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Dictionary of Louisiana Biography – R 2017-09-26T11:16:13+00:00

Dictionary R

RACHAL, Pierre, dit St. Denis, soldier, pioneer. Born, Saint-Denis, Isle d’Oléron, France, January 27, 1698; son of Pierre Rachal, Sr., a drummer in the Marine company of Henri Louis de Chavignac stationed at Rochefort, and of Elisabeth Jaguet. Emigrated from Rochefort with a contingent of soldiers dispatched on the Ludlow and the Paon to man Fort Toulouse in present-day Alabama; transferred from that post to Natchitoches in late 1721 or early 1722; spent remaining years as a habitant and a corporal in the reserve company of the marines at Natchitoches. Married, ca. 1722, Marie Anne Benoist (b. 1697), daughter of Michel Benoist who in 1720 had been exiled to the colony, aboard the Mutine, for a period of five years. Children: Louis dit Blondin (b. 1722); Jean Claude (b. ca. 1724); Elisabeth (b. 1729); Barthélémy dit Le Rat (b. 1732); Jacques dit St. Denis (b. 1735); Marie Louise (b. 1737); Marie Jeanne (b. 1739). Died on a military expedition to Natchez, 1756. E.S.M. Sources: Elizabeth Shown Mills, Natchitoches, 1729-1803 (1977); Mills, Natchitoches Colonials (1981); Pierre Heinrich, La Louisiane sous la Compagnie des Indes, 1717 à 1731 (1903; reprint ed., 1970); Rachal family papers, in possession of the author.

RAINACH, William Monroe (“Willie”), businessman, politician. Born, Kentwood, La., July 31, 1913, as William Odom. Mother died in influenza epidemic of 1917. Invalid father placed him and three brothers in Baptist Orphanage, Lake Charles. Adopted by Mr. and Mrs. Albert M. Rainach of Summerfield. Education: Claiborne Parish schools; passed first through fourth grades in two years; Summerfield High School; attended Southern State College, Magnolia, Ark., 1932-1933; Strayer’s Business College, Washington, D. C., 1935-1936; Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge, 1936-1937. Married Mable Justin Fincher, February 11, 1940. Children: William Monroe, Mary Elizabeth, Rex Dean. Methodist. Organizer and general manager, Claiborne Electric Coop., Inc., Homer, La., 1939-1940, first company to bring electricity to farms of Claiborne Parish. Organizer and partner, Claiborne Butane Co., Inc., Homer, 1945-1948, president, 1948-1977. President, Arcadia Butane Co., Inc., 1967. President, Homer Development Co., Inc., 1959. Man of Year, Homer Lions Club, 1974. Recipient, Americanism award, Caddo-Bossier Chapter of the Young Americans for Freedom, 1959. Member, Louisiana Farm Bureau, Louisiana Forestry Association, Louisiana Independent Royalty Owners and Oil Producers Association, American Defense Preparedness Association. Founder, Claiborne Academy. Author, Subversion in Racial Unrest. Member, Louisiana house of representatives, 1940-1948; Louisiana senate, 1948-1960. Chair, Joint Legislative Committee on Segregation, 1954-1959. Founder, White Citizens’ Council of Claiborne Parish. Founder, Louisiana Association of Citizens’ Councils, president, 1955-1959. Founder, Citizens’ Council of America, chair, 1956-1958. Candidate for Democratic nomination for governor, 1959. Finished third with 143,095 votes (17.0%). Endorsed James H. “Jimmie” Davis (q.v.) in second primary; Davis elected. Died, January 27, 1978; interred Arlington Cemetery, Homer, La. G.J. Sources: Glen Jeansonne, Race, Religion, and Politics: The Louisiana Gubernatorial Elections of 1959-60 (1977); Who’s Who in the South and Southwest, 16th ed., 1978-79; New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, January 27, 1978; Shreveport Times, obituary, January 27, 1978.

