Guidelines for Writers
Dictionary of Louisiana Biography
» Dictionary A
» Dictionary B
» Dictionary C
» Dictionary D
» Dictionary E
» Dictionary F
» Dictionary G
» Dictionary H
» Dictionary I
» Dictionary J
» Dictionary K
» Dictionary L
» Dictionary M
» Dictionary N
» Dictionary O
» Dictionary P
» Dictionary Q
» Dictionary R
» Dictionary S
» Dictionary T
» Dictionary U
» Dictionary V
» Dictionary W
» Dictionary Y
» Dictionary Z
Louisiana History Journal


SABATIER, George Joseph, physician. Born, December 12, 1862; son of Eugene Joseph Sabatier and Amelie Garrigue. Education: Springhill College, Mobile; Medical Department, Tulane University, M. D., 1889. Interned, Charity Hospital, New Orleans. Married, June, 1897, Gussie Lynette Gayle, daughter of Dr. Augustus Carfield Gayle and Cassie Ruark. No children. Practiced medicine in New Iberia for nearly fifty years. Known for the fact that he did not send his patients a statement of his fees, but relied on their integrity for compensation. An active civic leader and businessman. President of the Attakapas Medical Society and later of the Iberia Medical Society. A member of the American Medical Association. With other businessmen, financed the first oil activity in the New Iberia area during World War I. Died, New Iberia, June 17, 1944; interred St. Peter's Cemetery. M.S.B. Source: Medical Heritage Portraits of Iberia Parish.

SAENGER, Julian Henri
, businessman. Born, Norfolk, Va., 1873. Removed with father, the rabbi of B'Nai Zion Congregation, to Shreveport in 1890. With brother became drugstore clerk; in the late 1890s they established the Saenger Drug Company which became the first twenty-four-hour drugstore in Shreveport. In 1911 the brothers organized the Saenger Amusement Company and operated movie and vaudeville theatres in Shreveport. Together with the Ehrlich Brothers, they built the Strand Theatre of Shreveport. During the 1920s they established the offices of the Saenger Amusement Company in New Orleans and operated over 300 theatres throughout Louisiana, the South, and the Caribbean. The chain was sold to Paramount Publix in 1928. Married; one adopted son. Member of B'Nai Zion Temple. Died, New Orleans, February 6, 1932; interred Hebrew Rest, Shreveport. A.S.T. Sources: Lilla McLure and J. Ed Howe, History of Shreveport and Shreveport Builders (1937); Ben Bicknell Oral History Interview, Louisiana State University-Shreveport Archives; Judd Tooke Oral History Interview, LSU-S Archives; obituary, Shreveport Times, February 8, 1932.

SAGRERA, Isaac Wise, farmer, rancher, trapper, pelt expert. Born, Chênière au Tigre, Vermilion Parish, La., July 22, 1894; son of Dr. Raphael E. Sagrera (q.v.) and Alice Anna White (q.v.). Education: learned locally to read and write English and French. Served in France, 1918, during World War I. With brother, Raphael (q.v.), formed company known as Sagrera Brothers; between 1914 and 1966, farmed rice, cotton, corn, beans, wheat, milo; raised cattle, hogs, sheep; trapped furbearing animals and hunted alligators for their hides. Skilled in the recognition of fine furs and hides. Became a buyer of hides and pelts in the area. Member: American Legion, Veterans of Foreign Wars. Served on several Vermilion Parish committees on soil and water conservation, drainage projects. Received Cattleman of the Year Award from Vermilion Cattlemen's Association, 1967. Married Cecile Trahan, 1927. Children: Mary and Joseph (twins), Nelson Roy, Shirley, Austin Isaac, George Dallas, Hilda Ann. Died, Abbeville, La., August 1, 1968; interred St. James Cemetery, Esther, La. A.S.H. Source: Author's research.

SAGRERA, Raphael E., physician. Born, New Orleans, April 10, 1847; son of Raphael Sagrera, a native of Spain, and Clara Mercedes Martin of Paris, France. Education: University of Louisiana (now Tulane University), M. D., 1869. Served the people of the Gulf Coast chênières from Chênière au Tigre to Cameron as doctor of medicine traveling by boat, on foot and horseback, from 1869-1910. Carried on experiments as a horticulturist with orchard fruits; pioneered in the successful treatment of cattle diseases on the Gulf Coast; was also a cattleman, owning his first herd in 1886. Superintendent of education, Vermilion Parish Schools, 1878-1880, taught school on the chênières. Was a devoted Catholic serving as religious leader on the chênières in the absence of priests. Married (1) Alzina DeFrance in 1880. Married (2) Alice Anna White (q.v.), October 31, 1890. Children: Raphael Semmes (q.v.), Gertrude (Sister Mechtilde), Isaac Wise, Clare Mercedes, Alice May, George Dewey, M. D., Solomon Rex, Margaret Elizabeth, Andrew Jackson, Walter Teurlings, D.D.S., and Seraphine Georgette. Died, Abbeville, La., December 24, 1910; interred family cemetery, Chênière au Tigre. A.S.H. Sources: Letters from Dr. Raphael E. Sagrera to wife Alice White Sagrera; interviews with family members; History of Vermilion Parish (1983); medical journals of Dr. Raphael E. Sagrera.

SAGRERA, Raphael Semmes
, businessman, conservationist. Born, Chênière au Tigre, Vermilion Parish, La., June 25, 1891; son of Raphael E. Sagrera (q.v.) and Alice Anna White (q.v.). Education: Chênière au Tigre and St. Stanislaus, Bay St. Louis, Miss. Owner and operator of health resort on Chênière au Tigre, 1914-1956. Staunch promotor of better education for the youth of the chênières. Business partner with brother, Isaac (q.v.), 1914-1966, law enforcement agent, rancher, conservationist, farmer, trapper of fur and alligators, pioneer in fighting cattle diseases on the Gulf Coast, active in politics, serving on many state agricultural committees. Pioneer in the cultivation and restoration of wastelands; urged the cultivation of rice, soybeans, milo (grain sorghum), wheat on lands that had remained wastelands from timber cutaway. Active in the preservation of the coastal wetlands serving as an authority on the necessity of environmental quality for protection of life and growth. Received the Vermilion Parish Cattleman's Award, December 9, 1964, for service to the cattle industry. Resided on Chênière au Tigre, in Esther, and Bonita, La. Married Mary Zoe Cessac, August 28, 1912. Children: Alice Amanda, Raphael Charles, Anthony Semmes, Mary Zoe, Mary Olga, Lloyd George. Died, Monroe, La., June 23, 1966; interred St. James Cemetery, Esther, La. A.S.H. Sources: Interviews; Abbeville Meridional; Bastrop (La.) Daily Enterprise, November 7, 1960-September 22, 1966; The Bastrop (La.) Clarion, October 29, 1960-November 6, 1960.

SAINT, Percy, attorney, jurist, politician. Born, Franklin, La., May 8, 1870; son of Ellen Jane DuBose and John Davidson Saint, both of Alabama. Education: local private schools; attended University of Alabama, 1888-1890; Tulane University law school, graduated 1893. Married (1) Mary Isabel Thorp, April 12, 1898; no children. Married (2) Cora Lee McCardell, daughter of Lavinia Pelichet and Thomas McCardell, December 7, 1903. Children: Percy DuBose and Mary Isabel. Admitted to the bar, 1893; served two years as a messenger in Congress; began law practice in Franklin; editor of Franklin paper, The Vindicator News, 1898-1900; elected to state house of representatives, 1916; district attorney of Twenty-third Judicial District, 1907-1920; district judge, 1920-1924; assigned to civil district court in New Orleans, 1922; elected state attorney general, 1924; was one of the few state officials elected independently of the Huey Long (q.v.) ticket when elected to second term as attorney general, 1928; ruled that Governor Long should not have sent troops to raid gambling houses in Jefferson Parish without first declaring martial law; ruled that the impeachment proceedings instituted by some legislators against Long were constitutional; retired from politics, 1932. Member, commander, National Attorneys General Association; chairman, national crime commission; member, New Orleans and state bar associations; Elks Club; awarded 50-year membership certificate by the Masons; one of his political speeches was published in the January 1925 Louisiana Historical Quarterly. Died, New Orleans, August 13, 1958; interred Franklin, La. J.B.C. Sources: Who Was Who in America, V, 630; Percy Saint, "Thomas Jefferson and Government by Party," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, VIII (1925), 41-51; New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, August 14, 1958; Morgan City Archives, Morgan City, La.

ST. AMANT, Lyle Stanhope
, marine biologist. Born, Gonzales, La., April 10, 1915. Education: Gonzales High School; Louisiana State University, B.S. 1935; M. S., 1938; Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill., Ph. D. During World War II, served in the United States Navy Medical Corps, in the South Pacific theater, where he had been assigned to research insect-borne tropical diseases. His entire last year of military service was devoted to teaching at the Naval Medical Center. On March 1, 1946, joined the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. Engaged as a project leader of a group of biologists taking a census of the wildlife indigenous to Louisiana. Task involved not only making a survey of the different wildlife found in each parish, but also entailed the preparation of data reflecting the specific environment of each creature. A prolific writer, with more than a hundred technical publications credited to his authorship; first survey, however, provided him with the basis for his most important work, Louisiana Wildlife Inventory (1959). Remains the basic wildlife textbook and guide for the state of Louisiana, and it serves as a model for the proper management and preservation of all the wildlife resources of the state. Married Monroe Young of Alabama. Children: Joseph Lyle Stanhope St. Amant, a lawyer; Dr. Catherine Adair St. Amant (McClugage), M. D.; and Dr. William Clark St. Amant, M. D. During his career with the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, St. Amant served in various capacities: project leader of the Wildlife Census, 1946-1955, Oyster, Water Bottoms, and Seafood Division, 1955-1959; chief marine biologist and director of Marine Research Laboratory, Grand Terre Island, 1959-1962, chief, Oyster, Water Bottoms Seafood Division, 1962-1971; assistant director, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, 1971-1976; and assistant secretary of the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries from 1976 until his retirement on June 30, 1980. Recipient of many awards and honors: Governor's Award for Outstanding Professional in Fisheries Conservation, 1964; Alabama Fisheries Association's Outstanding Contributor to Fisheries, 1969; appointment to Federal Marine Affairs Action Group by Walter J. Hickel, secretary of the interior, 1970; chairman emeritus, Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, 1981. Died, December 21, 1981. Wildlife and Fisheries Commission bestowed upon him its greatest honor. In 1985, the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries' Grand Terre Research Facility renamed the "Dr. Lyle S. St. Amant Marine Laboratory." J.E.M. Sources: McFadden Duffy, "Dr. St. Amant," Louisiana Conservationist, (March/April, 1982); Interview with Mrs. Monroe St. Amant, August 1, 1986.

, soldier, administrator. Born, Montreal, Canada, ca. October 16, 1698; son of Robert Groston de St. Ange and Marguerite Crevier de Bellerive. Named to replace Jean-Baptiste Bissot, sieur de Vincennes as commandant of the Wabash River Valley 1736; commandant of Fort Vincennes, 1736-1764; named capitaine reformé, September 1, 1738; commissioned captain, October 15, 1748; replaced Jean-Baptiste Neyon de Villiers as commandant of the Illinois district, June 10, 1764; transferred possession of Fort de Chartres and the portion of Illinois country east of the Mississippi River to British representatives, October 10, 1765; subsequently led migration of remaining French soldiers and most French settlers to St. Louis, Mo.; served as acting commandant of the west-bank territory above the Arkansas Post, 1765-1771; served as a captain in the Spanish garrison at St. Louis during declining years. Adept at Indian diplomacy, he helped Louisiana's caretaker French administration to distance itself from Pontiac's uprising; subject is also credited with keeping upper Louisiana loyal to Spain during the 1768 New Orleans Rebellion. Did not marry. Died, St. Louis, December 27, 1774. C.A.B. Sources: Alphabet Laffilard, folio 71; Etat général et apostillé des officiers entretenus à la Louisiana, 1758. France. Archives Nationales, Archives des Colonies, 50:63vo-64; Howard H. Peckham, Pontiac and the Indian Uprising (1947); Carl J. Ekberg, Colonial Ste. Genevieve (1985); Dictionary of American Biograpy, XVI.

