.B. Sources: The Southern Manufacturer (New Orleans), (November, 1901); New Orleans Times-Picayune, February 11, 1948.

STECKLER, Ernestine Edith, civic leader, humanitarian. Born, Iberia Parish, La., December 4, 1889; daughter of Henry Steckler, Jr., and Celeste Judice. Education: in local schools; Jeanerette High School; State Normal College (now Northwestern State University), Natchitoches, La. Taught at Steckler School, served as postmistress in Jeanerette, worked in the office at Evangeline Pepper Products in St. Martinville, owned and operated a gift shop known as Fille du Sud in St. Martinville. In 1949 spearheaded a movement by the Business and Professional Women's Club (later to become a civic club) to establish a library in St. Martin Parish; served as president, St. Martin Parish Library Board of Control, 1954-1969 at which time she was designated president emeritus; earned the Louisiana Library Association Modisette Award for Trustees in 1958. Awarded the St. Martinville Lions Club Outstanding Citizen Award in 1965. Wrote the information sheet on the community for the St. Martinville telephone directory. Compiled a local industrial pamphlet, wrote an illustrated brochure on St. Martinville; designed and patented a spoon featuring the Evangeline Oak and statue of Evangeline. Assisted in organizing the first recreation program, active in preparation for the Chariot Parade and children's carnival; conducted tours for visitors; assisted with gifts, time and ideas for Tourist Appreciation Day. Member: Roman Catholic church. Died November 29, 1973; interred Rosehill Cemetery, New Iberia, La. D.S. Sources: St. Martin Parish Library Files; Steckler family papers.

STECKLER, Henry, planter, businessman. Born, New Orleans, September 14, 1844; son of Henry Steckler, Sr. (1816-1893) and Caroline Hines. Served in Confederate Army. Married (1), April 14, 1869, Ernestine Judice (1850-1880), daughter of Alexandre Judice (1802-1880) and Marie Celeste Judice. Children: Joseph (b. 1870); Richard (b. 1872); Marie Caroline (b. 1874); Annie (b. 1876); Marie Emelie (b. 1879). Married (2), July 12, 1881, Alice Judice (1850-1884) of Lafayette, La., daughter of Gustave Judice and Eliza Doucet. Two children: Corinne (b. 1882); Helen (b. 1883). Married (3), October 10, 1885, Celeste Judice (1860-1939) of Lafayette, La., daughter of Gustave Judice and Eliza Doucet. Children: Maude Theresa (b. 1886), Henry Anthony (b. 1887), Ernestine Edith (q.v.), Marie Dieudonné (b. 1891), Margreait Celeste (b. 1895), Jefferson James (b. 1898). Established Steckler school; maintained Steckler landing on Bayou Teche for mercantile trade; invented a planting machine; active in civic affairs in New Iberia and Loreauville. Member, Iberia Masonic Lodge #3155 Knights of Honor. Died, New Orleans, November 21, 1897; interred Rosehill Cemetery, New Iberia. D.S. Sources: Family papers; Donald J. Hébert, comp., Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984).

STEPHENS, Edwin Lewis, academic. Born Stephens Mill, Natchitoches Parish, La., November 27, 1872; son of Joseph Henry Stephens and Isabella Caroline Whitfield. Paternal grandfather, a pioneer lumberman, had come to Louisiana from his native state of South Carolina in the early 1800s. Education: private teachers; private schools; public schools; Keachi College, a Baptist academy at Keachi, La.; Nacogdoches, Tex., from September, 1883 to June, 1888. Learned telegraphy from local railroad agent, summers of 1885-1887; became telegraph operator for Iowa Central Railroad. Entered Louisiana State University at the sophomore level, October 1889; A. B., 1892; New York University on Helen Gould Scholarship, Master of Pedagogy, 1897; Ph. D., 1899. Did summer study Glenn Falls, N. Y., 1892; Cook County Normal School, Chicago, 1893; Harvard University, 1894 and travel-study in Europe, 1907. Professor, Latin and Science, Louisiana State Normal, 1892-1896; professor, Louisiana State Summer Schools, Fort Jesup, 1897; Marksville, 1898; Alexandria, 1899; professor, Physics and Chemistry, Boys High School, New Orleans, 1899; professor, History of Education, Summer School of the South, Knoxville, Tenn., 1909. Served as president, LSU Alumni Federation, 1922-1926. When named president, January 3, 1900, at the age of 27, of the newly created Southwestern Louisiana Industrial Institute it had no campus, no faculty and no students. Married, July 14, 1902, to Beverly Randolph, teacher of Drawing and Gymnastics at SLII. Children: Beverly Randolph (Mrs. Frederick Hard); Caroline Parham (Mrs. Crafton Harris); Margaret Fitz-Randolph (Mrs. Margaret Jochem). Retired as president emeritus, May, 1938. Founded the unique Live Oak Society. President, Louisaina Teachers Association, 1903. Editor, Louisiana School Review, 1905-1908. Died, New Orleans, November 5, 1938. M.M. Sources: Institute Bulletin, Southwestern Louisiana Institute of Liberal and Technical Learning, Lafayette, La., 36th Annual Catalog (1936); Joel L. Fletcher, "Founder of USL's Predecessor Highly Respected Educator," Lafayette Daily Advertiser, July 28, 1960; Joel L. Fletcher, "The First President: Edwin L. Stephens and the Early Years of Southwestern Louisiana Institute," Southwestern Louisiana Institute, September, 1950; Margaret Stephens Jochem, "A History of Southwestern Louisiana Institute" (M. Ed. thesis, George Peabody College, Nashville, Tenn., 1937); Margaret Jochem, "The Life Story of Edwin Lewis Stephens," Southwestern Journal, IV, (1960); Frank Patti, "Life and Work of Edwin Lewis Stephens" (M. Ed. Thesis, Louisiana State University, 1971).