RACIVITCH, Hervé, lawyer, district attorney. Born, New Orleans, August 11, 1903; son of John M. Racivitch and Pauline Toussaint. Married Helen d’Aquin, June 1, 1927; children: Hervé, Jr., Barbara Ann, Judith Mary. Graduated from Warren Easton High School, where he was president of his senior class; received a law degree from Loyola University, 1924. Admitted to the Louisiana bar, 1924. Professor of criminal law, Loyola University Law School, 1924-1930; also taught special Louisiana statutes course, 1927-1930. Served as an appeals agent with the Selective Service System of the United States Army, 1941-1946. Ran unsuccessfully for New Orleans Commission Council (forerunner of the City Council) and later in 1942 for mayor of New Orleans; a reform candidate, Racivitch was defeated for mayor in a landslide by New Orleans machine incumbent Robert Maestri (q.v.). Elected district attorney of New Orleans on DeLesseps S. “Chep” Morrison’s (q.v.) reform ticket, 1946; served one four-year term and did not seek reelection in 1950. Racivitch served on the New Orleans Levee Board for a number of years. Member of the Times-Picayune Doll and Toys Fund Committee, New Orleans Civil Council, New Orleans Athletic Club, and the Louisiana and American bar associations. Served as president of the New Orleans Bar Association, the New Orleans Preparatory School Athletic League, and the New Orleans Young Men’s Business Association. Member of the executive committees of the Boy Scouts Council, the New Orleans Safety Council, and the New Orleans Bar Association. Wrote legal articles: “Our Jury System,” Louisiana Peace Officer (October, 1947); and “A Perspective on the Louisiana Criminal Code of 1942,” Louisiana Bar (October, 1948). Racivitch, an avid horse racing fan and owner of several race horses, was elected national president of the Horsemen’s Benevolent and Protective Association in 1964; served as the chairman of that organization’s board of directors, 1966-1967. Died of cancer at Ochsner Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, May 6, 1991. J.D.W. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, May 7, 1991; Who’s Who in the South and Southwest (1952); Edward F. Haas, DeLesseps S. Morrison and the Image of Reform: New Orleans Politics, 1946-1961 (1974).

RANALDSON, James A., missionary, educator. Born, Brunswick County, N. C., 1789. Education: classical school of the Scotch-Irish. Became Baptist minister ca. 1812. Married Lydia A. Munkhouse Barton in Fredericksburg, Va., August 16, 1814. Removed to New Orleans, 1817, self-appointed missionary to poor, ignorant, and Indians; travelled alone throughout Indian territory of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana before arriving Feliciana, late 1817. Established Shiloh Church which was received into Mississippi Baptist Association, 1819; taught a Sunday School, taking paying scholars to meet expenses; formalized this into Society Hill Academy, 1818, at request of planters; hired Benjamin Chase, Presbyterian minister lately in New Orleans as assistant, 1819; later associated with Lavinia Calder (q.v.). Established St. Francisville Baptist Church, 1823. Removed to Jackson, La., ca. 1831, and began school; bitterly criticized by Baptist Association for teaching rather than preaching; briefly espoused Campbellism and bought land near Port Hudson, La., which he farmed. Returned to Baptist faith and began church at Port Hudson. Died, near Port Hudson, June 17, 1849. E.K.D. Sources: Virginia L. Jennings, The Plains and the People (1962); William Wister Hamilton, Jr., The Ranaldson Legend (1949); West Feliciana Parish Records.

RANDOLPH, Edward, West Florida revolutionary. Born, Virginia; son of George and Mary Randolph. Married Polly Coleman, daughter of William and Patience Coleman, at Bayou Sara, March 28, 1799. Established store at Pinckneyville, Miss., 1800; author of the Declaration of Independence in abortive Kemper Rebellion of 1804 which was later circulated as the first proposed Code of the Convention which preceded the West Florida Rebellion of 1810. Died, 1821. E.K.D. Sources: Stanley Clisby Arthur, The Story of the Kemper Brothers (1933); Arthur, The Story of the West Florida Rebellion (1935); Diocese of Baton Rouge Church Records, II; West Feliciana Parish Public Records.