ST. CLAIR, Charles Henry, businessman, mayor of Morgan City, La., historian. Born, Albion, N.Y., August 8, 1836; son of Charles Northrup St. Clair and Elmina Baldwin St. Clair. Education: Albion Academy. Migrated to Louisiana, 1858, pilot and captain on riverboats. Served during the Civil War on Union Army transport and dispatch ships; settled in Brashear City (present-day Morgan City), established steam laundry, 1872, catering to Morgan Railroad and Steamship Line. Appointed city treasurer in 1873; elected mayor in 1874 and re-elected mayor in 1879 serving eight years during which he handled emergency quarantine and organized a board of health, sanitary measures, care of sick, and burial of dead during the 1878 yellow-fever epidemic in Morgan City. Served 1880-1884 in Louisiana legislature; appointed secretary-assessor of Morgan City from 1899 to 1905. Married, at Trinity, La., October 30, 1866, to Mary Alice Johnson of New Albany, Ind. Child: Charles Arthur St. Clair (1873-1915). Master Mason and lifetime member Linnwood Lodge #167, New Orleans. Wrote a five volume genealogy, The St. Clairs in Europe and America, and history of Morgan City, poetry, and sheet music. Died, October 25, 1911; interred Morgan City Cemetery. L.K.L. Source: St. Clair Family Papers in Morgan City Archives.


ST. CYR, John Alexander "Johnny," jazz banjoist/guitarist. Born, New Orleans, April 17, 1890. During the years ca. 1905-1923 played with various groups, including Jules Baptiste, Manuel Gabriele, Freddie Keppard, "Papa" Celestin (q.v.), Kid Ory (q.v.), Armand Piron, Fate Marable (on riverboats), etc. Early in his career led his own group, called Consumer's Trio. Settled in Chicago in 1923 and/or recorded with Louis Armstrong (q.v.), King Oliver (q.v.), Charles Cooke, and "Jelly Roll" Morton (q.v.) among others. In New Orleans, 1929-1955. Worked as a plasterer, but played regular part-time with Paul Barnes, Chester Zardis, Steve Lewis, Alphonse Pecou and Paul Barbarin. Winner Record Changer All Time Star poll on banjo, 1951. Also recorded Johnny St. Cyr and His Hot FIve. Settled permanently on the West Coast in 1955. Guested with many bands, played regularly with New Orleans Creole Jazz Band in Los Angeles. Wife, Flora. Eight children. Died, Los Angeles, June 17, 1966. H.C. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune , obituary, June 18, 1966; John Chilton, Who's Who of Jazz (1972); Who Was Who in America, 1961-1968 (1982); Eileen Southern, Biographical Dictionary of Afro-American and African Musicians.

ST. JULIEN, Elie Aurelien, planter, vigilante. Born on father's plantation near Broussard, La., October 8, 1805; son of Louis "Cadet" St. Julien and Anastasie Broussard, pioneers of the Attakapas District. Married Marie Josephine Broussard, January 3, 1828. Children: Marie Aurelie (b. 1830), Julien (b. 1832), Lucille (b. 1834), Marie Celestine (b. 1836), Numa (b. 1838), Lucien (b. 1840), Jules (b. 1841), Marie Louise (b. 1843), Emelie (b. 1845), Marie Estelle (b. 1847), and Eloi Dupré (b. 1849). Became a prosperous planter in Cote Gelée area (Broussard, La., area), but is best known for prominent role in organizing the vigilante committees in the Attakapas to deal with increasing lawlessness and banditry in the area. Assumed leadership of the Committee of Cote Gelée and played an active role in suppressing outlaws. Known by the honorary title of "major." His activities described in classic work of Alexandre Barde (q.v.) on these subjects. Died, Lafayette Parish, La., September 13, 1865. D.C.E. Sources: Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana, 33 vols. (1974-1984); Henrietta Guilbeau Rogers, trans., The Vigilante Committees of the Attakapas by Alexandre Barde (1981); James Roy Ducrest, History of the St. Julien Family.

ST. LAURENT, Madame Roume de
, musician, businesswoman. Born, Dorsianne Monge, Guadeloupe, F.W.I., December 1, 1811; daughter of François Monge (1750-1826). Married Roume (St. Rose) de St. Laurent, from Trinidad, on January 9, 1826. Her brother Ed. Monge, was a prominent judge in the Attakapas. For many years she was the organist at St. Martin of Tours Church in St. Martinville. But she is best remembered for the boarding house and finishing school she ran for young girls, Le Pensionnet de Madame de St. Laurent, at the corner of present-day Main and Gary streets in St. Martinville from 1845-1874. Like others in St. Martin Parish, she suffered extensive losses at the hands of stragglers and foragers during the two Union invasions of 1863. D.C.E. Sources: Teche News, August 17, 1961; Madame St. Laurent v. The United States, No. 483, French and American Claims Commission, National Archives; Henrietta Guilbeau Rogers, trans., The Vigilante Committees of the Attakapas by Alexandre Barde (1981).

ST. MARTIN, Louis, businessman, politician, congressman. Born, St. Charles Parish, La., May 17, 1820; son of Pierre Bauchet St. Martin III and Celestine Perret. Education: St. Mary's College, Mo.; Jefferson College, La. Entered notarial office of H. B. Cenas. Elected, 1846, to state legislature. Married, 1848, Louisa Perret, daughter of Drausin and Louisa Perret. Children: Louis Albert, Joseph Robert, Eusebe (died in infancy), Corinne, Stephanie, Aimée, and Berthe. Appointed register of Land Office, Southeastern District of Louisiana, by President Polk. Elected to state house of representatives, 1846. Elected as a Democrat to Congress, 1851. After one term returned to New Orleans; entered commerce. Appointed registrar of voters in New Orleans. Reelected to Congress in 1866; denied seat on grounds Louisiana had not been readmitted to Union. Elected to Congress in 1868; again denied seat on grounds that election was not valid. Elected, as a Democrat, and seated in Forty-ninth Congress, 1885-1887. Delegate to Democratic conventions in 1852, 1868, 1876, and 1880. After Congress, connected with office of public accounts in New Orleans. Died, New Orleans, February 9, 1893; interred St. Vincent de Paul Cemetery. G.R.C. Sources: New Orleans Daily Picayune, February 10, 1893; Alcée Fortier, Louisiana . . . , 3 vols. (1914); Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (Washington, D. C., 1950), p. 1773; Stanley Clisby Arthur, Old Families of Louisiana (1931; reprint ed., Baton Rouge, 1971).

ST. MARTIN, Pierre Auguste Bauchet jurist, politician. Born, New Orleans, January 26, 1761, son of Pierre Bauchet St. Martin, a merchant of New Orleans, and Charlotte Gallot. Probably privately tutored. On May 19, 1785, in St. Louis Cathedral, New Orleans, married (1) Genevieve Thérèse de Callogne, daughter of Louis Antoine de Callogne and Marie Thérèse Carrière. Children: Aimée, who married Dr. Yves LeMonnier, and Pierre Bauchet St. Martin III, who married Celestine Perret. Married (2), in St. Charles Parish, September 7, 1791, Marianne Perret, daughter of Alphonse Perret, Sr., and Marianne Pujol. In the 1790s, served as syndic in St. Charles Parish. Appointed May 20, 1807, first judge of St. Charles Parish by Gov. William C. C. Claiborne; served as judge until 1811. Upon Louisiana's admission to the Union in 1812, elected from St. Charles Parish to serve in the state's first legislature, which convened in New Orleans. By a vote of 13 to 11 was chosen to be speaker of that assembly. Following his service in the first state legislature, he returned to St. Charles Parish. Died, November 26, 1830; interred Edgard, La. D.J.P. Sources: St. Louis Cathedral, New Orleans, La.; Stanley Clisby Arthur, Old Families of Louisiana (1931; reprint ed., 1971); St. Charles Parish civil records; Moniteur de la Louisiane, May 20, 1807 (Tulane University); Louisiana Archives and Records Service, Baton Rouge, La.; St. John the Baptist Church, Edgard, La.

ST. MARTIN, Thaddeus I.
, physician. Born, Bayou Dularge, Terrebonne Parish, La., September 4, 1886. Education: private and public schools, Houma, La.; Tulane University, medical degree; interned at Charity Hospital. Specialist in radiology. Served abroad in World War I. Published Madame Toussaint's Wedding Day (1936). After World War II, besides medical work, devoted time to developing land and became a realtor. Made gifts of property, rights of way, servitudes, etc. Retired from medical profession, 1955. Married Gladys Davidson. Died, November, 1968. M.C.E. Source: International World Who's Who, 1948-1949.

ST. MAXENT, Gilbert Antoine, merchant, Indian agent. Born, Longy, France, April 1724; son of Gilbert Antoine St. Maxent and Elizabeth Le Cocq. Emigrated to French Louisiana, ca. 1744. Business activities: operated New Orleans mercantile firm, 1749-1794; awarded government monopoly to trade with Illinois Indians, 1763; received land grant covering Chef Menteur area of New Orleans, 1763; sponsored settlement of St. Louis with commercial partner Pierre Laclède (q.v.), 1764. Married, 1749, Elizabeth La Roche, of New Orleans. Children, including Marie Elizabeth, wife of Luis de Unzaga (q.v.), and Marie Félicité (q.v.), wife of Bernardo de Gálvez (q.v.). Government service: named official Spanish Indian Commissioner by Alejandro O'Reilly (q.v.), 1770; fought in the campaigns of Bernardo de Gálvez, 1779-1781; named commander of the Louisiana Militia, 1783. Died, New Orleans, August 8, 1794; interred St. Louis Cemetery. L.T.C. Source: James J. Coleman, Jr., Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent: The Spanish-Frenchman of New Orleans (1968).

ST. MAXENT, Marie Félicité (Felicítas)
, viscountess of Gálvez-Town, countess of Gálvez. Born, New Orleans, December 27, 1755; daughter of Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent (q.v.), prominent New Orleans merchant, and Elizabeth La Roche. Member of one of Louisiana's most illustrious families. Three of her sisters gained prominence through marriage. Her eldest sister, Marie Elizabeth (Isabel) married Luis de Unzaga (q.v.), governor of Louisiana and captain-general of Cuba. Younger sisters Victoire (Victoria) married Juan Antonio de Riaño (q.v.), intendant of Guananjuato, and Antoinette Marie (María Ana) married Manuel de Flon (q.v.), condé de La Cadena, intendant of Puebla. Félicité was first married to Jean-Baptiste Honoré Destréhan, son of the former French treasurer in the colony. Their only child, Adélaïde, married Benito Pardo de Figeroa, who later served as the Spanish minister in St. Petersburg in 1812. Following Destréhan's death, and that of his father, she became an extremely wealthy widow. On November 2, 1777, she married Bernardo de Gálvez (q.v.), newly appointed governor of Louisiana. Three children: Matilda (b. 1778 in New Orleans); Miguel (b. 1782 in Haiti); and Guadalupe (b. 1786 in Mexico City). She followed her husband first to Cuba and later on to Mexico City in 1785, when he became viceroy of New Spain. She became a condesa when Gálvez was raised to the peerage on March 28, 1783. Contemporary Mexican sources describe her as beautiful, cultured, and charming. Following the death of her husband on November 30, 1786, she moved to Madrid and was joined there by her mother, and her widowed sister Isabel. At one of the many tertulias she gave in Madrid certain uncomplimentary things were said about the queen which may have contributed to Félicité's exile from Madrid between 1790 and 1793. Died in Madrid, ca. 1800. B.C. Sources: Eric Beerman, "The French Ancestors of Félicité de St. Maxent," Revue de Louisiane/Louisiana Review, VI (1977); María del Carmen Galbis Diez, "Bernardo de Gálvez," in Virreyes de Nueva España (1968); John Walton Caughey, Bernardo de Gálvez in Louisiana, 1776-1783 (1934); James J. Coleman, Jr., Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent (1968).