STEPHENSON, Shirley Knowles, librarian, academic. Born Harriott Shirley Collier, Jackson, Miss., October 31, 1907. Education: elementary school, Jackson, Miss.; secondary school, Fort Smith, Ark.; Millsaps College; Tulane University, B.A. degree, University of Alabama; Louisiana State University, B.S. M.A., Ph.D.. Married (1) —— Knowles, divorced; (2) Richard Stephenson. Divorced. Teacher, Enochs Junior High School, Jackson, Miss., 1933-1934; supervisor of elementary public school libraries, Jackson, Miss., 1934-1937; librarian, Bailey Junior High School, Jackson, Miss., 1937-1939; assistant librarian, New Orleans Public Library, 1939-1941; supervisor, Mississippi Library Extension Project, WPA, 1941-1942; librarian, Louisiana Library Commission, 1943; instructor, 1943-1956, assistant professor, 1956-1959, associate professor, 1959-1963, professor, 1963-1972, professor emeritus, 1972-death, LSU Library School. Elected president, Louisiana Library Association (LLA), 1964-1965; received LLA Essae M. Culver Award, 1975, for many accomplishments and contributions to library field. Active in social organizations. Contributed to professional publications. Died, Baton Rouge, September 13, 1976. F.M.J. Sources: Who's Who in Library Science, 4th ed. (1966); LLA Bulletin (Fall, 1976); vertical file, Louisiana Division, Louisiana State Library.

STEPHENSON, Wendell Holmes
, academic, author, editor. Born, Cartersburg, Ind., March 13, 1899; son of Robert W. Stephenson and Virginia Rupe. Education: attended Earlham College, 1916-1917; Indiana University, A. B., 1923; A. M., 1924; University of Michigan, Ph. D., History, 1928; honorary degrees of Litt. D. from Duke University, 1950, and LL. D. from the University of North Carolina, 1953. Married Hildagarde Voyles, August 31, 1924. Child: Lamar V. Stephenson. Religion: Quaker. Taught grade school in Plainfield, Ind., 1917-1918; was principal of Fairwood (Ind.) Grade School, 1918-1919; and principal of Clayton (Ind.) High School, 1919-1921. After receiving master's degree, served as instructor of History and Political Science, 1924-1925, and as assistant professor in those fields, 1925-1926, at the University of Kentucky. Was the Carl Braun Fellow in History at the University of Michigan, 1926-1927. Held the positions of associate professor of American History, 1927-1932, professor, 1932-1945, and dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, 1941-1945, at Louisiana State University. Was on leave to do research, 1944-1945. Taught at the University of Kentucky and served as editor of the University of Kentucky Press, 1946-1953. Filled the posts of professor of Southern History and chairman of the Division of Social Sciences at Tulane University, 1946-1953. Served as professor of History, 1953-1980, and as special assistant to the president, 1965-1970, at University of Oregon. Visiting professor: Teachers' summer sessions at Indiana University, 1931, and Duke University, 1939-1940; University of Birmingham, England, 1950; Fullbright professor, University of Southampton, England, 1959-1960; Indian School of International Studies, New Delhi, India, 1962; American Studies Workshop, Mussori, India, 1963. Delivered the Walter Fleming Lecture in Southern History at Louisiana State University, 1955. Member of grant committee, Hayes Foundation, 1939-1942. Scholarly affiliations: Southern Historical Association, served as president, 1944, editor, Journal of Southern History, 1935-1941; Mississippi Valley Historical Association, served as president, 1958, editor of its Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 1946-1953; Agricultural Historical Society, president, 1940-1941; American Historical Association; Louisiana Historical Association; Phi Beta Kappa; Phi Kappa Phi, Phi Gamma Mu; Phi Delta Kappa; and Omicron Delta Kappa. Publications: Political Career of General James H. Lane (1930); Alexander Porter, Whig Planter of Old Louisiana (1934); Isaac Franklin, Slave-Trader and Planter of the Old South (1938); The South Lives in History: Southern Historians and Their Legacy (1955); A Basic History of the Old South (1959); Southern History in the Making: Pioneer Historians of the Old South (1964); editor and author of Foreword, Charles William Ramsdell, Behind the Lines of the Southern Confederacy (1969); Reconstruction in Texas (1970). One of his most memorable contributions to Southern history was his co-editorship of two distinguished series of books: A History of the South, 10 vols., beginning 1938 with Charles William Ramsdell and E. M. Coulton, and the Southern Biography series (1939-1946) with Fred Cole. Died, April 1970. J.J.J. Sources: W. J. Burke and Will D. Howe (revised by Irving Weiss and Anne Weiss), American Authors and Books, 1640 to the Present Day, 3rd ed. rev. (1972); Ann Evory, ed., Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series (1981), III; Who's Who in America, 1968-1969 (Chicago, 1968), XXXV.

STERN, Edgar, philanthropist. Born, New Orleans January 23, 1886; son of Maurice Stern and Hannah Bloom. Education: McDonogh Public High School, New Orleans; Tulane University; Harvard, B. A., 1907; M. A., 1908; member of Phi Beta Kappa and the debating team. Returned to New Orleans and entered family firm of Lehman, Stern and Co., Ltd., cotton merchants; treasurer of firm, 1911-1936. Active in civic affairs: member, Orleans Parish School Board, 1912; Charity Hospital Board, 1912-1916; Association of Commerce, 1916-1919, president, 1916; president, Audubon Park Commission, 1915-1917; director, New Orleans Public Belt Railroad, 1916-1919; director, New Orleans branch, Federal Reserve Bank, 1917-1918; director, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, 1917-1918. World War I service: captain, U. S. Army. Married Edith Rosenwald (q.v.). Children: two boys and a girl. Trustee, Tuskegee Institute, 1924-1934; president, Board of Trustees, Dillard University, 1930-1959; president, Board of Trustees, Flint-Goodridge Hospital, 1930-1934. Received New Orleans Times-Picayune Loving Cup, 1930. As president of Pontchartrain Park homes, developed 1,000-unit section of Pontchartrain Park for blacks. President, New Orleans Cotton Exchange, 1927-1928; president, New Orleans Community Chest, 1928; director, New Orleans Parkway Commission, 1929; trustee, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library, 1932-1959; trustee, Julius Rosenwald Fund, 1932-1948; vice-president, Bureau of Governmental Research, 1933-1944; president, Mermentau Mineral and Land Co. of New Orleans, 1939-1959; vice-president, Southern States Land and Timber Co., 1943-1959; director, Times-Picayune Publishing Co., 1927-1948; director, Whitney National Bank, 1919-1926. Founder and member, Phi Beta Kappa Associates, 1940. Appointed by Gov. Sam Jones (q.v.) to Louisiana State Welfare Board, 1940-1942; chairman, transportation committee, War Production Board, 1940-1942; chairman, Louisiana Economic Development Commission, 1940-1942. Consultant to Louisiana Department of Commerce and Industry, 1943. Member, board of administrators, Tulane University, 1944-1959. Founding member, International House of New Orleans, 1945; member, Mayor's Advisory Committee, 1946; member, Executive Committee, American Jewish Committee and Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1946; sponsor, International Trade Mart at New Orleans, 1948; trustee, Public Affairs Research Council of Louisiana, 1950; member, New Orleans City Charter Committee, 1950-1952; chairman, development committee, United Fund of New Orleans. With son, Edgar Bloom Stern, Jr., established WDSU-TV, New Orleans, 1948. Established Stern Fund, 1948. Forty-five years of civic service recognized through selection as "Mr. Citizen of 1953." Named to college grants committee, Ford Foundation, 1955. With wife, contributed $300,000 to New Orleans Symphony. Donated $70,000 to Tulane, Dillard, and Harvard universities, 1956. Member, President's Advisory Committee on Education Beyond High School, 1956-1957. Honored at a special dinner at New Orleans, January 23, 1953. Died, Price, Utah, August 24, 1959. E.N. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, August 26, 1959; New Orleans States-Item, August 25, 1959; Charles "Pie" Dufour, "Edgar Stern Takes His Place with Legendary Benefactors of City," New Orleans States-Item, August 27, 1959; National Cyclopaedia of American Biographies, XLVII; W. K. Patrick, Club Men of Louisiana in Caricature (1917), p. 63; Who's Who in the South and Southwest (1950); The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography.