RANDOLPH, John Hampden, planter, builder of Nottoway Plantation house. Born, Lunenburg County, Va., March 24, 1813; son of Sallie Cook and Judge Peter Randolph. Removed to Wilkinson County, Miss., with family in 1819. Education: attended Beach Woods, the private school of Lucy Bakewell Audubon (q.v.) in West Feliciana Parish, La., in the 1820s. Married Emily Jane Liddell, daughter of Judge Moses Liddell, December 14, 1837. Children: Algernon Sidney, John Hampden, Jr., Peter Everett, Ella E., Mary Augusta, Emma Jane, Cornelia, Sallie Virginia, Annie Caroline, and Julia Marceline. A cotton planter in Mississippi until coming to Louisiana in December 1841; lived on his plantation, Forest Home, in Iberville Parish, which he purchased in March 1841; planted cotton and corn for a few years; began construction of a sugarhouse in 1843 and was growing and milling sugarcane by 1846; purchased more than 5,000 acres in the parish between 1850 and 1860; also owned land in Texas, Minnesota, and Iowa. Built a new plantation home, Nottoway, 1849-1858; Henry Howard (q.v.) architect. One of the largest plantation houses in the South, it blends Greek Revival and Italianate styles. Although the Civil War caused a drop in the family fortune, his Louisiana land holdings in 1871 comprised over 7,000 acres and four plantations, Forest Home, Nottoway, Blythewood, and Bayou Goula. Made donations of both money and land to St. Mary’s Episcopal Church at Bayou Goula; gave a scholarship to Plaquemines Seminary and contributed to an orphan asylum in New Orleans. Died, Nottoway, September 8, 1883; interred St. Mary’s Cemetery, Bayou Goula, La. J.B.C. Sources: Paul Everett Postel, “John Hampden Randolph, A Louisiana Planter,” Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXV (1942); Joseph A. Arrigo and Cara M. Batt, Plantations (San Francisco, 1983), Plate 27; Baton Rouge Daily Capitolian-Advocate, obituary, September 1, 1883.

RANSDELL, Joseph E., planter, congressman. Born, Alexandria, La., October 7, 1858; eighth child of John H. Ransdell and Amanda Terrell. Education: attended public schools; Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., graduated 1882; studied law. Admitted to Louisiana bar, 1883, and practiced law in Lake Providence, La., 1884-1889. Married, November 1885, Olive Irene Powell (d. 1935) of Lake Providence. District attorney for Eighth Judicial District of Louisiana, 1884-1896. A cotton planter and developer of pecan groves. Member, levee board, Fifth Levee District, 1896-1899. Member, state constitutional convention, 1898. Elected as a Democrat to U. S. House of Representatives to fill vacancy caused by death of Samuel T. Baird (q.v.), served from August 29, 1899, to March 3, 1913. Was not a candidate for renomination in 1912, having become a candidate for the U. S. Senate. Elected to Senate in 1912 and served from March 4, 1913, to March 3, 1931. A leader in improving nation’s waterways; organizer of the National Rivers and Harbors Congress, which he headed for fourteen years. Instrumental in passage of flood-control act. Sponsored bills which created the National Institute of Health, of which he became executive director, and the United States Public Health Service Hospital for treatment of Hansen’s disease at Carville, La. Unsuccessful candidate for renomination, 1930. In 1920, founded Ransdell, Inc., a printing firm in Washington, D. C., and served as a director until 1931. Returned to Lake Providence, engaged in the real-estate business, cotton planting, and pecan growing. Member, board of supervisors, Louisiana State University, 1940-1944. Died, Lake Providence, July 27, 1954; interred Lake Providence Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1971 (1971); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, July 28, 1954.

RANKIN, Hugh Franklin, “Big Daddy,” historian. Born, Arlington, Va., June 17, 1913. Spent boyhood in Reidville, N. C. Married Betty Jean Rankin; children: Patrick, John, and Wade. Entered what is now Virginia Polytechnical Institute and State University on a football scholarship, 1931; left without a degree, 1935. Worked in the highway construction industry, overseeing various road projects in the Carolinas. Served as a first lieutinent in the Army Corps of Engineers during World War II. A serious back injury which impaired his return to the construction industry, prompted him to reenter college after more than a decade’s lapse. Earned an Associate Bachelor’s degree from Elon College, 1949; a Master of Art’s degree in History from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1951; Ph. D. from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1959. Worked for the National Park Service, Yorktown, Va., 1953-1954; served as a research assistant at Colonial Williamsburg, Inc., 1955-1957. Member, History Department faculty, Tulane University, 1957-1983. Wrote seventeen books, several articles, many book reviews, and edited several works. Was especially noted for his work with graduate students. Long-time member of the Southern Historical Association (executive council, 1978-1980) and the Louisiana Historical Association (president, 1988-89). Member: American Historical Association, Organization of American Historians, National Historical Society, American Military Institute. Honorary doctorates from Francis Marion College and William Carey College. Died, Jefferson Parish, La., June 29, 1989. J.D.W. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, July 1, 1989; Journal of Southern History, 54 (1990), Directory of American Scholars, 6th ed. (1974).