ST. ROMES, Joseph Charles, journalist. Born, Port-au-Prince, Saint-Domingue, 1790 or 1791. Removed to New Orleans before 1815; fought in Battalion of Orleans during Battle of New Orleans, 1815; edited and published Courrier de la Louisiane, 1815-1843; published Donaldsonville Creole (probably published in New Orleans), 1816. Served as state printer, 1817-1823, 1839, 1842; also served as printer of the city of New Orleans. Married Marie Therese Vion (d. 1882), his niece, 1822. Died, New Orleans, August 21, 1843. F.M.J. Sources; Samuel Joseph Marino, "The French-Refugee Newspapers and Periodicals in the United States, 1789-1825" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1962); Ronald R. Morazan, Biographical Sketches of the Veterans of the Battalion of Orleans, 1814-1815 (1979); obituary, New Orleans Commercial Bulletin, August 22, 1843.

SAINTE CROIX, Marie Fourant
, religious, photographer. Born, Clermond Ferrand, France, April 1, 1854. Entered the Ursuline Convent at Beaujeu, February 1873. Took the habit a few months later, at age 19, under the name Marie de la Ste-Croix. Arrived New Orleans, November 1873. Took her final vows a year later in the Chapel of Our Lady of Prompt Succor. Studied photography with Rev. Albert Bievier, S. J., and E. Claudel, a local optician and amateur photographer. Photographed mainly between 1880 and 1912, though she continued working into the 1920s, documenting the life in the second Ursuline Convent (at Poland Avenue and the River), and after 1912, the new convent on State Street. Taught photography as well as French, embroidery, and the making of wax flowers and fruits. Her photographs were exhibited at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, Mo. Died, July 15, 1940, New Orleans. M.A. Sources: D. Eric Bookhardt, "The Mysterious World of Mother St. Croix," New Orleans Times-Picayune, Dixie Magazine, October 31, 1982; Anne E. Peterson, "Louisiana Photography: An Historical Overview, 1880-1940," in A Century of Vision: Louisiana Photography, 1884-1984, ed. by Herman Mhire (1986).

, portraitist. Born, Mérida, Yucatán, mid-eighteenth century; son of Salvador de Salazar and Feliciana Ojeday Basquez. Married in Yucatán, Maria Antonia Magana, daughter of Antonio Magana y La Cerda and Francisca Xaveria de Hollos Conejo. Removed to New Orleans, 1782. Children: Francisca Salazar y Magana, José Salazar (b. 1781), José Casiano Salazar (b. 1784-d. 1793), Ramón Rafael de la Crus Salazar (b. 1791); family was living on St. Philip St., 1791. Wife died June 24, 1793; Salazar himself died August 15, 1802, in New Orleans; left will dated March 4, 1801. His portraits are rare surviving works from eighteenth-century Louisiana; some important subjects among his signed portraits: Andrés de Almonester y Roxas (q.v.), 1796, and Bishop Luis Ignacio María de Peñalver y Cardenas (q.v.), 1801. P.O. Sources: Spanish census of New Orleans, November 6, 1791; Louisiana State Museum, José Salazar, Louisiana's Eighteenth-Century Portrait Artist, October, 1981; The Historic New Orleans Collection, Encyclopaedia of New Orleans Artists, 1718-1918 (1987).

SALCEDO, Manuel Juan de, governor. Believed to have been born in Spain ca. 1743, and entered the army at about age 16. Approximately fifty-six years old when a royal order appointed him governor of Louisiana in November 1799. He was then king's lieutenant on Tenerife, in the Canary Islands. His journey to Louisiana took from August 1800 to July 1801, during which time his wife died in Cuba. The last Spanish governor of Louisiana, his term lasted from July 14, 1801, to November 30, 1803. Faced numerous problems as governor of Louisiana during the era when Spain resolved to return the colony to France. Shortages of funds and troops worked to prevent vigorous programs to strengthen Louisiana. Salcedo, moreover, sought to profit from his post, acting with his son Manuel María and Nicolas María Vidal. He quarreled frequently with the cabildo, Lt. Col. Carlos Howard, commandant of the Louisiana Regiment, Intendant Juan Ventura Morales (q.v.), lawyer Joseph Martínez de la Pedrera, and Prefect Pierre Clément, baron de Laussat (q.v.). Many contemporaries, including the captain general of Cuba, regarded him as incompetent. For better or worse, he remained alone as governor for two years, checked only by the captain general of Cuba, his immediate superior. In May 1803, the marqués de Casa Calvo (q.v.) arrived to assist in turning the colony over to France and, in many ways, assuming responsibility. Salcedo spent much of his time in Louisiana requesting promotions for himself and his two sons as well as a transfer to the Canaries. Upon the United States assuming control of Louisiana, Salcedo departed with the rank of brigadier, a 3,000 peso annual pension, and posts for his sons in the Canaries. It is believed that he died there. G.C.D. Sources: John Edward Harkins, "The Neglected Phase of Louisiana's Colonial History: The New Orleans Cabildo, 1769-1803" (Ph. D. dissertation, Memphis State University, 1976); Spain. Archivo General de Indias, Papeles de Cuba, legajos 1553, 1554ab, 1555, 1556.

SALLIER, Charles, also known as Carlos Salia and Charles Savoyard, pioneer. Born ca. 1773 in the Diocese of Chambery, Savoy, France; son of Michel Sallier (Salia?) and Jeanne Monmayor. Married (1) Angelica Fontenot, January 13, 1792. One child: Philonse (b. 1794). Migrated to western Louisiana and settled in what is now Calcasieu Parish. Reputedly first white settler of Lake Charles. Lake came to be called "Charles' Lake" and then "Lake Charles." Married (2) Marie Catherine LeBleu, daughter of Barthélémy LeBleu and Maria Josepha Lamirande, August 9, 1802. Children: Joseph Charles (b. 1805), Ozite (b. 1812), Sidalise (b. 1810), Anselm (b. 1814), Severine (b. 1816) and Denise (b. 1819). Date of Sallier's death is unrecorded, but estate succession was opened in Opelousas, July 23, 1825. T.S. Sources: Lake Charles American Press; Records of estate successions, St. Landry Parish Courthouse.

SALMON, Edme Gatien, administrator. Served in French Louisiana from 1732 to 1744; shared authority over agriculture and commerce with Bienville (q.v.); attempted to improve the morals of the colony; was active in efforts to encourage the colonists to improve their economy; offered incentives and subsidies to small planters to encourage production of indigo; attempted to locate or devise a successful cotton gin by urging the minister of marine to offer grants to inventors; sought to initiate trade with the Spanish by sending André Fabry de la Bruyière (q.v.) on an expedition to follow the Canadian River from the Arkansas Post westward toward Santa Fé. After his departure the colony entered a period of neglect by the French crown. J.B.C. Souces: Jack D. L. Holmes, "Indigo in Colonial Louisiana and the Floridas," Louisiana History, VIII (1967); Daniel H. Thomas, "Pre-Whitney Cotton Gins in French Louisiana," Journal of Southern History, XXXI (1965); Martha Royce Blaine, "French Efforts to Reach Santa Fé: André Fabry de la Bruyère's Voyage Up the Canadian River in 1741-42," Louisiana History, XX (1979).

SALOOM, Mrs. Kaliste Joseph, businesswoman. Born, Deir El Kamar, Lebanon, November 1, 1892; daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Michael Frem Boustany. Arrived in Lafayette, La., 1907 as bride of Kaliste Saloom (d. February 3, 1925). With husband, established clothing store, 1910. In 1960 store cited by Lafayette Chamber of Commerce as oldest home-owned retail establishment in continuous operation for 50 years. Honored by Lafayette Business and Professional Women's Club for her outstanding career as a businesswoman and widowed parent. Donated land for Kaliste Saloom state highway, for establishment of Lafayette's Kaliste Saloom Fire Station, and for other civic purposes. Active in League of Women Voters, St. Mary's Orphanage Guild, and American Legion Auxiliary. Charter member of Lafayette Azalea Trail and supported efforts of Lafayette Ladies Garden Club. Sustaining member of University of Southwestern Louisiana Foundation for many years. Children: Alice Marie (b. 1909), Clarence Joseph (b. 1910), Beatrice (b. 1915), Mary Agnes (b. 1916), Kaliste J., Jr. (b. 1918), Isabelle (b. 1920), Richard G. (b. 1924). Died, Lafayette, September 8, 1979; interred St. John's Cathedral Cemetery. R.S. Sources: "The First Families of Lafayette"; Lafayette Daily Advertiser, September 9, 1979.

SAMUEL, David B.
, attorney, jurist, politician. Born, Little Rock, Ark., 1874. Education: Peabody High School, Little Rock; University of Arkansas Law School. Removed to Shreveport, 1900. Married Blanche Daniel, of Lonoke, Ark. One daughter. Active in Democratic party; member of Louisiana legislature, 1908-1916; Shreveport city judge, 1916-1937. Member: B'Nai Zion Jewish congregation, Shreveport; Louisiana Bar Association; American Bar Association; El Karubah Shrine Temple, Shreveport; Shreveport Elks Lodge #122; Shreveport Masonic Lodge #115; Knights of Pythias; Woodmen of the World. Died, May 24, 1937; interred Stoner Avenue Jewish Cemetery, Shreveport. A.S.T. Sources: Lilla McLure and J. Ed Howe, History of Shreveport and Shreveport Builders (1937); J. Ed Howe, comp., Shreveport Men and Women Builders (1931); Shreveport Times, obituary, May 25, 1937; Shreveport Journal, obituary, May 24, and 25, 1937.

SAN MALO, Juan, leader of the most notorious band of runaway slaves to terrorize Louisiana during the Spanish regime. Living in the swamp region east of New Orleans, the maroons made their headquarters at Gaillard; from 1780 to 1784, the Spanish mounted a thorough campaign to eradicate this menace to the settlers; finally captured in 1783 along with more than 100 maroons, San Malo was condemned to "death by hanging" by alcalde ordinario Mario de Reggio and executed on June 19, 1784. D.N.K. Sources: Laura L. Porteous, "Index to the Spanish Judicial Records of Louisiana," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XVI (1933); XX (1937); "Records of the Cabildo," Book 2; Book 3, I; Book 3, II; Bouligny-Baldwin Papers, Document A3, Bouligny to the King, July 26, 1784, Special Collections, Tulane University; Caroline Burson, The Stewardship of Don Esteban Miró, 1782-1792 (1940); Gilbert C. Din, "Címarrones and the San Malo Band in Spanish Louisiana," Louisiana History, XXI (1980).

SANDERS, Albert Godfrey
, academic. Born, Georgetown, Tex., September 17, 1885. Education: local schools; Southwest University (Texas); Yale University, and Oxford. Married, 1918. Four children. Professor of Romance Languages, Millsaps College, Jackson, Miss. Academic specialties: the age of Louis XIV and Spanish fiction since 1890. With Dunbar Rowland (q.v.), he edited and translated the Mississippi Provincial Archives: French Dominion (5 vols.), also translated documents concerning the impeachment of Bienville (q.v.) in 1708, the African slave trade in Louisiana, 1718, and the Crozat regime which appeared in the Louisiana Historical Quarterly. Member: Modern Language Association, Association of American Rhodes Scholars, and South Central Modern Language Association. Died, 1974, Jackson, Miss. M.S.L. Sources: Directory of American Scholars: A Biographical Directory, 5th ed. (1969); Harry P. Dart, "Editor's Chair: The Splendid Work of Rowland and Sanders in the French Archives of Louisiana," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XII (1920).