STERN, Edith
, philanthropist. Born, Chicago, Ill., 1895; daughter of Julius Rosenwald, former head of Sears Corporation. Education: attended progressive school, Chicago; German finishing school. Married Edgar Bloom Stern (q.v.), 1921. Children: two boys and a girl. Established New Orleans Nursery School and Metairie Park Country Day School. President, board of trustees, Dillard University, 1959. Led march of broom-carrying women on behalf of mayorial candidate deLesseps S. "Chep" Morrison (q.v.). Appointed by Mayor Morrison to New Orleans Parkway and Park Commission; later named executive secretary of New Orleans Housing projects. Named to national committee on women in armed forces. Active in Voters' Registration League, Inc., early 1950s. With husband, donated $300,000 to New Orleans Symphony. Appointed by President Kennedy to National Cultural Center Advisory Committee on the Arts, 1961. With husband, established the Stern Fund, which has contributed over $10 million to charitable causes. Awarded Times-Picayune Loving Cup, 1964; Weiss Brotherhood Award from National Conference on Christians and Jews; with husband, named outstanding New Orleans philanthropists of century by New Orleans States-Item, June 1977. Died, New Orleans, September 11, 1980. E.N. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune/States-Item, obituary, September 12, 1980; editorial in ibid.; iconography: portrait in Edwin Adams Davis, The Story of Louisiana (1960), II; concerning the Voters' Registration League, see New Orleans Times-Picayune, November 29, 1951; December 4, 1951; New Orleans Item, November 29, 1951; New Orleans States, November 29, 1951; December 19, 1951.

STERN, Joseph, merchant. Born, Weisbaden, Germany, April 1, 1848. Arrived Philadelphia, 1867, found brother in U. S. Army; arrived New Orleans, 1868, and removed to St. Francisville, La., as store clerk. Established general mercantile business, 1873-1914. Married Marie Harris of Bayou Sara, November 3, 1872. Was an organizer of Hebrew Rest Cemetery and Temple Sinai, St. Francisville, 1893-1901; alderman, St. Francisville, 1894-1916. Died, April 2, 1924; interred Hebrew Rest Cemetery, St. Francisville. E.K.D. Sources: True Democrat, April 5, 1924; Records, Hebrew Rest Cemetery.

STERN, Simonne Trey
, volunteer, art patroness. Born, Marseilles, France, November 23, 1922; daughter of Jules Trey and Jeanne Laugier. Education: local French schools; studied medicine at the University of Aix-Marseilles. Married, 1945, S. Walter Stern, Jr., of New Orleans, La., son of S. Walter Stern and Josephine E. Mayer of Chicago. Children, Catherine (b. 1946) and Carole Anne (b. 1950). Volunteer at the Delgado Museum of Art (New Orleans Museum of Art) and headed successful fund-raising efforts, 1960s. Owned and operated the Galerie Simonne Stern, 1967; one of the first French Quarter dealers to emphasize the work of local avant-garde artists, by 1970 leading art gallery in the city. Author of "The Deadly Guest" an eleven-part newspaper series dealing with her personal struggle with cancer. Member: Catholic church. Died, New Orleans, October 25, 1975; interred Metairie Cemetery. B.R.O. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, April 1, 1973; obituary, October 27, 1975; "The Deadly Guest," New Orleans States-Item, October 13-17, 20-21, 1975; October 4, 1975; obituary, October 26, 1975.

STERNBERG, Erich, businessman. Born, Aurich, Germany, August 18, 1907; son of Jacob and Rose Sternberg. Education: high school equivalency in Germany. Married, August 14, 1927, Lea Knurr, also of Aurich, daughter of Lipmann Knurr, Aurich retailer, and Ida Beinheim Knurr. Children: Josef (b. 1928), Insa (b. 1930), and Hans (b. 1935). Removed to Philadelphia, then Jackson, Miss., New Orleans, and finally settled in Baton Rouge, 1936. Naturalized, 1942. Employed by and later bought retail establishment of Bernard and Harry Goudchaux. Became a major Baton Rouge retail concern. Store cited for national merit award, 1962, by National Association of Manufacturers and by the President's Committee on Employment of the Physically Handicapped. Active in Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce. Organized Sternberg Realty Co., 1945, president at time of death, and Fifteen-Fifty Realty Co., 1958, treasurer at time of death. Also a director WLCS Radio Station, Baton Rouge. Active in Masonic Lodge activities and private philanthropic functions. Member and director of City of Hope Hospital; member and board member, B'nai Israel Temple. Died, July 3, 1965; interred Baton Rouge Jewish Cemetery. C.C.C. Sources: Interviews with Josef and Lea Sternberg, July 28, 1982; Who's Who in America, 1967; State-Times, obituary, July 3, 1965.