RAPIER, Thomas G., journalist, business, religious leader. Born, New Orleans, 1847; son of Thomas Gwynn Rapier, a school teacher. Education: family and local schools. Too young to enter service at outbreak of Civil War, taught school in St. James Parish, La. Later in war, made his way on foot to Richmond, Va., where he convinced kinsman Stephen Mallory to let him become a midshipman in the Confederate Navy. Saw no action before war ended. Returned to New Orleans; began work with Daily Picayune doing odd jobs; eventually promoted to counter clerk. Accepted job as business manager of the Catholic newspaper Morning Star. Married (1) Mary Elizabeth McKeough; married (2) Mary Ellen Green. Children: George, Will, Henry, and Mrs. Joseph Sinclair. After George Nicholson (q.v.) and wife, Eliza Jane Nicholson (q.v.), acquired Picayune, subject became business manager of that paper, a position he held until 1914 when he retired because of ill health and failing eyesight. For twenty years a director of the Associated Press. Unceasing advocate of municipal improvements such as municipal dock system, the public belt (railroad), sewerage and water plants, and reclamation of the lakeside. Introduced, 1870s, the building and loan system to New Orleans with the organization of the New Orleans Homestead, followed, in 1882, by Peoples Homestead, of which subject became president, 1888, and served in that capacity until death. Instrumental in forming State Homestead League. An ardent Catholic; strong supporter of St. Vincent de Paul Society, delegate to the Particular Council, the central agency of the Society, served as its president. Dubbed Knight of St. Gregory. Honorary member, Hayden Y. Grubb Camp No. 3, United Spanish American War Veterans. Died, New Orleans, September 27, 1928; interred St. Patrick Cemetery II. G.R.C. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, September 28, 1928; January 25, 1937.

RAY, John, attorney, politician. Born, Washington County, Mo., October 10, 1816; son of Jonas S. Ray. Education: local schools; Augusta College; Transylvania University. In 1835, having made several visits to Louisiana, decided to remain as clerk of Judge L. F. Lamy of Ouachita Parish, and studied law under R. F. McGuire. Admitted to Louisiana bar, April 23, 1839; entered into partnership with McGuire. Also engaged in planting until 1864. Married a Miss Dewitt, March 1840; seven sons and one daughter, also one adopted daughter. Served in state house of representatives, 1844-1850; served in Louisiana senate, 1850-1854. Whig candidate for lieutenant governor, 1854, 1859; defeated. Probably a Unionist at outbreak of Civil War. In 1860 an elector on the Bell-Everett ticket. Elected to Congress in 1865 from Fourth District; denied seat. State senator, 1868-1872; introduced legislation to create Iberia Parish. In 1872 removed to New Orleans, named registrar of land office, served until 1877. In 1873 elected to U. S. Senate by Kellogg legislature, but election contested by William L. McMillan, candidate of the McEnery legislature. Neither man seated. In 1878 named an attorney to prosecute the “whiskey cases” for the U. S. government. Also attorney for Myra Clark Gaines (q.v.). Author of Ray’s Digest of the Laws of Louisiana. Suffered a stroke in 1882. Died, New Orleans, March 4, 1888; interred St. Patrick’s Cemetery III. J.G.T.*† Sources: E. Russ Williams, Jr., “John Ray: Forgotten Scalawag,” Louisiana Studies, XIII (1974); Appleton’s Cyclopedia of American Biography, V; New Orleans Daily Picayune, March 5, 1888.