SANDERS, Jared Young
, attorney, journalist, politician, governor, congressman. Born near Morgan City, La., January 29, 1869; son of Jared Young, II, and Elizabeth Wofford. Education: schools of Franklin, La.; St. Charles College, Grand Coteau; Tulane University Law School, LL. B., 1893. Editor and publisher of the weekly Franklin paper, St. Mary Banner, 1890-1893. Began the practice of law in Franklin in 1893; firm later included his cousin, former governor Murphy J. Foster (q.v.). Married (1), May 31, 1891, Ada Veronica Shaw, of Fouke, Ark., daughter of Rev. J. F. Shaw. One child: Jared Y., Jr. (q.v.). Divorced, 1912. Married (2), 1914, Emma Dickinson, of New Orleans. Active in Democratic party; member, Louisiana house of representatives from St. Mary Parish, 1892-1896; 1898-1904; speaker, Louisiana house of representatives, 1900-1904; delegate Louisiana constitutional convention, 1898; lieutenant governor, 1904-1908; governor, 1908-1912. First Louisiana governor elected under the state's new primary law; known as "the father of the good-roads movement in Louisiana" to his followers. U. S. senator (Louisiana legislature elected him to finish the term of Samuel D. McEnery (q.v.), July 5, 1910, but resigned to remain in office as governor in unsuccessful effort to secure New Orleans as the site for the World's Panama Exposition). Resumed law practice, 1912-1914; naval officer of the Port of New Orleans, 1914-1916. Removed to Bogalusa, La., 1916, member U. S. Congress, Sixth Congressional District, 1917-1921. Delegate Louisiana constitutional convention, 1921; delegate Democratic National Convention, 1924. Unsuccessful candidate for U. S. Senate, 1926. Bitter opponent of the Huey Long (q.v.) administration. Member: Presbyterian church. Died, Baton Rouge, March 22, 1944; interred Franklin. W.D.P. Sources: Roy R. Glashan, American Governors and Gubernatorial Elections, 1795-1978 (1979); Mary E. Sanders, "The Political Career of Jared Young Sanders, 1892-1912" (M.A. thesis, Louisiana State University, 1955); Miriam G. Reeves, Governors of Louisiana (1980); Robert Sobel and John Raimo, Biographical Directory of the Governors of the U.S. (1978).

SANDERS, Jared Young, Jr.
, politician, civic leader, congressman. Born, Franklin, La., April 20, 1892; son of Jared Y. Sanders (q.v.), governor of Louisiana, and Ada Shaw Sanders. Education: public schools; Dixon Academy, Covington, La.; Louisiana State University, graduated 1912; attended Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va., 1912-1913; Tulane University, LL. B. 1914. Admitted to the bar, and began practice of law in Bogalusa. Removed to Baton Rouge. Served in army in France, 1918-1919, as captain. Married, October 5, 1921, Mary Briggs, of Little Rock, Ark., daughter of C. H. and Eugenia Tate Briggs. Daughter: Mary Elizabeth. Active in Democratic party; elected to Louisiana house of representatives for term beginning 1928; elected to state senate for term beginning 1932. Active as opposition leader to Huey P. Long (q.v.). Long was accused in the impeachment proceedings brought against him as governor of involvement in a plot to kill Sanders. Elected to the United States House of Representatives to fill a vacancy in 1934, re-elected to a full term in 1934, and served from May 1, 1934, to January 3, 1937. Defeated for renomination in 1936. Attended meetings in 1935 to plan anti-Long ticket for state elections. Long accused him of involvement in a plot to assassinate him. Although their political conflict was bitter, there is no evidence that either ever plotted to murder the other. Sanders was again elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1940; defeated for renomination in 1942. Attended Democratic National conventions, 1940 and 1944. Practiced law in Baton Rouge. Unsuccessful candidate for presidential elector on States' Rights ticket in 1960. Active Mason, served as Deputy Grand Master of Grand Lodge of Louisiana, 1960. Member: Church of Christ, Scientist. Died, Baton Rouge, November 29, 1960; interred Roselawn Memorial Park. W.R.S. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1971 (1971); Official Congressional Directory, 77th Congress, 1st Session (1943); Henry E. Chambers, A History of Louisiana: Wilderness-Colony-Province-Territory-State-People (1925); Encyclopedia of American Biography, New Series, Volume XXXVII; T. Harry Williams, Huey Long (1969); Jared Y. Sanders Family Papers, Louisiana State University; New York Times, obituary, November 30, 1960.

SANDERS, Nelson, evangelist, social leader. Born a slave in Virginia, ca. 1810. Sanders was sold south to New Orleans in 1833, and later managed to purchase his freedom through the "hiring out" system. Sanders immediately began to revive the all-black Baptist congregation originally begun by his black predecessor Asa C. Goldsbury (q.v.). With the help of six other black evangelists, he organized New Orleans' second all-black church. His congregation of slaves and free coloreds was frequently harassed by local authorities in the late 1830s. Eventually Sanders was permitted to conduct weekly meetings under the careful supervision of a police officer, who was paid two dollars an hour for witnessing the afternoon worship ceremony. In 1844, Sanders purchased a lot in the vicinity of Howard Avenue and Cypress Street for the construction of a permanent church building. New Orleans' "First African Baptist Church" was the only black religious establishment in Louisiana to actually own property. Sanders' congregation numbered perhaps more than 300 persons, or three times the number of Baptists attending the city's single white church. As an antebellum Louisiana black leader, Sanders is generally ranked second to "Father" Joseph Willis (q.v.) of the Opelousas region. Died, ca. 1870. T.F.R. Source: Timothy F. Reilly, "Religious Leaders and Social Criticism in New Orleans, 1800-1861" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Missouri at Columbia, 1972).

, physician. Son of Mr. and Mrs. O. L. Sanders, Sr. of Pleasant Hill, La. Associated with Allen Sanitarium, 1936-1961; highly respected in the medical field for his diagnostic abilities; nephew of Dr. W. G. Allen, founder of the hospital. Married Rita M. Sanders. Children: Sidney Sanders and Elsie Rita Sanders Crapanzano; brothers include retired chief justice of Louisiana Supreme Court Joe W. Sanders, Frank Sanders, Fred Sanders; sisters: Ozie Lee, Lola Mae Sally. Died, January 20, 1961; interred Pleasant Hill Cemetery. J.H.P. Source: Sabine Index, January 27, 1961.

SANDERS, Thomas Inglo, sheriff of Tangipahoa Parish. Born, Amite, La., January 29, 1913; son of Newton Augustus Sanders and Syrena Watson. Educated in local schools, Louisiana State University, FBI National Academy. Military service, captain, U. S. Army, 1942-1946. Married Mary Eva Stewart; two children, Thomas Stewart and Mary Margaret. Sheriff, Tangipahoa Parish, 1948-1968. Died, Amite, La., March 20, 1983. F.K. Source: Author's research.

SANDIDGE, John Milton
, congressman. Born near Carnesville, Ga., January 7, 1817. Removed to Louisiana and became a planter; served as colonel in the Mexican War. Member of the state house of representatives, 1846-1855, and served two years as speaker. Served in U. S. Congress from March 4, 1855, to March 3, 1859. Served throughout the Civil War as colonel of Bossier Cavalry; surrendered the archives of the state to the federal authorities in the absence of Gov. Henry W. Allen (q.v.). Died, Bastrop, La., March 30, 1890; interred Christ Church Cemetery. J.B.C. Source: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950).

SANDLIN, John Nicholas, congressman. Born near Minden, La., February 24, 1872; son of Irene McIntyre and Nicholas J. Sandlin, a native of North Carolina. Education: public schools; Minden Normal School and Business College; studied law privately and was admitted to the bar in 1896. Commenced practice in Minden; prosecuting attorney for the Second District, 1904-1910; judge of the same district, 1910-1920. Married (1) Ruth Reems (d. 1911). One son, John N., Jr. Married (2), 1913, Mrs. Emma Lou (Palmer) Crichton. Delegate to the Democratic National Convention at St. Louis in 1916; elected to Congress as a Democrat and served from March 4, 1921, to January 3, 1937. Was not a candidate for renomination in 1936, but was an unsuccessful candidate for nomination as U. S. senator; engaged in the practice of law. Died, Minden, La., December 25, 1957; interred Minden Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1971 (1971); Henry E. Chambers, A History of Louisiana (1925).

SANDOZ, David François, master carpenter. Born, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, April 24, 1802; son of David François Sandoz and Marianne Mauley. Married, July 10, 1833, at St. Martinville, La., Claire Christine Labbé of St. Martin Parish, daughter of Vincent Labbé and Claire Ozenne. Children: Cesaire (b. 1834), Marie Amélie (b. 1842), Hilaire David (b. 1842), David Charles (b. 1843), Joseph Sevigne (b. 1846), Marguerite Mathilde (b. 1854). Built Belle Cherie, 1850 (destroyed by fire, 1985), his home La Maison Duchamp (1876), home of his daughter Amélie and her husband Eugène Auguste Duchamp in St. Martinville, La. Died December 4, 1877; interred St. Michael's Cemetery, St. Martinville. J.G.B. Sources: St. Martin de Tours archives and author's research.

SANDOZ, Joel Henri, journalist. Born, Dombresson, Canton of Neuchâtel, Switzerland, December 13, 1817; son of Jean Henri Sandoz and Susanne Amez-Droz. The family immigrated to America in 1829, to St. Martinville, La. Married Anne Wilburn of Perry's Bridge, present-day Vermilion Parish, La., in 1842, daughter of John Wilburn and Sarah Ward, at Lafayette, La. Children: Gabriel Leonce (b. 1844); Louis Adolphus (q.v.); Walton Alphonse (b. 1848). Founder (1852) of Opelousas Courier (French-English) a consolidation of Opelousas Gazette (founded 1826) and St. Landry Whig (1844) which published continuously until 1910; associate editor of Opelousas Gazette, first in St. Landry Parish with George Addison. During Union occupation of Opelousas in 1863, the Courier plant was confiscated, senior Sandoz and son Leonce jailed at Opelousas; in the same year, Joel Sandoz was re-arrested as "traitor" and sent to prison in New Orleans. Sandoz relinquished control of the Courier to his two eldest sons in 1870 who alternately were editors until suspension in 1910 after 58 years in the same family. Died January 5, 1878; interred St. Landry Catholic Cemetery, Opelousas. M.S.B. Sources: W. J. Sandoz, "History of the Sandoz Family, 1353-1929"; Sandoz Newspaper Files at Louisiana State University, University of Southwestern Louisiana, Loyola of the South; unpublished "History of the Sandoz Family" by Lelia Sandoz, granddaughter of subject; David C. Edmonds, Yankee Autumn in Acadiana (1979).

SANDOZ, Louis Adolphus
, journalist. Born, Opelousas, La., September 9, 1846; son of Joel Henri Sandoz (q.v.) and Anne Wilburn. Married Susanne Alice Lelia Gil, daughter of William Gil and Ameline Boutté. Children: William Joel; Ada Marie, married Joseph A. Sabatier; Louis Stuart; Mabel Louise, married George Devaughn Wright; Gordon Adolphus; Gertrude Pearl; Lelia Alice; Bayard James; Ralph Henry; George Ellis; Robert E. Lee Hilton. With brother, Gabriel Leonce (b. 1844), published the Opelousas Courier, 1870-1910. Upon retirement engaged in critical translation of French legal documents in St. Landry Parish recorder's office. Died, Opelousas, September 25, 1915; interred St. Landry Catholic Cemetery. M.S.B. Sources: Unpublished history of Sandoz family; Lelia Sandoz, daughter of subject; Sandoz newspaper files; W. J. Sandoz, "History of the Sandoz Family."

SATTERFIELD, Richard, evangelist. Assisted Rev. Nelson Sanders (q.v.), another black clergyman, in founding New Orleans' "First Baptist Church" in 1844. T.F.R. Source: Timothy F. Reilly, "Religious Leaders and social Criticism in New Orleans, 1800-1861" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Missouri at Columbia, 1972).

SAUCIER, Corinne Lelia, folklorist. Born in Avoyelles Parish, 1890. Education: Louisiana State Normal School (now Northwestern State University), teacher's diploma, 1914; taught, 1914-1918, and served as principal, 1918-1922, in Avoyelles Parish school system. Attended George Peabody College for Teachers, B. S., 1922; M. A. (French), 1923 (thesis: "Louisiana Folk Tales and Songs in French Dialects, with Linguistic Notes"); diplôme d'études, Université de la Sorbonne, 1929. Taught French and Spanish at College of St. Scholastica, Duluth, Minn., summer session, University of Chicago, 1929; attended Columbia University, 1930-1931; taught French and Spanish at Northwestern State University of Louisiana, 1931-1955; Ph. D. (folklore), Université Laval, 1949 (dissertation: "Histoire et traditions de la paroisse des Avoyelles en Louisiane"); published several works on Louisiana culture and history, including History of Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana (1943); Traditions de la paroisse des Avoyelles en Louisiane , Memoirs of the American Folklore Society, no. 47 (1956); Histoire et géographie des Avoyelles en Louisiane (1956); and Folk Tales from French Louisiana (1962). Contributed to Pioneer Women Teachers of Louisiana (1954); member, American Association of University Women, American Association of University Professors, Delta Kappa Gamma Honor Society, Modern Language Association, American Folklore Society; listed in Who's Who in American Education (1955-1956). Died, Natchitoches, La., February 1, 1960. B.J.A. Sources: Author's research; Irene Wagner, "Introduction" to Folk Tales from French Louisiana (1962).