STERNE, Nicholas Adolphus
, businessman, politician. Born, Cologne, Germany, April 5, 1801; son of Emmanuel and Helen Sterne. Immigrated to New Orleans, 1817; worked in mercantile stores and read law; peddled wares northward to Tennessee and westward to Texas; moved to Nacogdoches, Tex., 1826. Active in abortive Fredonia Rebellion, sentenced to death but pardoned. Married Eva Catherine Roseine Ruff, adopted daughter of Placide Bossier, June 2, 1838. Children: Eva Helena Eugenia, Charles Adolphus, Joseph Amador, William Logan, Placide Rusk, Laura Theresa, and Rosine Sterne. Held such local offices in Nacogdoches as delegate to Convention of 1833 which requested separate statehood from Coahuila, postmaster, deputy clerk of county court, justice of the peace, primary judge, deputy clerk of Board of Land Commissioners and commissioner of roads and revenues; served on local board of health, and as overseer of streets and roads; represented Nacogdoches in the Texas house of representatives of the Second and Third Legislatures; Texas Senate in Fourth Legislature. Charter member Milam Lodge A. F. A. M., and of Grand Lodge of Texas. Also member Sons of Temperance, American Legal Association, Order of Eastern Star, all York and Scottish Rite bodies. Commanded a militia company at Battle of the Neches against Cherokees, July 1839. Financed two companies of New Orleans Greys for the Texas Revolution. Died, New Orleans, March 27, 1852; interred there. Reinterred Nacogdoches, April, 1852. A.P.M. Sources: Archie P. McDonald, Hurrah for Texas! The Diary of Adolphus Sterne (1969; reprinted, 1986); W. P. Zuber, "Captain Adolphus Sterne," Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, II (1898-99).

STEVENS, William Louis
, soldier. Born, Endt Plantation, Ascension Parish, La., October 17, 1872. Education: local schools, Magruder's Collegiate Institute, Louisiana State University, and Tulane School of Architecture. Removed to Baton Rouge. Married Stella S. Schorten. Child, William, Jr. Commissioned as colonel, First Louisiana Volunteer Infantry Regiment. Served as assistant adjutant general of Louisiana, 1894-1898. Veteran of Spanish-American War. Died, Baton Rouge, May 3, 1924; interred National Cemetery, Baton Rouge. TAG, LA Source: Military records, Jackson Barracks Library, compiled by Mary B. Oalmann, military historian.

STEVENSON, William
, missionary. Born near old Ninety-six Station, S. C., 1768; son of James and Elizabeth Stevenson. Considered father of Methodism in Arkansas and first Protestant to preach in Texas and Oklahoma. Moved to North Louisiana frontier, 1826, and became first presiding elder in upland Louisiana, 1827. Continued missionary activities throughout northern Louisiana until age 79. Married (1) Jane Campbell (d. 1846) of Tennessee, 1794. Married (2) Mrs. Elizabeth Ann Jones Hoghland of Louisiana, date unknown. Children: Betsy Johnson Fowler, Jane Ann Billbo, Sally Dyer Honeycutt, Polly Dyer, David Y., Henry W., and Rev. James P. Stevenson. Died, March 5, 1857, at home of son-in-law Major James Dyer, first state representative from Claiborne Parish. Interred either Dyer Plantation or nearby Forest Grove Methodist Church Cemetery, six miles east of Homer, La. P.C.C. Source: Walter Vernon, William Stevenson: Riding Preacher.

STEWART, William Wallace
, academic, author. Born, Gibsland, La., January 23, 1904. Education: local schools; Morehouse College, Atlanta, Ga.; University of Nebraska, M.A.; University of Michigan; University of Nebraska, Ph. D., 1945. High school instructor, athletic coach, 1927-1931; high school principal, 1931-1939; director of Teacher Training, 1939-1945, Southern University; head, Department of Education, 1945-1948, Southern University; founder, Louisiana Association of Negro High School Principals; member, Commission on Higher Education, Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools for Negroes, 1937-1940; chairman, Research Committee, Louisiana Colored Teacher Association, 1937-1944; member, Planning Committee, Louisiana State-Wide Program for Curriculum Study, 1936-1941. Married. Child: William Wallace, Jr.. Member: Palestine Baptist Church. Died, Baton Rouge, April 14, 1948. C.V. Source: W. W. Stewart File, Southern University Archives, Baton Rouge; personal interview with Mrs. William "Ace" Mumford, July 17, 1984, Baton Rouge; Pittsburgh Courier, April 23, 1948.

STIRE, James Alvin
, businessman, politician. Born, Abita Springs, La., January 5, 1920; eldest of four children of James Alfred Stire and Estelle Smith. Brother and sisters: Charles Herbert, Margie (Mrs. Frank Cazanove) and Betty (Mrs. L. T. Patenotte). Removed to Hammond, La., as a young child. Education: public school; Southeastern Louisiana University. First job as assistant manager at F. W. Woolworth in Hammond. At nineteen, when he enlisted in the United States Navy, was ticket agent and assistant manager of Teche Greyhound Lines in Baton Rouge. Served for four years in the Navy from September 10, 1941, to October 31, 1945. Attended submarine school for six weeks in New London, Conn., and electrical school in St. Louis, Mo., for sixteen weeks. Saw active duty aboard two submarines, the S-20 and the Seadevil. Returned to civilian life, worked for his father at the Stire strawberry cold-packing plant. Later worked for Rosenblum's clothing firm where he became manager of the Hammond store while supervising three others. Spent one year in Bogalusa directing the Rosenblum's store in that city. After eleven years with this firm, went into automobile sales. Was manager of Community Chevrolet and later Hammond Motors. His father, James Stire, was mayor of Hammond for sixteen years and clerk of court of Tangipahoa Parish until his death in 1965. His mother Estelle was appointed to fill the vacant post of clerk of court left by her husband's death and served from 1965 until 1976. Son Alvin served as her chief deputy. After her retirement, he was elected as clerk of court in 1976. During the period served as clerk of court, 1976-1978, improved the efficiency of the clerk's office through the microfilming of records, computerized indexing, restoration of old records and books, and faster election results. Also achieved a closer working relationship with the district court. Married Dauphine Pearson of Kentwood, La., April 13, 1946. Children: James Alvin II, (b. 1947); and Nancy (Mrs. Larry Blomquis, b. 1950). Member of the St. Paul Lutheran Church in Hammond and served as president of the congregation. Was a member of the American Legion Post 156, of the Louisiana Clerks of Court Association, and was president of the Amite Kiwanis. Served as Louisiana State Commander for submarine veterans of World War II and as commissioner of Dixie Youth Baseball for eleven years. Active in the Little League Baseball program for twenty-one years as both a coach and commissioner, was responsible for Hammond's merging of their little league programs with the Dixie Youth and Dixie Boys programs. The electric scoreboard erected in Zemurray Park was dedicated to him in memory of his contribution to youth baseball. Died, May 13, 1978, as a result of injuries sustained in an automobile accident. Interred Hammond, La. J.J.J. Sources: Interview with Dauphine Pearson Stire and Nancy Stire Blomquist on March 17, 1986; Honorable Discharge from the United States Navy of James Alvin Stire; Hammond Daily Star, May 14, 1978.