RAYMOND, Gilbert, clergyman. Born, Digueperse, Diocese of Clermont, France, November 4, 1809. Studied under the Sulpicians in his native land; ordained a Sulpician priest, 1834. Remained with the Congregation of Sulpicians until 1851, when he decided to become a missionary among Negroes in Louisiana. Arrived in the state, 1854, with brother J. François. Appointed pastor of St. Landry’s, Opelousas, with brother as assistant. Later, served Ville Platte and its environs. Later, became dean of the western portion of the state, from the Atchafalaya River to the Sabine. Advocated the establishment of parishes in Ville Platte, Washington, Church Point, Lake Charles, Lake Arthur, Bois Mallet, and other localities. Secretary of the first (October 1855), second (January 21-29, 1860) and third (January 12-19, 1873) provincial councils of New Orleans. Played an important role in the Fourth Archdiocesan Synod of 1858. Appointed second vicar general of archdiocese; also occupied post of chancellor. Died, Opelousas, April 5, 1889, from tetanus contracted by a thumb crushed and infected while he was personally repairing St. Landry’s Church. H.C.B. Sources: Roger Baudier, “Historical Collection,” Archdiocesan Archives; and Baudier, The Catholic Church in Louisiana (1939).

RAYMOND, Louise, see DE LA HOUSSAYE, Sidonie

READ, Brooks, radio and television journalist, political observer, actor, and storyteller. Born in Baton Rouge, La., August 4, 1926; son of Frank Clifford Read, Sr., and Margaret Josephine Huck Read. Married Maureen Hushar, 1949; children: Jennifer Hawthorne, Heather R., and Wendy. Began broadcasting at age of nine on Baton Rouge radio station WJBO by reading “Uncle Remus” stories. Became a full-time radio announcer at the age of thirteen. Entered Louisiana State University in 1941, after graduating from University High School of Baton Rouge. Awarded a scholarship from the National Broadcasting Company and attended Northwestern University in Evanston, Ill. Subsequentlly returned to Baton Rouge as a radio correspondent for the American Broadcasting Company. In 1945 and 1946, attended classes at the Russian Institute and Columbia University while serving as a part-time announcer for the NBC and ABC radio networks. Served in the Louisiana Army National Guard from 1947 to 1955, while managing several radio stations in the Pelican State. Worked as “Your Esso Reporter” at Baton Rouge television station WBRZ from 1955 to 1964. Interviewed Harry S Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, and Dean Rusk in his capacity as news reporter for broadcasts sponsored by Esso/Standard Oil Company of Louisiana. Read’s news coverage of Hurricane Audrey (1957), Fidel Castro’s early regime, and Louisiana’s general elections of the late 1950s and early 1960s are particularly noteworthy. Established his own advertising and public relations firm in the mid-1960s, while serving as capitol correspondent for New Orleans television station WWL. Filed special news stores for the Columbia Broadcasting Service and UPI-Movietone News, 1964. Worked briefly as press secretary for Gov. John J. McKeithen, 1969-1970. Served on numerous Louisiana Democratic party committees, 1974-1991. Taught journalism at Louisiana State University-Baton Rouge, 1980-1981. Had minor parts in several movies about Louisiana, including Blaze, Huey Long, and All the Kings Men. Died of cancer, August 6, 1991; interred at Roselawn Memorial Park, Baton Rouge. R.F.L. Sources: Brooks Read and Associates, “Biographical Data on Brooks Read,” Louisiana State Library vertical file; Louisiana Old State Capitol Collection; Brooks Read Collection, Louisiana State Archives; Baton Rouge Morning Advocate, April 25, 1954; August 8, 1991; March 10, 1992.