SAUNDERS, Lafayette
, attorney, jurist, politician. Born in North Carolina, ca. 1790; son of Col. William Saunders, Revolutionary aide to General Lafayette (q.v.). Married Mary Smith, a niece of Mrs. Andrew Jackson. Arrived Feliciana, ca. 1815 and began practice of law. Removed to Jackson, La., 1817, and Clinton, La., 1824; served as judge of first parish court of East Feliciana, 1824-1834; member, first board of trustees, College of Louisiana, Jackson, 1825; member, Louisiana legislature 1840s; contractor, East Feliciana Courthouse, 1839-1841; member Louisiana constitutional convention, 1844-1845; would have been named to Zachary Taylor's (q.v.) cabinet had he lived. Died, 1848; interred Clinton, La. E.K.D. Sources: East Feliciana Public Records, Elrie Robinson, Early Feliciana Politics (1936); Ann Reiley Jones, Baton Rouge, La.

SAUNIER, Adias, civic leader, politician. Born, Delcambre, La., May 20, 1915; son of Rodolph Saunier and Lezida Suarez. Education: local schools; McNeese State University, Lake Charles, La.; Radio and Television Institute, Chicago, Ill. Removed to Sulphur, La., 1916. Married Lenore Owens, Lake Charles, daughter of Amos Owens and Edna Franklin, of Slagle, La. Children: John (b. 1937), James (b. 1942), Lenora (b. 1950). Active in Democratic party; Sulphur mayor, 1950-1962, 1966-1978; member, past vice-president, Louisiana Municipal Association (LMA), Seventh District; LMA Distinguished Service Award; LMA Mayor of Distinction, 1958; with Louisiana Department of Highways, 1962-1966. Member, Pentecostal church. Imperial Calcasieu Regional Planning and Development Commission; Civil Defense; West Calcasieu Association of Commerce; past president, Rotary Club (twenty-five years perfect attendance); Sulphur Lodge 424 F. & A.M. and Habibi Shrine; Woodmen of the World. Died, Sulphur, May 11, 1984; interred Mimosa Pines Cemetery, south of Sulphur. G.S.P. Sources: Lake Charles American Press, May 12, 1984; The Southwest Builder News, May 13, 1984; Saunier Family Papers.

SAUVOLE, M. de, explorer, commander. Born, France; identity of parents unknown. Held dual ranks of ship's ensign and lieutenant in Bellecourt's company of marines, 1699. Sailed to Louisiana aboard the Marin in Iberville's (q.v.) first expedition to Louisiana, 1699. Accompanied Iberville and Bienville (q.v.) on their exploratory forays along the Mississippi and Alabama coasts, February, 1699. Participated in Iberville's ascent of the Mississippi River, February-March, 1699; assumed command of the expedition when Iberville set out to investigate the Manchac-Amite-Lake Pontchartrain route to the gulf, March 24, 1699. Ordered by Iberville to take soundings at mouth of Mississippi while returning to French ships anchored near Ship Island, but was unable to comply because of bad weather. Appointed commandant of Fort Maurepas by Iberville, May 2, 1699. After assuming command of the post, devoted most of his time to fostering good relations with neighboring Indian tribes, to organizing small expeditions to explore the Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama coastal areas, and to maintaining the rapidly deteriorating wooden fort, 1699-1701. Died, Fort Maurepas, August 22, 1701. C.A.B. Sources: Jay Higginbotham, "Who Was Sauvole?," Louisiana Studies, VII (1968); Carl A. Brasseaux, trans. and ed., A Comparative View of French Louisiana, 1699 and 1762: The Journals of Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville and Jean-Jacques-Blaise d'Abbadie (1979); Jay Higginbotham, trans. and ed., The Journal of Sauvole: Historical Journal of the Establishment of the French in Louisiana by M. de Sauvole (1969).

SAVOY, Cora May Segura
, chemist, educator. Born, New Iberia, La., December 11, 1912; daughter of Jacob Smith Segura, Sr., and Eula Lucille Taylor. Education: local schools, Southwestern Louisiana Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana); Newcomb College; University of Texas; University of Wyoming; University of London. Married, May 9, 1942, Ives A. Savoy. Children: One adopted daughter, Sylvia. Professor of Chemistry for forty-seven years at the University of Southwestern Louisiana. Member, Methodist church. Died, Lafayette, September 22, 1979; interred Rosehill Cemetery, New Iberia. P.M.S. Source: Author's research.

SAXON, Elizabeth Lyle, writer, suffragette. Born, Greenville, Tenn., December 2, 1832; daughter of Clarissa Crutchfield and Andrew Lyle. Education: tutored in Tuskegee, Ala., by author Caroline Lee Hentz. Married Lydall A. Saxon of Laurens District, S. C., January 4, 1849, in Wetumpka, Ala. Children: Walter Lyle, Hugh A., Lyle, and Ina. Grandmother of author Lyle Saxon (q.v.). Began writing poetry at age twelve; her poems, short stories, and sketches were published in various newspapers, 1853-1857; wrote A Southern Woman's War Time Reminiscences which was privately printed in 1905; Poems of Elizabeth Lyle Saxon, a small book of poetry collected by her son Lyle, was published after her death. One of the "Southern Mothers" who raised money, sewed, and nursed soldiers during the Civil War. President, Ladies Physiological Association which won fame for their work during the New Orleans yellow-fever epidemic of 1878. Her letters and articles on behalf of woman's suffrage, published in 1878 and 1879, were far in advance of those times; her speech before the Louisiana constitutional convention was published in the June 11, 1879, New Orleans Times; addressed the United States Senate Judiciary Committee during her tour of the eastern states with Susan B. Anthony in 1880; organized fifty societies of the Women's Christian Temperance Union in 1882; became state president of the Tennessee Suffrage Association in 1885; delivered the opening address to five thousand women of the International Council of Women in Washington, D. C., 1882; returned to New Orleans and in September, 1892, led a successful protest against the Harman Ordinance, which proposed the licensing of prostitutes; was editor of the New Orleans Item's labor department in the late 1890s. One of the first women in the South to speak and write on work reforms for women and children; in 1900, was president of the Portia Club, a New Orleans suffrage group founded by Caroline Merrick (q.v.). Member, Century Club, Seattle; First Congregational Church, Memphis. Died, Memphis, Tenn., March 14, 1915. J.B.C. Sources: Carmen Lindig, The Path from the Parlor, Louisiana Women, 1879-1920 (1986); The National Cyclopedia of American Biography, XVI, 207; New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, March 16, 1915.

SAXON, Lyle, author, journalist, bon vivant, raconteur. Born, Billingham, Wash., September 4, 1891; son of Hugh Allan Saxon and Katherine Chambers; grandson of Elizabeth Lyle Saxon (q.v.), New Orleans suffragette and newspaperwoman, and Michael Chambers, Baton Rouge bookstore owner and city treasurer. Education: Baton Rouge schools; attended Louisiana State University, 1908-1912. Salesman, Mobile, Ala., 1912-1913; teacher, Pensacola, Fla., 1913-1914; free-lance writer, Baton Rouge and New Orleans, 1914-1917; reporter, Chicago Daily News, 1917; reporter, New Orleans Item, 1918-1919; director of Personal Service, Federal Board of Education, 1919; reporter, feature writer, columnist, New Orleans Times-Picayune, 1919-1924, 1926; commissioned by Century Magazine to cover Mississippi flood, 1927; state director, Louisiana Federal Writers' Project, Works Progress Administration, 1935-1942; principal social economist, Research and Statistics Division, Works Progress Administration, 1943; writer-researcher, Louisiana Library Commission, 1944. Author, Father Mississippi (1927); Fabulous New Orleans (1928); Old Louisiana (1929); Lafitte the Pirate (1930); A Walk Through the Vieux Carré and a Short History of the St. Charles (1935); Children of Strangers (1937); The Friends of Joe Gilmore (1948). Editor, New Orleans City Guide (1935); Louisiana: A Guide to the State (1941). Compiler, with Edward Dreyer and Robert Tallant, Gumbo Ya-Ya (1945). First short story, "Cane River" (The Dial, 1926), received O. Henry Memorial Award (1926). Contributor to The Dial, New Republic, Century Magazine, Saturday Review of Literature, New York Herald Tribune Books. Member: P.E.N.; New Orleans Arts and Crafts Club. Known as "Mr. New Orleans" for life-long championship of Mardi Gras and the Vieux Carré. Died, New Orleans, April 9, 1946; interred Baton Rouge Magnolia Cemetery. A.C.L. Sources: Cathy Chance Harvey, "Lyle Saxon: A Portrait in Letters, 1917-1945" (Ph. D. dissertation, Tulane University, 1980); Ronnie W. Clayton, "A History of the Federal Writers' Project in Louisiana" (Ph. D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1974); Joe W. Kraus, "Lyle Saxon's Footnotes to History: A Bibliography," Louisiana Library Association Bulletin, XIII (Winter, 1950).

SCANLAN, Michael W., farmer, politician. Born, Pitreville, near Church Point, Acadia Parish, La., October 28, 1883; son of Michael C. Scanlan and Mary Lynch. Married, November 29, 1922, Lela Andrus, of Maxie, La., daughter of Jesse Andrus and Jane Young. Two sons: Michael, Jr. (b. 1924) and Carl Dean (b. 1939). Known as "Mr. Mike". Member of the Acadia Parish Police Jury, 1916-1960, serving as president for thirty-four years. Organized a five-parish rural electric co-op (SLEMCO) in 1937 that became the world's largest by 1960; served as its president from that time until his death. Vice-president of the Louisiana Rural Electric Association; vice-president of the Farmers Bank and Trust Company of Church Point; organizer and chairman of the board of the Acadia Soil Conservation District for twenty years; board member of the Southwest Louisiana Fair Association; chairman of the Louisiana Warehouse Commission; president of the Bayou Plaquemine-Wikoff Drainage Board for forty years; member, director, and vice-president of the Sweet Potato Association and selected king of the Yambilee in 1956; named as one of twenty men in the U. S. to serve on Natural Resources Advisory Committee by President-elect John F. Kennedy in 1960; Progressive Farmer Magazine's "Louisiana Man of the Year in Agriculture" for 1960. Member: Our Lady of the Sacred Heart Catholic Church. Died, December 23, 1960; interred Our Lady of the Sacred Heart Cemetery. A.M. Source: Author's research.

SCHAEUBLE, Paul, O.S.B., clergyman, first abbot of Saint Joseph Abbey. Born, Segeten, Baden, Germany, February 13, 1863; son of James Schaeuble and Mary Matt. Baptized on same day, Franz Joseph. Educated, local schools, then apprenticeship at mercantile establishments in Kehl and Speyer. Determined at eighteen to come to the United States and was directed, while at Einsiedeln Abbey in Switzerland on pilgrimage, to go to Saint Meinrad Archabbey in Indiana. Finished four-year course in two years and entered novitiate at archabbey. Made first profession, July 19, 1885, and took name of Paul. Ordained a priest at Saint Meinrad, June 15, 1889. Served as professor of Latin during the following year. For health reasons sent to New Orleans to Saint Boniface Parish, a foundation of Saint Meinrad, as assistant pastor, 1890. Made pastor, 1893. Appointed prior in 1902 of Saint Joseph Priory, Benedictine community at Gessen, near Ponchatoula, founded by Saint Meinrad Archabbey. Supervised its move to Saint Benedict, La., present location. Under his leadership new buildings were completed. Appointed first abbot when priory was raised to status of abbey, 1903, by Pope Leo XIII. Blessing, November 15, 1903, at Saint Boniface Church, New Orleans. Directed reconstruction after monastery, seminary and college destroyed by fire November 30, 1907. Resigned as abbot, 1931, and became chaplain, 1932, at United States Marine Hospital (National Leprosarium), Carville, La.. Resigned, June, 1948, at age of 85 to become chaplain of Saint Gertrude Convent of Benedictine Sisters at Ramsay until November 3, 1951. Died, Saint Joseph Abbey, September 20, 1955; interred abbey cemetery. D.R.B. Sources: Placid Pierce, O.S.B., A History of Saint Joseph Priory; Albert Kleber, Biographical Sketches of Abbot Paul, written from personal interview.