STIRLING, Alexander
, planter. Born, Forfar, Scotland, 1753. Immigrated to America ca. 1778; overseer for Dr. Benjamin Farrar in Pointe Coupée, 1781. Joined Bernardo de Gálvez in Pensacola campaign, 1781. Married Ann Alston, May 26, 1784. Received Spanish land grant on Thompson's Creek, 1787. Merchant, Thompson's Creek, 1787-1790. Removed to Alexander's Creek where he acquired a plantation twelve miles square, 1794-1799. Sub-lieutenant, First Company, Third Battalion, First Regiment Grenadiers, Royal Legion of Mixed Militia of the Mississippi, 1792. Alcalde, Third Division, New Feliciana, 1794-1808. Died, January 8, 1808; interred Stirling Cemetery, Beechwood Plantation in present-day West Feliciana Parish, La. E.K.D. Sources: Jack D. L. Holmes, Marcha de Gálvez; American State Papers; Stirling Family Papers.

STITH, Gerard, mayor of New Orleans. Born, Fairfax County, Va.; son of Griffin Stith and Mary Dent Alexander. Worked first as a printer in Washington, D. C.; later employed by Washington Globe. Married Clara Morsell of Washington, D. C., daughter of Judge Morsell. Four children. Removed to New Orleans, 1845. Foreman of composing room, New Orleans Daily Picayune, 1845-1856; foreman of composing room, New Orleans Daily Delta, 1862; foreman of composing room, Picayune, ca. 1863-1880. First president, New Orleans Typographical Union; subsequently served several terms as union president. Active in American (Know-Nothing) party. Member, New Orleans City Council, 1854-1856; recorder, City of New Orleans, 1856-1858; mayor of New Orleans, 1858-1860. Administration noteworthy because he was first mayor of New Orleans to bring to office a public improvements program; member, New Orleans City Council, 1860-1862; arrested by Federal authorities and imprisoned at Fort Pickens, Fla., for voting to give city funds to Confederate Gen. Mansfield Lovell (q.v.), 1862. Died, Wytheville, Va., June 10, 1880; interred Virginia. C.A.B. Sources: New Orleans Daily Picayune, June 13, 1880; Goodspeed's Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Louisiana (1892); Jon Smith Kendall, History of New Orleans (1922).

STODDARD, Amos
, soldier, author. Born, Woodbury, Conn., October 26, 1762. Enlisted in the Continental Army in 1779 and served until the end of the war; legal career in Maine interrupted by military service during Shay's Rebellion; after a term in the Massachusetts legislature, accepted a commission, 1798, in the regular army. After Louisiana Purchase, was commissioned civil and military commandant of Upper Louisiana; acting as agent for France, he received Upper Louisiana from Spain in a ceremony at St. Louis on March 9, 1804; the next day he formally raised the United States colors. During brief tenure as acting governor of Louisiana from March 9, 1804, to September 30, 1804, he emphasized the maintenance of good relations with the French-speaking population and sought to locate and preserve the colonial archives. Re-assigned to Lower Louisiana, Stoddard toured the country and collected material on its physical and cultural geography, which he incorporated into his Sketches, Historical and Descriptive, of Louisiana (1812). During War of 1812 worked on the defenses of Fort Meigs, where wounded in action and died of tetanus, May 11, 1813. R.C.V. Sources: Louis Houck, History of Missouri, 3 vols. (1908); Stoddard MSS, Missouri Historical Society.

STOER, Newton Blanchard
, realtor, civic leader. Born, Mugginsville (now part of Shreveport), La., April 9, 1891. Education: attended Mrs. Kate Nelson's seminary; St. John's Catholic High School; Centenary College. Entered the real estate business in the office of J. G. Hester, his brother-in-law. Opened his own office, N. B. Stoer, on May 1, 1914. During World War I was six months in Officers Candidate School in Atlanta. Founder and first president of the Shreveport-Bossier Board of Realtors. Served on the Louisiana State Real Estate Board. Belonged to the Elks Club; Shreveport Club; Petroleum Club; Shreveport Lions Club; and the Shreveport Chamber of Commerce. Died, Shreveport, April 7, 1982. M.A. Sources: Shreveport Magazine, May 1977; Shreveport Times, April 9, 1978; April 15, 1978.

STONE, Sarah Katherine (Kate)
, diarist, author of Brokenburn: The Journal of Kate Stone, 1861-1868. Born, Mississippi Springs, Miss., January 8, 1841; daughter of William Patrick Stone and Amanda Susan Ragan. Education: Dr. Elliott's Academy, Nashville, Tenn. Removed to Louisiana in her youth and began her journal of the Civil War on May 15, 1861, continued diary through September 28, 1868. Married, December 8, 1869, at Walton Bend Plantation, Henry Bry Holmes. Children: Emmet, William (a former district attorney), twins, Kate Bry (died in infancy) and Amanda Julia. Active in civic life of Tallulah, La., throughout her adult life. Assisted in organizing the Madison Parish Book Club, partly responsible for the Tallulah Confederate memorial, and founded the Madison Infantry Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. Died, Tallulah, December 28, 1907. K.D.* Sources: John Q. Anderson, ed., Brokenburn: The Journal of Kate Stone, 1861-1868 (1955); Edmund Wilson, Patriotic Gore (1962).