READ, Charles William “Savez,” soldier. Born, Yazoo County, Miss., May 12, 1840; son of William Read and Maria L. Dotson Read. Married (1) Rosa Hall, November 3, 1867; married (2) Nebraska Carter, February 23, 1884; children: Roby and Mallory, both seaman, and several daughters. Attended public schools in Jackson, Miss., and learned the printing trade as an apprentice. Appointed to United States Naval Academy, 1856; graduated, 1860. After studying French at the Academy, he used the term “savez” so frequently that it became a lifelong sobriquet. First naval assignment was to the steam frigate Powhatan at Veracruz, Mexico. Served until March 1861, when he resigned from the United States Navy and joined the Confederate Navy. Assigned to C.S.S. McRae at New Orleans. During Union attack on New Orleans, April 1862, Read assumed command of the McRae when the commander, Thomas B. Huger, was mortally wounded. Fought the McRae as long as possible and then scuttled and sank it to prevent the vessel falling into Union hands. Read next served on the C.S.S. Arkansas., seeing action on the Yazoo River, at Vicksburg, Miss., and at Baton Rouge, La., where the Arkansas had to be abandoned and burned, August 6, 1862. Posted to C.S.S. Florida until May 1863, when, off the coast of Brazil, he was given command of a captured Yankee brig, the Clarence, with permission to operate it as a privateer. In nineteen days of privateering, sailing the Clarence and later the swifter Tacony, Read captured twenty-one United States merchant vessels and one United States revenue cutter; most of these vessels were set afire and the crews taken prisoner or bonded and released. Read’s activities greatly disrupted American commercial shipping along the North American Atlantic coast. Described by author Robert Weems as “the greatest headache of the War” for United States Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles. For this action, Read posthumously received the Confederate Medal of Honor from the Sons of Confederate Veterans, August 9, 1979; the medal is on display at Beauvoir, the home of Jefferson Davis, Biloxi, Miss. The Tacony was captured near Portland, Me., June 27, 1863, and Read and his crew were imprisoned at Fort Warren (near Boston), Mass. After being exchanged, October 1864, Read served in the James River Squadron until given command of the C.S.S. William H. Webb on the Red River at Shreveport, La., March 31, 1865, with permission to take her to sea as a privateer. The Webb left Shreveport disguised as as a Union vessel, April 22, 1865, before word of Lee’s surrender had reached Shreveport; the Webb passed every obstacle until disabled by a single shot from the U.S.S. Richmond. It ran aground and burned forty miles below New Orleans, April 24, 1865. Read was captured April 26, 1865, and imprisoned in New York and Boston; paroled July 1865. After engaging in the Caribbean fruit trade, Read became a bar pilot at Southwest Pass of the Mississippi River. Appointed president of the New Orleans Board of Harbormasters by Governor Francis T. Nicholls, 1887, and served until his death. Died of Bright’s Disease, Meridian, Miss., January 25, 1890; interred Rose Hill Cemetery, Meridian. A.Y.B. Sources: Richard M. Basaco, “The Cruise of ‘Savez’ Read,” Civil War Times Illustrated, December 1863; Jefferson Davis Bragg, Louisiana in the Confederacy (1941); Norman C. Delaney, “Part I, Cruisers for the Confederacy, the North’s Naval Nightmare,” American History (1982); Charles L. Dufour, “Confederate Corsair: Lieutenant ‘Savez’ Read, C. S. N.,” Nine Men in Gray (1963), ch. 4; “Heroes of the Confederate Navy,” Confederate Veteran, (n. d.), 313; James D. Hill, “Charles W. Read, Confederate Von Luckner,” South Atlantic Quarterly, (1929); Walter Scott Meriwether, “The Paul Jones of the Confederacy: The Brilliant But Forgotten Exploits of Captain Charles W. Read of Mississippi,” Munsey’s Magazine, (n. d.); James Morris Morgan, Prince and Boatswain (1915); Robert H. Weems, Jr., Charles Read, Confederate Buccaneer (1982); letter from Keith A. Hardison, director of Beauvoir, September 30, 1997; New Orleans Times-Picayune, November 14, 1889; January 26, 1890; correspondence with personnel at the Mississippi State Library.

REAMES, Charles Wesley, physician, coroner of St. Helena Parish. Born, East Feliciana Parish, La., April 27, 1839; son of James Reames and Elizabeth Reames. Reared on a farm there. Education: Medical College of the University of Louisiana (now Tulane University), graduated 1861. Served as hospital steward for the Sixteenth Louisiana Regiment, CSA. Paroled at Meridian, Miss., May 14, 1865. Married Mary Eliza George, March 28, 1867. Five daughters. Practiced medicine in St. Helena Parish for thirty-five years. Lived mostly in Greensburg. Coroner of St. Helena Parish. Devout Methodist. Upon retirement moved to Kentwood, La., September 18, 1901. Reflecting on the turn of the century in his lifetime, he wrote in his diary on Monday, January 1, 1900: “I have entered this day with a cheerful heart and a determined will to live more observable of every known duty.” Died unexpectedly at home on October 1, 1901. Memorialized in the library of the Kentwood United Methodist Church. J.P.M. Sources: U. S. Census reports, 1830-1900; Tulane University records; necrology in New Orleans Picayune, October 3, 1901; private papers in the possession of Ethel Irene R. Morris, Kentwood, La.