SCHANZ, George, businessman, civic leader. Born Darmstadt, Germany, July 12, 1877; son of George and Marie Schanz. Immigrated to Plattsmouth, Neb., 1884. Educated, local schools. Removed to Jennings, La., 1901. Married, February 12, 1903, Maud Edith Cook, daughter of J. Cook and Sarah Farley of Jennings, La. Children: Florence (b. 1905), Bernice (b. 1907), Edna (b. 1909), George (b. 1913), Jack (b. 1917). Removed to Evangeline, La., founded Evangeline Iron Works. Removed residence to Vinton, La., business to Ged Oil Field, 1920; removed business to Orange, Tex., 1925; removed business to Lake Charles, La., 1935. Instrumental in organizing National Bank, director until 1941. Member: Lutheran church; Rotary Club; Jennings Masonic Lodge F&AM No. 249. Died, April 20, 1941, interred Big Woods Cemetery, Edgerly, La. G.S.P. Sources: Lake Charles American Press, April 21, 1941; Beaumont Enterprise, April 22, 1941; Orange Leader, April 21, 1941; Schanz Family Papers.

SCHERTZ, Helen Pitkin, author, civic and social leader. Born, New Orleans, August 8, 1877; daughter of John Robert Graham Pitkin and Helen Fearing Fuller. Education: private schools; Newcomb College, New Orleans. Married, April 29, 1909, Christian Schertz, of Lorraine, Germany, chemist and owner of chain of drugstores in New Orleans. Staff writer for the New Orleans Times-Democrat; newspaper columnist; co-founder of Louisiana branch International Sunshine Society and president of its Helen Pitkin Wheel Chair Branch for 18 years; founder of New Orleans Spring Fiesta; charter member of Le Petit Théâtre du Vieux Carré, served on board; served as president of Orleans Anti-Tuberculosis League, local chapter of American Pen Women, Poetry Society; King's Daughter. Member of Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals; New Orleans Philharmonic Society; Louisiana Historical Society; U. S. Daughters of 1776, 1812; Orleans Club; New Orleans chapter American Red Cross; D. A. R.; Stuart Clan. Episcopalian. Author of Over the Hills (1903); An Angel by Brevet (1904); Legends of Louisiana (1922); and several guide books to New Orleans. Pioneer advocate of the preservation of the Vieux Carré. Died New Orleans, December 26, 1945; interred Lafayette Cemetery I. J.L.M.-F. Sources: May Mount, Some Notables of New Orleans (1896); Herman de Bachelle Seebold, Old Louisiana Plantation Homes and Family Trees (1941); articles and obituary, New Orleans Times-Picayune, December 27, 1945; February 27, 1927; Who Was Who in America, V, 1969-1973; miscellaneous newsclippings in Louisiana scrapbook, Tulane University Special Collections Division.

, clergyman, prelate. Born, Wallace, La., 1895; son of Adam Schexnayder and Jeanne Marie Dupleix. Education: Wallace and New Orleans schools; entered St. Joseph Seminary, 1916, at St. Benedict, La.; attended St. Mary Seminary, Baltimore, received both Bachelor's and Master's degrees. Sent by the archbishop of New Orleans to study theology at the North American College in Rome. Ordained priest in Rome, April 12, 1925. Assistant pastor, St. John the Evangelist Church, Plaquemines, La., 1925-1929; assigned to St. Joseph Church, Baton Rouge, with specific task of establishing a Catholic Student Center at Louisiana State University. Remained pastor of Christ the King Chapel at LSU until 1946. Served as state chaplain of the Knights of Columbus, 1932-1944. Supported establishment of Catholic student centers at public universities. Became nationally known for involvement in the Newman Club movement on secular campuses and as bishop served as episcopal advisor for the National Newman Federation. Appointed, 1946, pastor of St. Francis de Sales Church, Houma, La. Named domestic prelate (monsignor) by the Holy See, 1947; appointed auxiliary bishop to Bishop Jeanmard (q.v.) of Lafayette, February 22, 1951. As auxiliary bishop of Lafayette, named pastor of St. Michael's Church, Crowley, La., until Bishop Jeanmard retired in 1956. Appointed second bishop of Lafayette and installed by Archbishop Rummel (q.v.) on May 24, 1956. Built a more adequate chancery for diocesan administration, enlarged facilities at Immaculata Minor Seminary, supervised construction of more permanent churches, schools and parish centers throughout the diocese and established thirty-one new parishes. Ordained 81 young men to the priesthood. Resigned 1972. Died, January 23, 1981; interred St. John Cathedral, Lafayette. J.G. Sources: Attakapas Gazette, VII (1972), 153; Morning Star (Diocese of Lafayette), various issues; Archives, Diocese of Lafayette, Schexnayder Papers.

SCHILLING, Ola Haney, civic leader. Born East Feliciana Parish, La., September 14, 1894, daughter of the Reverend J. P. and Leola Haney. Removed to Greensburg, La., as a child. Education: St. Helena schools; Silliman Institute, Clinton, La. Married Leon D. Schilling, Greensburg. No issue. Helped organize local garden club, instrumental in securing library for Greensburg, was state flower judge, active with Live Oak Society on state level, worked as a social worker. Member Methodist church. Died, October 5, 1975; interred Greensburg Cemetery. N.C.L. Source: Author's research.

SCHLIEDER, Edward G., financier, brewer, sportsman, philanthropist. Born, Louisville, Ky., 1853. Parents natives of Alsace-Lorraine. Married Louise Marie Sontag (d. 1909). Went to work in the cigar industry in Havana, Cuba; removed to New Orleans, 1870, worked in the leaf tobacco business; first president, Salmen Brick and Lumber Co.; member, board of directors, D. H. Holmes Co., and investor in New Orleans shipbuilding companies, banks, an oil company, and homesteads. Organized American Brewing Co., 1890, and continued as its president until 1935; president, administrative board, Fair Grounds racetrack, 1925; established Edward G. Schlieder Education Foundation, 1945; built private hunting lodge on South Pass Manchac, 1908 (presently Southeasten Louisiana University's Biological Field Research Station). Died, New Orleans, May 12, 1948; interred Metairie Cemetery. C.A.D. Sources: New Orleans Daily Picayune, December 22, 1909; New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, May 13, 1948; Personal interviews.

SCHMIDT, Gustavus
, attorney, historian, linguist. Born, Maiestad, Sweden, June 16, 1795. Immigrated to America, settled in Louisiana. A noted international lawyer; also well known for having established (1844) the state's first law school, "Schmidt's Law School," a forerunner of Tulane Law School. Author of The Civil Law of Spain and Mexico and editor of The Louisiana Law Journal (1841-1842). Married (1) Melanie Seghers (b. 1804), April 18, 1831; three children: Charles Edouard Schmidt (b. 1832); Julien Albert Schmidt (b. 1833); and Euphrosine Julie (b. 1834), married Pierre François Volant de La Barre. Married (2) Estelle Marie Mascey; four sons: Oscar, Edward, John, and Henry. A linguist, was studying Chinese at time of death. Died, September 20, 1877. R.D.R. Source: Author's research.

SCHMIDT, Marie Louise
, civic leader. Born, New Orleans, July 10, 1876, daughter of Charles Edouard Schmidt and Marie Louise Hélène Léda Hincks. Educated in France. Made her debut, New Orleans, 1894. Married Hughes Jules de la Vergne, May 3, 1895. Children: Marie-Louise Marguerite (b. 1896), married Charles de Bony de Lavergne; Juilliac Hugues (b. 1897); Charles Edouard (b. 1904); Marie Louise Hélène Léda, married Hugh Cage St. Paul; Jules Kristian (b. 1911); Jacques Philippe Villeré (b. 1913); Pierre Renaud (b. 1916). Married (2) Henry Landry de Freneuse, April 27, 1927. President, New Orleans Spring Fiesta Association, 1939-61. During World War I, she was chairman for Louisiana of the Fatherless Children of France; chairman of the Devastated Churches; chairman of Ship of Friendship to Aid War Victims of Orléans, France; director of the Opera House Association; director of the Pontalba Building Association; member, Athenée Louisianaise. Was instrumental in raising funds to erect statue of Bienville, founder of New Orleans. Awarded the Legion of Honor of France (1949) in ceremonies presided over by Frendh ambassador Henri Bonnet. Member, Crecle Interallié of Paris; director, Louisiana Historical Society; vice-chairman, New Orleans Civic Choral Society. Name entered into the New Orleans Federation of Women's Clubs Hall of Fame. Died, New Orleans, January 12, 1961. R.D.R. Source: Author's research.

SCHUSTER, Hattie, founder of the Mothers Union. Drew together Shreveport's most prominent matrons to form the Mothers' Class, which later became Mothers' Union. Prior to 1902 she had been engaged in kindergarten work. Among projects designed by the Mothers' Union were the Shreveport Training School for Girls, the Shreveport Co-operative and Protective Association, and the first organized effort to establish Parent-Teacher associations in the public schools. Established first private kindergarten in Shreveport in 1901. In 1903, was elected by the Caddo Parish School Board to be supervisor of the public school kindergarten department. She retired at the end of the 1936-1937 school year at age 70. P.L.M. Source: Lilla McLure and J. Ed Howe, History of Shreveport and Shreveport Builders (1937).

SCHWARZ, Herbert J., businessman, civic leader. Born, New Orleans, 1887. Entered the family's wholesale business, Schwartz Bros., in New Orleans in 1902. At the same time, continued education at Tulane University. Became president of Schwartz Bros., 1926, upon death of father. When Schwartz Bros. closed during Great Depression, became president of Maison Blanche department store, 1932. Served in this capacity until 1949 when named president of City Stores Company, the New York-based chain that owned Maison Blanche. During his years in New Orleans, he served as president of Greater New Orleans, Inc., a service organization which promoted the economy of the city. Helped organize and served as a director of International House, designed to encourage international trade. Served as first vice-president of the New Orleans International Trade Mart and president of the Traffic and Park Improvement Association of New Orleans. Was instrumental in organization of New Orleans Mid-Winter Sports Association and active in the New Orleans Symphony Society. A director of Hibernia National Bank, New Orleans Chamber of Commerce and member of Louisiana Port Commission. Died, New York, April 12, 1955. E.N. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, April 12, 1955; New Orleans Item, April 12, 1955; New Orleans States, April 12, 1955; New York Times, April 12, 1955.

SCHWING, Anna Blanchet, civic and religious leader. Born January 2, 1890; daughter of Henriette Hebert and Jules Blanchet, great grand-daughter of Frederic Henri Duperier (q.v.), who chartered city of New Iberia. Survivor of 1900 Galveston storm; 1907 Mt. Carmel graduate. Married, April 6, 1910, John E. Schwing, local attorney, executive vice-president of New Iberia National Bank, son of George B. Schwing, Jr., of Plaquemine, La., and Florestine Patout of Enterprise Plantation, Patoutville, La. Children: The Reverend J. E. Schwing, Jr., S. J., (b. 1911), Jules B. (b. 1914), Mary Robbins (b. 1916), Anna Louise Allain (b. 1921), Flora Thérèse Broussard (b. 1923), George E. (b. 1925), Paul F. (b. 1927), Pierre F. (b. 1929), Henriette Dougherty (b. 1931), James W. (b. 1934). First Grand Regent and organizer of Catholic Daughters Court of Little Theresa; received award, 1967, from Pope Paul VI, the Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice; sponsor of annual Anna B. Schwing Elocution Award; active member, Third Order of Carmelites Ladies Altar Society, V. F. W. Auxiliary, Red Cross, Mt. Carmel and St. Peter's College Mothers clubs, St. Peter's Choir, Senior Children of Mary, Mt. Carmel Alumnae, Catholic Charities. Was St. Peter's first grade teacher, one of first Cub Scout den mothers in parish. Died, New Iberia, January 16, 1981; interred St. Peter's Catholic Cemetery. M.G.B. Source: Author's research.