STORCK, Ambrose Howell, physician, general surgeon, and teacher. Son of Jacob Ambrose Storck, M. D. and Minnie Edna Howell Storck. Education: Newman and Boys High School; Tulane University, B. S., 1923; Tulane School of Medicine, M. D., 1925; postgraduate training, Tulane School of Medicine, M. S., 1934. Thesis: "The Relative Values of Simple Release of Obstruction and Stripping of the Intestine in the Treatment of Acute Mechanical Obstruction." Internship at Charity Hospital of Louisiana, New Orleans, 1925-1926; Admitting Officer, 1926-1927; House Surgeon, 1927-1931. Certified American College of Surgeons, October 21, 1932; and American Board of Surgery, November 20, 1946. Practiced and taught general surgery in New Orleans from 1931 to 1973 at Tulane University School of Medicine and Charity Hospital of Louisiana at New Orleans, except for active military duty, March 1942 to March 1946. Enjoyed promoting medical research and public preventive medicine activities. Took a broad view of urban life, appreciating the need for historical preservation amidst the disappearing folkways and native customs of Louisiana. Assisted development of a rural life museum at Louisiana State University. Died, July 9, 1975; interred Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans. J.P.M. Sources: Rudolph Matas Medical Library, Tulane University Medical Center; letter, Robert F. Ryan, M. D., representative of the Department of Surgery, to the author, June 15, 1982; American Men and Women of Science, editions 9-12; Orleans Parish Medical Society Bulletin, XLVI (1975).

STOW, John, pioneer. Born, South Carolina, January 3, 1780; married Dorcas Freeman of North Carolina. Children: Abraham, Talitha Anderson, and Mary Roane. Lived in Tennessee and Arkansas before removing to Ft. Miro (present-day Monroe), La., 1802. Obtained Spanish land grant, first permanent settler in hill country east of Ouachita River. Established farm seven miles northeast of present city of Ruston, near Lincoln-Union parish line. Claimed to have had first farm in North Louisiana hills, lived under three flags during first crop, 1803. Died, July 28, 1861; interred Stow Cemetery, Ruston-Farmerville highway (La. 33). P.C.C. Sources: John D. Calhoun, "Notes on John Stow: Pioneer Planter of North Louisiana," North Louisiana Historical Association Journal, X (1979); Ruston Daily Leader, September 26, 1973; May 22, 1979; interview, Col. John D. Calhoun, October 1, 1982.

STREET, Henry, adjutant general. Born, Brooklyn, N. Y. Arrived in New Orleans as member of Seventh New York Regiment during Civil War. Settled in New Orleans at war's end. Active in Republican politics; held a position in the Office of Internal Revenue. Commanded First Regiment, Knights of Pythias, with rank of colonel. A Mason. Appointed adjutant general of Louisiana, November 13, 1872, by Gov. Henry Clay Warmoth (q.v.) and also served under Governor Kellogg (q.v.). Died, New Orleans, 1897; interred Brooklyn, N.Y. TAG, LA Source: Author's research.

STUART, Ruth McEnery, author. Born, near Marksville, La., May 21, 1849. Daughter of James McEnery and Martha Routh. Family lived in New Orleans part of the year and on the Avoyelles Parish plantation at other times. Educated in New Orleans; taught school briefly in the city. Married Alfred Oden Stuart, widower, from Washington, Ark. Stuarts owned two plantations populated by many blacks. Child: Stirling McEnery Stuart who died at 21 in 1881. Husband died after four years and the author moved to New York where she continued to write about plantation people. Wrote several dozen plantation stories and verse over a period of twenty-three years. Among the most important are Daddy Do-Funny's Wisdom Jingles, A Golden Wedding and Other Tales; Carlotta's Intended; In Simpkinsville; Sonny, Napoleon, George Washington Jones, and Plantation Songs. Died, New York, May 16, 1917. S.E. Source: Ruth McEnery Stuart Collection, Manuscripts Department, Special Collections Division, Tulane University Library.

STUBBS, William Carter
, agriculturist. Born, Gloucester County, Va., December 7, 1843; son of Jefferson W. Stubbs and Ann Walker Carter. Education: William and Mary College; Randolph-Macon. Civil War: served in Confederate Army. After war, returned to academics; degree in science, University of Virginia, 1868. Professor of Natural Sciences, East Alabama College, 1869-1872; professor of Chemistry, Alabama A & M College, 1872-1885. Removed to Louisiana; organized, 1885, the Louisiana sugar experiment station in Kenner, then in New Orleans. Served as director of this facility until retirement in 1905. Also became professor of Agriculture, Louisiana State University, and director of state experiment station. In 1886 named state chemist. Named director, 1887, North Louisiana experiment station, Calhoun, La. In 1892 authorized by legislature to make geological survey of Louisiana. Same year named director of newly established Audubon Sugar School. Although never a sugar planter, was instrumental in the modern development of the industry in Louisiana. Wrote extensively on cultivation of sugarcane and the manufacture of sugar; a recognized authority on these subjects. Served as the executive commissioner for Louisiana at several national expositions. Founder of the Louisiana State Museum. An ardent genealogist, wrote several books on Virginia families. Married, July 28, 1875, Elizabeth Saunders of Mobile. No children. Died, New Orleans, July 7, 1924. G.R.C. Sources: National Cyclopedia of American Biography, XXIV; Who Was Who in America, 1897-1942.

STUBBS, William King
, architect, planter. Born, Monroe, La., December 31, 1909; son of Guyton Palmer and India King Stubbs. Education: Monroe public schools; Tulane University, Bachelor of Architecture degree, 1931; pledged DKE fraternity, was member of the T Club and captain of the tennis team. Received architectural license, 1936. Married Sue Graves, 1936. Children: Sue Graves, William King, Jr., and John Howell. Upon release from the United States Navy resumed practice in Monroe; firm responsible for building many churches, public buildings, and homes in Louisiana, Arkansas, and Mississippi. Associated with father in cultivation of pecans, serving as executive director of Stubbs Pecanland, Inc. Member, American Institute of Architects; Bicentennial Commission in Monroe; Bayou DeSiard Country Club; Masonic Lodge; Mayflower Society; and Rotary Club; on board of directors of Lotus Club; member and former vestryman, Grace Episcopal Church; served as a director of First Federal Savings and Loan Association and Central Bank of Monroe. Died, October 30, 1986; interred Old City Cemetery, Monroe. F.L.M. Source: Author's research.

SUDDUTH, H. E.
, banker. Veteran of World War I. Married Marie Williams of Many, La. Children: Joseph and Ann Sudduth Middleton. President, Bank of Saline, Saline, La., 1928-1958. Died, December 7, 1959. G.L.B. Source: Mrs. J. O. Evans, Saline, La.

SULAKOWSKI, Valery
, civil engineer, soldier. Born in Poland, 1827. As young revolutionary, took part in Hungarian rebellion led by Louis Kossuth against Austria, 1848; upon collapse of uprising, immigrated to America. Civil War service: took command of First Regiment, Polish Brigade, organized by Maj. Gaspard Tochman at Camp Pulaski near New Orleans, 1861; First Regiment (later redesignated Fourteenth Louisiana Infantry) was rushed to Virginia to bolster Gen. John B. Magruder's Army of the Peninsula. Assigned command of Seventh Brigade, comprised of Fourteenth and Fifteenth Louisiana regiments; fortified defensive positions along Warwick River; resigned commission over alleged failure of Confederate government to promote him. Sulakowski's fortifications proved to be formidable obstacle to advance of Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac. Service in Texas: In 1863, Sulakowski returned to duty as military engineer to Gen. Magruder, now commanding District of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona; fortified Texas coastline from Sabine Pass to Brownsville against seizure by Union forces. In 1864, proposed bold plan to raise Polish Legion of 30,000 men for the South; Confederate government approved but plan failed to materialize. Although Magruder recommended Sulakowski for promotion, he did not rise above rank of colonel. In post-bellum life, became surveyor for U. S. Land Office in Louisiana. Married, but evidently no offspring. Died unexpectedly, New Orleans, June 19, 1873. F.C.K. Sources: Francis C. Kajencki, "The Louisiana Tiger," Louisiana History, XV (1974); references to Sulakowski in Official Records of the War of the Rebellion; Napier Bartlett, Military Record of Louisiana (1964); New Orleans Times, obituary, June 20, 1873.

SULLIVAN, William Henry (Colonel Bill), forester. A Canadian, removed to Louisiana 1907 to supervise construction and operation of Great Southern Lumber Company sawmill, Bogalusa, La. First sawmill constructed of steel and world's largest sawmill with capacity of one million board feet of lumber per day. Adopted the reforestation policy of Henry Hardtner (q.v.) in 1920; planted 800 acres with loblolly pine seed; over 23,000 acres planted with slash pine seedlings by time of Sullivan's death, 1929. A.C.B. Source: Author's research.

SULLY, Thomas
, architect. Born, Mississippi City, Miss., November 24, 1855; son of George Washington Sully and Harriet Jane Green. Largely self-trained, began architectural studies in office of Lahnour and Wheelock, Austin, Texas. Also studied with H. R. Marshall and J. Morgan Slade, New York architects. Opened office, New Orleans, 1881. Married, 1884, Mary Eugenia Rocchi. One daughter. Designed many large residences, especially on St. Charles Avenue in New Orleans, also public buildings, New Orleans and elsewhere, including the Hennen (Maritime) Building, the original Whitney Building, Milliken Memorial Hospital, and St. Charles Hotel, all in New Orleans; Vicksburg Hotel, Vicksburg, Miss.; Shreveport Charity Hospital, Shreveport; Caffery Sugar Mill, near Franklin, La. Grand-nephew of the painter Thomas Sully. Member: Boston Club, Elks, and Southern Yacht Club. Died, New Orleans, March 14, 1939. B.L. Sources: The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, X; New Orleans Times-Picayune, March 15, 1939.

SUMMERLIN, George Thomas
, diplomat. Born, Rayville, La., November 11, 1872; son of John S. Summerlin and Mary Davis. Education: Louisiana State University; West Point Academy, graduated, 1896. Military service in the Spanish-American War and Philippine insurrection. Resigned as captain of cavalry, 1904. Married Henrietta Virginia Loomis, 1900. Three children, one son and two daughters. Instructor at West Point, 1900-1903; clerk in State Department, 1909-1910; second secretary, Tokyo, 1910-1911; second secretary, Peking, 1911-1914; secretary, Santiago, Chile, 1914-1917; secretary, Mexico, 1917-1919; chargé d'affaires, Mexico, 1919-1924; counsellor, Rome, 1925; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Honduras from March 12, 1925, to December 27, 1929; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Venezuela from September 11, 1929, to January 15, 1935; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Panama from December 10, 1934, to July 7, 1937; at the State Department, 1937-1946. Member, American Geographical Society; Army and Navy Club, Washington, D. C.; India House, New York. Died, Bethesda, Md., July 1, 1947. T.D.S. Sources: National Cyclopedia of American Biography, XLIII; Henry E. Chambers, A History of Louisiana (1925); U. S. Department of State, United States Chiefs of Mission, 1778-1973 (1973).

SUMMEY, George
, clergyman, journalist, academic. Born, Asheville, N.C., June 3, 1853. Married Elisabeth Rebekah Worth of Asheville, December 15, 1875. Children: Caroline Arthur (Mrs. A. B. Dinwiddie), Albert, George, Mary Williamson (Mrs. Cleve Smith). Education: University of Georgia, Davidson College, B. A., 1870; M. A., 1873, LL. D., 1900; Union Theological Seminary of Virginia, B. D., 1873. Early pastorates: Bolivar, Tenn., 1873-1875; Covington, Ky., 1875-1880; Graham, N. C., 1881-1884; Purity Church, Chester, S. C., 1884-1892. Chancellor, Southwestern Presbyterian University, then at Clarksville, Tenn., 1892-1903. Removed to New Orleans, 1903, as editor of the Southwestern Presbyterian and pastor of the Third Presbyterian Church, which he served until 1928. The Southwestern Presbyterian was sold to the Presbyterian of the South in 1909, and Dr. Summey continued as contributing editor of that journal. Professor, Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary, 1927-1940. Moderator, Synod of Louisiana, 1911, Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, U. S., 1925, highest office in the denomination. Secretary, Board of Trustees for Presbyterian Publications until 1951. Died, February 21, 1954, after a ministry of more than eighty years, and four careers, as pastor, college president, editor, and seminary professor. W.D.L. Sources: E. C. Scott, Ministerial Directory of the Presbyterian Church, U. S., 1861-1951; Penrose St. Amant, A History of the Presbyterian Church in Louisiana (1961).