SCHWING, Mary Ann, see PATOUT, Mary Ann Schwing

SCOTT, Thomas Moore, farmer, soldier. Born, Athens, Ga., 1829; son of George Scott and Mary Anne Moore. Lived in New Orleans and LaGrange, Ga., as a young man before removing to Claiborne Parish, La., where he was a farmer. Elected colonel, Twelfth Louisiana Infantry Regiment, August 13, 1861, and led his regiment in several battles in Tennessee and Mississippi. Acted as brigade commander at various times and promoted to rank of brigadier general, May 10, 1864. Led a brigade of the Army of Tennessee in the Atlanta Campaign and Hood's invasion of Tennessee. Wounded and disabled by an artillery shell at the Battle of Franklin, Tenn., November 30, 1864. Returned to farming near Homer after the war. Later ran a sugar plantation in southern Louisiana. Member of the Masonic Order. Died, New Orleans, April 21, 1876; interred Greenwood Cemetery. A.W.B. Sources: Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Gray (1959); Clement A. Evans, Confederate Military History, 13 vols. (1899).

SCOTT, William Anderson, clergyman, author, colonizationist. Born, Bedford County, Tenn., January 31, 1813; son of Eli Scott and Martha Anderson. Education: self-educated in youth; Cumberland College at Princeton, Ky., 1833; Princeton (N.J.) Theological Seminary. Ordained, May 17, 1835, by the Presbytery of Louisiana, then served as missionary in Louisiana and Arkansas, 1835-1836, and as principal of the Female Academy at Winchester, Tenn., 1836-1838. Married, January 19, 1836, Ann Nicholson of Kilkeel, Ireland. During next four years, Scott served as pastor of Andrew Jackson's Hermitage Church, president of Nashville Female Seminary, and pastor in Tuscaloosa, Ala. From 1842 to 1854, he was chief pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in New Orleans where he attained fame. In 1844, Scott became embroiled in a prolonged and bitter debate in which he impugned the integrity of presidential hopeful Henry Clay. An avid expansionist, Scott also sought to spread Calvinist faith through the aggressive development of trade and commerce. Between 1847 and 1850, Scott was editor of the New Orleans Presbyterian, a denominational weekly largely concerned with African colonizationist, local morality, and "evils" of Roman Catholicism. Removed to San Francisco in 1854. Though he criticized slavery, he remained steadfastly loyal to Southern cause until his death, January 14, 1885. He was the author of several religious books, the best known of which include Trade and Letters (1856), The Bible and Politics (1859), and The Christ of the Apostles' Creed (1867). T.F.R. Sources: Clifford Merrill Drury, William Anderson Scott: "No Ordinary Man" (1967); Timothy F. Reilly, "Religious Leaders and Social Criticism in New Orleans, 1860-1861" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Missouri at Columbia, 1972); "Scott, William Anderson," Dictionary of American Biography, XVI.

SEALE, William Arnold Kent,
physician, surgeon, civic leader, conservationist, sportsman. Born, Eupora, Miss., August 3, 1905; son of William H. Seale and Susan Kent. Education: local schools; Howard College, Birmingham, Ala.; Tulane Medical School, New Orleans, La. Practiced, Sulphur, La., 1932-1985. Married, February 9, 1936, Ilene Fleniken, of Baywood, La., daughter of William A. Fleniken and Ella Perry. Children: Ilene (b. 1937), A. Kent (b. 1941). Instrumental: establishing Ward 4 Recreational District; obtaining Sulphur Frasch Park land; promoting annual State High School Championship Rodeo, Sulphur; establishing West Cal-Cam Hospital; petitioning Sulphur first street-paving project. Established: Sulphur High School student loan fund. Supportive: McNeese State University emergency loan fund. Served: gratuitous team physician, Sulphur High School, 1943-1954. Big game hunter: Africa, India, Canada, Mexico, western U. S.; donated head mounts of game animals collected to McNeese State University; donated preserved small animal specimens to Tulane University. Member: Methodist church; American College of Surgeons; International College of Surgeons; Southeastern Surgical Association; Louisiana Medical Society; Calcasieu Parish Medical Society; Safari Club International; Ducks Unlimited; Grand Slam Club. Seale Vertebrate Museum, McNeese State University, named for subject; named first McNeese honorary professor. Died, Miami, Fla., February 28, 1985; body donated to Tulane Medical School. G.S.P. Sources: Erbon Wise, "Brimstone! The Story of Sulphur, La.," Lake Charles American Press, August 1, 1979; obituary, March 1, 1985; Sulphur Southwest Builder, July 25, 1979; August 8, 1979; obituary, March 3, 1985; Seale Family Papers.

SEALSFIELD, Charles, pseudonym of Karl Postl, journalist, novelist. Born, Poppitz, Moravia, March 3, 1793. Educated at Zoraim in Moravia, entered monastery of the Knights of the Cross in Prague. Became a priest and a monk, but in 1823, fled from the monastery and emigrated to the United States. Assumed the name Charles Sealsfield. Worked in New York for the French American newspaper Le Courrier des Etats-Unis. Returned to Europe and published under the pseudonym Von C. Sidons Die Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika . . . (1828) which was translated in London as The Americans as They Are . . . (1829). Published anonymously in London Austria as It Is (1828). In the U. S. had obtained a passport in the name of Sealsfield which identified him as a Pennsylvania Protestant minister. Returned to the United States and became, he claimed, editor of the Courrier des Etats-Unis though the masthead never carried his name. Travelled in Texas, Louisiana, and Central America. Bought a plantation in Louisiana, but this claim remains unverified. Became acquainted with Matthew Carey, James Fenimore Cooper's Philadelphia publisher who, in 1829, published his Tokeah or The White Rose. A New York reviewer ranked it as superior to Cooper's novels, but a negative review in the May 1829 Ariel ended Sealsfield's ambition to outdo Cooper on his own ground. Became the London and Paris correspondent of Mordecai Noah's New York Morning Courier and Enquirier. In 1832 moved to Solothurn, Switzerland. Published in 1834 Lebensbilder aus bieder Hemisphären (2 vols.), translated as Life in the New World (1841). Published numerous novels and travel accounts. When Theodor Mundt ranked him above Irving and Cooper in lectures delivered at the University of Berlin, the Boston Daily Advertiser of March 29, 1844, in an article entitled "The Greatest American Author," asked for help in finding this important writer who was unknown in Boston. A number of Sealsfield's works appeared then in English translations, and refacimenti, in America and England, including: The Cabin Book or Sketches of Life in Texas (1844); The Boy of Mount Rhigi (1848); Frontier Life or Scenes and Adventures in the South 'West (1853); Adventures in Texas (1861); "The Squatter Regulator." Selections pertaining to Louisiana were translated into French as Les Emigrés français dans la Louisiane (1800-1804) (1853). His true identity was revealed after his death at Solothurn, May 26, 1864. K.J.R.A. Sources: Otto Heller and Theodore H. Leon, Charles Sealsfield, Washington University Studies, New Series, Language and Literature, No. 8, September, 1939; Albert B. Faust, Charles Sealsfield (Carl Postl), der Dichter bieder Hemispharen; Eduard Castle, Der Grofe Unbekannte: Das Leben von Charles Sealsfield; Karl J. R. Arndt, Charles Sealsfield, Samtliche Schriften; "Charles Sealsfield, The Greatest American Author," Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, October 1964.

SEAY, William A., attorney, politician, diplomat. Born near Burkeville, Va., April 19, 1831. Education: Princeton, graduated, 1850; Lexington Law School. Married sister of Henry L. Edwards, Iberville Parish sugar planter and New Orleans attorney. Served in Confederate Army as engineer officer under General Price. Admitted to Virginia bar, 1852, law practice in Virginia, 1852-1853; law practice in St. Louis, Mo., 1853-1861; law practice in Shreveport, La., 1861-1885; received majority of votes for Louisiana district court judgeship, 1872, but electoral board denied him the office. Professor at Louisiana State Military School. Served in Louisiana house of representatives, 1882-1885. Compiler, The Revised Statutes of the State of Louisiana, from the Organization of the Territory to the Year 1884 (1886). Minister resident and consul general to Bolivia from May 9, 1885, to April 12, 1887. T.D.S. Sources: National Cyclopedia of American Biography, VII; Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Louisiana (1892; reprint ed., 1975); U. S. Dept. of State, United States Chiefs of Mission, 1778-1973 (1973).

SEDELLA, Antonio de
, clergyman. Born, at Sedella, Granada, Spain, November 18, 1748; son of Pedro Moreno and Ana Arze, baptized Francisco Antonio Ildefonso. A most interesting and controversial personality in the history of the Catholic church in Louisiana. Entered Capuchin Order and ordained priest in Granada, December 21, 1771. Lectured in Sacred Theology. Responded to the appeal of the bishop of Santiago, Cuba, for more priests in Louisiana, 1779. Arrived in New Orleans, January 1781, and joined the staff of St. Louis Church. Temporary pastor of New Orleans in the absence of Bishop Cirillo de Barcelona (q.v.), 1785. Appointed permanent pastor by Bishop Echeverria 1787. Appointed commissary of the Holy Office, February 10, 1786. Upon return of Bishop Cirillo in 1789 charged with a variety of abuses and misdemeanors. Complained to Bishop Trespalacios of Cirillo's treatment. Cirillo called on Governor Miró (q.v.) to deport Fr. Antonio and instituted a canonical process against the latter, March 30, 1790. Sedella collected a large number of testimonials in his favor. On receipt of another commission from the Holy Office to erect an inquisitorial tribunal, Sedella appealed to Miró for assistance. Miró, alarmed, decided to deport Sedella to Spain but under the guise of yielding to Cirillo's wishes. Sedella sent to Cadiz as prisoner on April 29, 1790. Cirillo sent charges against Sedella to Bishop Trespalacios who was unimpressed and accused Cirillo of having exceeded his authority. In Spain Sedella appealed to Council of Indies. Cirillo and Governor Miró charged with having made grave mistake. Sedella's case referred back to Havana. Arrived in Havana, September 21, 1791. Trespalacios ordered secret investigation. After a year without results Sedella appealed to the crown which ordered him restored as pastor of New Orleans. Matter turned over to Luis Peñalver y Cardenas (q.v.), newly elected first bishop of Louisiana and the Floridas, who brought back Sedella to New Orleans with him in July of 1795. Sedella accompanied Peñalver as secretary during tours of the diocese, 1795-1798. Status of the diocese uncertain after Peñalver's departure for Guatemala in 1801. Administration of the diocese left to Canon Thomas Hassett. Sedella elected pastor of St. Louis Cathedral by a large majority of New Orleans citizens, March 14, 1804. Canon Hassett died April 23, 1804. Administrative authority claimed by Rev. Patrick Walsh (q.v.). Sedella refused to acknowledge Walsh who, in turn, suspended Sedella. Schism in New Orleans. Gov. W. C. C. Claiborne, and Secretary of State James Madison doubted loyalty of Sedella to United States (1805). Walsh sought legal possession of Cathedral from territorial supreme court, but ruling went against him. Walsh died August 22, 1806. Bishop Carroll given temporary jurisdiciton over Louisiana and sent Rev. Jean Olivier to New Orleans as administrator in 1807. Sedella challenged authority of Olivier. Cathedral church wardens wrote to pope on March 18, 1807, asking that Carroll's jurisdiction be rescinded, Peñalver be restored as bishop of Louisiana, and Sedella made his vicar general. Mounting opposition to Olivier forced his resignation in 1808. Carroll sent Rev. Louis Sibourd as replacement and, in 1812, Louis Guillaume Valentin DuBourg (q.v.) as Sibourd's replacement. Opposition developed between Sedella and DuBourg. DuBourg traveled to Rome in summer of 1815 to report on religious conditions in Louisiana, leaving Sibourd as vicar general. Sedella challenged Sibourd's authority. DuBourg named bishop of Louisiana and the Floridas and was consecrated in Rome. Sedella reportedly dismissed legitimacy of Dubourg's appointment. DuBourg returned from Rome in 1817 but lived in St. Louis, Mo. Surprisingly DuBourg asked Rome to appoint Sedella co-adjutor bishop, May 12, 1819, but withdrew request in June. Sedella declined offer of episcopate on grounds of age. DuBourg visited New Orleans during 1820 and was warmly received; praised Sedella. DuBourg moved to New Orleans in 1823 but resigned the diocese and returned to France, 1826. Bishop Joseph Rosati (q.v.) of St. Louis named administator of the diocese. Rosati named Sedella presiding officer of the Episcopal Council for New Orleans. Cathedral church wardens circulated petition destined for state legislature entitling them to approve nomination of pastor of the cathedral, 1828. Rosati convened Episcopal Council which condemned petition. Sedella brought Council's censure to church wardens. Sedella died January 22, 1829. J.E.B. Sources: Roger Baudier, The Catholic Church in Louisiana (1939); C. W. Bishpam, "Fray Antonio de Sedella: An Appreciation," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, II (1919); F. P. Burns, "Notes on the Legislation and Litigation Affecting the Title of St. Louis Cathedral," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XVIII (1935); M. J. Curley, Church and State in the Spanish Floridas, 1783-1822 (1940); Stanley Faye, "The Schism of 1805 in New Orleans," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXII (1939); S. Faye, "Louis Declouet's Memorial to the Spanish Government, December 7, 1814," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXII (1939); A. E. Fossier, New Orleans: The Glamour Period, 1800-1840 (1957); A. M. Melville, "John Carroll and Louisiana, 1803-1815," Catholic Historical Review, LXIV (1978); E. F. Niehaus, "Sedella, Antonio de," New Catholic Encyclopedia (1967), XIII; C. L. Souvay, "A Centennial of the Church in St. Louis," Catholic Historical Review, IV (1918).