SWAYZE, Rachel, antebellum plantation mistress and correspondent. Born in either New Jersey or Mississippi, March 13, 1774; location uncertain because of family's removal from New Jersey to Mississippi; daughter of Stephen Swayze, Jr., and Rachel Hopkins. After father's death, mother married William Weeks, probably in Natchez, ca. 1778. Rachel thereby became half-sister of David Weeks (q.v.), master of several plantations in the Teche country. Married (1), 1789, Richard Bell. Child: Stephen (d. 1821). Removed to Feliciana to take up land grant to Bell, 1791. Married (2), 1797, Hercules O'Connor. Child: James. Survived both sons. Operated O'Connor's 500-acre plantation after his death in 1821 and until her death. Corresponded frequently with her half-brother, David Weeks, about her trials and tribulations as a plantation mistress. Rachel's correspondence is the subject of Avery O. Craven's Rachel of Old Louisiana (1975) and Allie Bayne Windham Webb's Mistress of Evergreen Plantation (1983). Died, Memphis, Tenn., May 22, 1846. E.K.D. Sources: Frances Preston Mills, The History of the Descendants of the Jersey Settlers, Adams County, Mississippi, 2 vols.; Avery Craven, Rachel of Old Louisiana (1975); American State Papers; West Feliciana Parish Records; Weeks Family Papers.

SWORDS, Marion L.
, law enforcement officer. Born, Big Cane section of St. Landry Parish, La., February 24, 1857; son of James T. Swords and Mary E. Morse. Married Ola V. Ward, daughter of T. C. Ward of Avoyelles Parish, La., in 1879. Children: Merrick W., Mary (Mrs. C. H. Masters), Collins V., Alex W., and Rosalie. Engaged in saw milling, steamboating, plantation work and clerking; was a merchant in Pointe Coupée Parish at age 21; flood of 1882 destroyed his business; was a cotton seed factor for ten years. Chairman, parish Democratic Central Committee; led parish fight against the Louisiana Lottery; appointed assessor and registrar of voters in 1892; jailed for refusing to register Negroes; his position sustained by state supreme court; in 1896 led the fight for white supremacy in St. Landry Parish; elected sheriff in 1900 and served for sixteen years. Member, Opelousas Lodge 1048, B.P. O. E., Hope, Hook and Ladder Company, Baptist church. President of Sheriffs' Association for twelve yeras. Killed, July 17, 1916, as he was trying to arrest a fugitive in Mallet Woods; interred Protestant cemetery, Opelousas, La. J.B.C. Sources: St. Landry Clarion, obituary, July 22, 1916; New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, July 18, 1916.

SYLVESTER, Harold Joseph
, educator, civic leader, politician. Born, Opelousas, La., August 23, 1921; son of Robert Lee Sylvester and Alice Himes. Education: local schools; Southwestern Louisiana Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana); Louisiana State University. Received degrees in Agriculture and Education. Married, June 9, 1944, Helen Carey, of Mt. Holley, N. C., daughter of William Henry Carey and Perlie Poole. Children: Sandra, Robert, Terry, Debra, Ronnie, Kenneth and Alice. St. Landry Parish clerk of court, 1964-1977. Active in St. Landry Parish Classroom Teachers Association, St. Landry Parish Teachers Association, University of Southwestern Louisiana Alumni Association, and member of the USL board of governors. Member: Our Lady of Mercy Council of the Knights of Columbus; Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, serving as past exalted ruler of the Opelousas Elks lodge; past district deputy grand exalted ruler, past state president of the Louisiana Elks Association; Louisiana Clerks of Court Association. Died, Opelousas, September 10, 1977; interred St. Landry Cemetery. K.P.F. Sources: Opelousas Daily World, obituary, September 11, 1977; Sylvester Family Papers, Louisiana Secretary of State Testimonial, September 15, 1977.

SYPHER, Jacob Hale, congressman. Born near Millerstown, Perry County, Pa., June 22, 1837. Education: Alfred (N.Y.) University, 1859. Taught school in Cleveland, Ohio. During the Civil War entered the Union Army as a private in Company A, First Ohio Light Artillery. Promoted to rank of first lieutenant of Company B, October 8, 1861; resigned February 3, 1864; later, on August 11, 1864, served as colonel of the Eleventh United States Colored Heavy Artillery; brevetted brigadier general of Volunteers March 13, 1865, "for faithful and meritorious services during the war"; honorably mustered out October 2, 1865. After the war bought a plantation in northern Louisiana, but about two years later commenced the study of law; admitted to the bar and practiced in New Orleans. Delegate to the Republican National Convention at Chicago in 1868; upon readmission of the state of Louisiana to representation was elected as a Republican to Congress and served from July 18, 1868, to March 3, 1869; contested the subsequent election of Louis St. Martin (q.v.) to Congress, but the House decided that neither was entitled to the seat. Subsequently elected to Congress to fill the vacancy thus created; reelected to Congress and served from November 7, 1870, to March 8, 1875, when he was succeeded by Effingham Lawrence (q.v.), who contested the election. Unsuccessful candidate for election, 1874. Resumed the practice of law in Washington, D. C.. Died, Baltimore, Md., May 9, 1905; interred Arlington National Cemetery. J.B.C. Source: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950).

SZYMANSKI, Ignatius
, soldier; exchange agent for prisoners of war between North and South during the Civil War. Born, Poland, 1806. Participated in Polish uprising against Russia, 1830-1831; immigrated to United States about 1833. Contributed to Harro Haring's Poland Under the Domination of Russia, 1834. Removed to New Orleans, 1835, owner of plantation, a cotton press, race-horse stable and yacht. Became colonel of the Chalmette Regiment of Louisiana, 1861, and in April, 1862 sent to the Quarantine Station below New Orleans to impede approach of Federal fleet. Szymanski surrendered with his men and his boat to Federal gunboat Cayuga. Later paroled, applied for permanent position in Confederate Army, while temporarily assigned acting assistant inspector general, headquarters, First District, Department of Mississippi & Eastern Louisiana, Jackson, Miss., where he was also commanding paroled and exchanged prisoners. Became acting assistant adjutant general, January 1863, and on May 15, 1863, appointed to Confederate States Army with rank of major. Became assistant adjutant general and assistant agent of exchange for prisoners of war, District of Trans-Mississippi, with headquarters, at Alexandria, La., and commander of the parolee camp at nearby Pineville. For nearly a month after the war ended he was still military agent of prisoner-exchange. After that records of his activity as a civilian are not readily available. Died, New Orleans, 1874. L.S. Sources: Jerzy Jan Lerski, A Polish Chapter in Jacksonian America (1958); Mieczyslaw Haiman, Historia Udzialu Polaków w Amerykanskiej Wojnie Domowej (History of the Participation of the Poles in the American Civil War); John D. Winters, The Civil War in America (1963); The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies; Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion.





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