SEEBOLD, Frederic William Emile (W. E.)
. Born in Lachem, Kingdom of Hanover, Germany, September 15, 1833; son of the Reverend John William Herman Seebold, head of the Lutheran church of Hanover and Sophie Munchmeyer, a descendant of Jacques de Bachellé, savior of the city of Metz in Lorraine in the 1500s. Education: University of Goettingen in Hanover, graduated with honor. Came to America in 1854 or 1856 on the customary tour as part of finishing one's education. Resided in New York, Cleveland, Milwaukee, and Chicago before removing to New Orleans in 1860 or 1861, where he worked as a builder and contractor. He entered the Confederate Army, July 1861, as a private in Company I, First Regiment Louisiana Cavalry. Fought in the battles of Fort Donaldson and Shiloh, the Corinth campaign, and the battles of Richmond, Perryville, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, and Chattanooga. Captured on the Cumberland River in Kentucky in 1864, imprisoned at Johnson's Island and Point Lookout until being exchanged at City Point, Va., on May 11, 1864. He rejoined his regiment until the capitulation at Meridian, Miss. Married Lisette Boehm, May 1865, daughter of François Pierre Boehm III. Children: Mrs. Marie Madeleine Molinary (1866-1948), William John Seebold (d. 1868), George Sandford Seebold (d. 1880), Walter Emile Seebold (d. 1914), Mrs. Stella Lisette MacPherson, Randall Hunt Seebold (d. September 1, 1927), Herman Boehm de Bachellé Seebold, and Francis Semmes Seebold (d. 1934). After war Seebold opened a book, picture framing, stationery, and art dealership on Canal Street, a business he maintained until his death. He became the foremost art connoisseur in New Orleans and was a friend of many struggling artists. Between 1879 and 1916 nearly every artist of note dined at his house. In 1879 his gallery became the headquarters of Richard Clague, Everett B. D. Fabrino Randolph, and Harold Julio. On Sundays would gather a group of artists, writers, musicians and poets. Active in the formation of the Art Gallery at the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition of 1884-1885. Charter member of the Southern Art Union and Artists' Association of New Orleans and member of the Association of the Army of Tennessee. Died, New Orleans, June 25, 1921. C.S.B. Sources: The Historic New Orleans Collection, Encyclopaedia of New Orleans Artists, 1718-1918 (1987); New Orleans Item, June 25, 1921; New Orleans Times-Picayune, October 9, 1983; Clement A. Evans, ed., Confederate Military History (1899); Herman de Bachellé Seebold, Old Louisiana Plantation Homes and Family Trees (1941).

SEEBOLD, Herman Boehm de Bachellé
, physician, author. Born, New Orleans, 1875; son of Lisette Boehm and Frédéric William Emile Seebold (q.v.). Graduate of Tulane University school of medicine; served in World War I. Retired from medical practice in 1930s to devote his time to the study of Louisiana and its traditions. Authored Louisiana Plantation Homes and Family Trees (1941). Died, New Orleans, December 11, 1950; survived by widow, the former Nettie Kinney. Interred Metairie Cemetery. J.B.C. Source: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, December 12, 1950.

SEELOS, Francis-Xavier
, clergyman, missionary. Born, Fussen, Bavaria, January 11, 1819; son of Mang and Frances Seelos. Education: local schools; St. Stephen's Gymnasium, Augsburg; Royal Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich; School of Theology, Munich University. Removed to America, 1843, to enter Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer. Made religious profession, Baltimore, Md., 1844; ordained to priesthood, December 22, 1844. Served several parishes in Pennsylvania, Maryland and Michigan, 1845-1866. Appointed acting pastor, St. Mary's Church, New Orleans, 1866-1867. Worked for one year in the three churches committed to the care of the Redemptorists, one for English-speaking Catholics, one for French, and one for German. Died of yellow fever, New Orleans, October 4, 1867; interred St. Mary's Church. Cause for canonization begun in 1900. J.E. Source: Michael J. Curley, Cheerful Ascetic, The Life of Francis Xavier Seelos, C.SS.R.

SEGURA, Albin (Marie Joseph), farmer. Born, Abbeville, La., December 24, 1881; son of Emile Adolphe Segura and (Françoise) Mathilde Perret. Education: New Iberia High School, valedictorian, class of 1899. Married, August 22, 1911, Llewellyln Adelaide Eaton, daughter of Freeman Baker Eaton and Martha Mitchell, of Owensboro, Ky. Children: Marnell Albin (b. 1912), Annette Levie (Sister Ann Carmel) (b. 1913), Charles Frederick D'Arensbourg (between 1914 and 1916), Richard Eaton (b. 1917). Expert on sugarcane growing. Member, Roman Catholic church; Knights of Columbus; U. S. Coast Guard in World War II. Died, Iberia Parish, October 16, 1970; interred St. Peter's Cemetery, New Iberia. P.M.S. Sources: Obituary, New Iberia Daily Iberian, October 18, 1970; Attakapas Gazette, XIV (1979); Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984).

SEGURA, Emile Adolphe, farmer, politician, educator. Born near New Iberia, La., May 22, 1831; son of Raphael Segura, Sr., and Marie Carmelite Romero. Education: local schools and Kentucky. Married (1), December 8, 1853, Odile Marguerite Dugas, daughter of Aurelian Benjamin Dugas and Eurasie Broussard. Children: Marie Angele (b. 1855), Carmelite Corinne (b. 1856), Joseph René (q.v.), Marguerite Annette (b. 1861). Believed to have been private, First Native Guards, Louisiana Militia for active service within state of Louisiana. Married (2), June 28, 1865, Jeanne Mathilde Perret, daughter of Placide Perret and Isabelle Mathilde d'Arensbourg. Children: Jean Emmanuel (b. 1869), Marie Mathilde (b. 1873), Marie Blanche (b. 1874), Child (b. 1875?), Marie Joseph Adolphe (b. 1878), Marie Levie (Lucie) (b. 1880), Marie Joseph Albin (Albert) (q.v.). Following close of Civil War was one of six who organized public school system for Iberia Parish. Appointed member of the first school board by Gov. Francis T. Nicholls (q.v.). Also served as justice of the peace for Ward 5. Active in Democratic party. Was trilingual. Member, St. Peter's Catholic Church. Died Segura, La. (suburb of New Iberia), May 11, 1888; interred St. Peter's Cemetery, New Iberia. P.M.S. Sources: Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); Alcée Fortier, Louisiana (1914); Louisiana Secretary of State Report, 1879, 1882, 1884, 1886, 1887; Glenn R. Conrad, comp., New Iberia, Essays on the Town and Its People (1986); Vivian A. Mestayer, "The History of the New Iberia High School" (MA thesis, LSU, 1951).

SEGURA, Francisco (François), planter, rancher. Born, Málaga, Spain, November 27, 1759; son of Manuel Segura and Gertrudis Varaona. Education: schools of Málaga. Joined group coming to settle in Louisiana, arriving in New Orleans, November 11, 1778. Was in first group to settle New Iberia under the leadership of Francisco Bouligny (q.v.) in early 1779. In September 1779 served as a voluntary recruit under Bouligny (q.v.) in the Fifth Company of the First Battalion of the Fixed Spanish Regiment of Louisiana at Manchac and Baton Rouge in campaign of Bernado de Gálvez against the British. Married, St. Martinville, 1780, Maria de Prados, native of Málaga, Spain, daughter of Gonzalo de Prados and Teresa Guzman, natives of Málaga. Children: Maria Teresa Basilia (b. 1781), François Emmanuel (b. 1785), Joseph Manuel Thomas (b. 1786), Raphael (q.v.), Eloy (b. 1796), Marie Thérèse Francisca Mathilda (b. 1798), Antoine (b. 1800), Rosalie (b. 1803), Louis (b. 1806), Santiago (Jacques) (b. 1809). Member, Roman Catholic church. Class B Claim (occupancy and cultivation 10 years before 1803) to 677.01 acres (800 arpents) confirmed by U. S. Government. Died Segura, La., near New Iberia, September 18, 1831; interred St. Michael's Catholic Cemetery, St. Martinville. P.M.S. Sources: Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); Maurine Bergerie, They Tasted Bayou Water (1962); Glenn R. Conrad, comp., New Iberia: Essays on the Town and Its People (1986); C. Robert Churchill, comp., S. A. R. Spanish Records [1925]; American State Papers.

SEGURA, Joseph René, farmer. Born near New Iberia, La., March 14, 1859; son of Emile Adolphe Segura (q.v.) and Odile Marguerite Dugas. Education: local schools. Clerked in New Iberia before marriage. Married, March 14, 1879, Eliza Marie Nunez of Vermilion Parish, daughter of Sen. Joseph Adrien Nunez of Vermilion Parish and Oliva Guidry, native of St. Martin Parish. Children: Marie Beulah (b. 1881), Marie Viola (b. 1882), Joseph Sidney (b. 1883), Marie Dora (b. 1885), Marie Eula (b. 1886). Was great-grandson of Francisco Segura (q.v.), one of first settlers of New Iberia. Removed to Vermilion Parish after marriage. Engaged in farming at Springhill (now Nunez, La., named for his father-in-law). Member, St. Mary Magdalen Catholic Church, Abbeville. Died, Nunez, December 23, 1885; age 26; interred Old Catholic Cemetery, Abbeville. P.M.S. Sources: Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); New Iberia Enterprise; Quintilla Morgan Anders, comp., Some Early Families of Lafayette, Louisiana (1970).

SEGURA, Joseph Sidney, Jr., insurance adjuster. Born, Lafayette, La., November 25, 1917; son of Joseph Sidney Segura, Sr. (q.v.), and Celestine Gutierrez. Education: Cathedral High School; Lafayette High School; Louisiana State University. World War II service: enlisted U. S. Army, 1941; trained at Camp Moultrie, S.C.; served in Hawaii, New Caledonia, Biak, Netherlands Indies, Australia, and New Guinea. Awarded GCM, AP, Am. Def. and Victory Ribbons. Discharged