RECLUS, Jacques Elisée, geographer, anarchist. Born, Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, France, March 15, 1830; son of Jacques Reclus and Zéline Trigant. Educated, Moravian school in Neuwied, Germany, Collège de Sainte-Foy-la-Grande; Protestant seminary in Montauban, France; University of Berlin, Germany. Tutor to the children of Septime and Emma Fortier, St. James Parish, La., 1853-1855. Worked for the Hachette publishing house in Paris, 1858-1871. Banished from France in 1872 for taking part in the Paris Commune in 1871. Lived in Switzerland, 1872-1890; France, 1890-1894; and Belgium, 1894-1905. Prolific writer on geographical and political subjects, including a nineteen-volume geographical encyclopedia of the world, Nouvelle géographie universelle (1876-1894). Several articles on Louisiana, the South, and the Civil War in the Revue des Deux Mondes (1859-1864) and Le Tour du Monde (1860). Professor of Geography in the New University of Brussels, 1894-1905. Married (1), December 13, 1858, Clarisse Brian (d. 1869) of Sainte-Foy-la-Grande. Children: Marguerite (b. 1860) and Jeanne (b. 1863). Married (2), 1870, Rosalie (“Fanny”) L’Herminez (d. 1874). Married (3), 1875, Ermance Gonini (d. 1918). Died, Thourout, Belgium, July 4, 1905; interred Cimetière Ixelles (suburb of Brussels). G.S.D. Sources: Gary S. Dunbar, Elisée Reclus, Historian of Nature; Gary S. Dunbar, “Elisée Reclus in Louisiana,” Louisiana History, XXIII (1982); Reclus Papers in Departement des manuscrits, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris (NAF 22909-22919).

REDDING, Earl William, singer, academic. Born, December 20, 1919, Moline, Ill.; son of Fearne Chappel Redding and Daniel Parks Redding; brother of Donald Charles Redding., Married Gwendolyn Emel, June 11, 1955. Children: William Charles, Susan Louise, Mark Stephen. Began piano study at the age of 5, violin at 8, and voice at 16. Received Bachelor of Music, Master of Music, and Doctorate in Musical Arts from the University of Missouri. Also studied at the Mannes School of Music in New York City, the American Theater Wing, Juilliard School of Music under such well-known teachers as Fritz Mahler, Peter Wilhousky, and Hans Schweiger. Studied orchestration with Ferde Grofe, voice with Leo Taubman, Frank LaForge, Edgar Schofield, Sydney Dietch and Della Hayward. During World War II directed musical shows and glee clubs for the army. After serving as musical director of Sommers Point Playhouse, Atlantic City, went to New York City and performed in a number of Broadway shows including Brigadoon, Winged Victory, Showboat, Kiss Me, Kate, Annie Get Your Gun, Up in Central Park, Bloomer Girl, and Naughty Marietta. Featured singer on Sid Caesar’s nationally televised “Show of Shows”; soloist on the Paul Whiteman Show; leading baritone in New York City Center Opera Company, Connecticut Opera Company, the Pittsburgh Civic Light Opera Company, and the Gateway Musical Playhouse in Atlantic City. Made national tours with Sol Hurok’s productions of Die Fledermaus, Brigadoon, and Annie Get Your Gun. Voice professor at Louisiana State University, 1954-1982. Musical director and conductor of the Baton Rouge Little Theatre orchestra for seventeen years; governor of NATS (National Association of Teachers of Singing) for region and State of Louisiana; national vice president of NATS; national chairman of the voice section of Music Teachers National Association. Music director at Ingleside Methodist Church, Baton Rouge, and later for First Methodist Church, Baton Rouge, 1959-1982. Died, Baton Rouge, April 2, 1982; interred Green Oaks Cemetery. M.S.W. Sources: Baton Rouge State Times, April 22, 1966; Baton Rouge, Morning Advocate, September 24, 1961; April 3, 1966; conversation with his widow, April 2, 1986.

REDMOND, John Davis, businessman, politician. Born, Greensburg, La., September 30, 1905; son of Andrew Redmond and Ophelia Perkins. Education: local schools. Married, February 27, 1926, Juanita Havard of Perrytown, Miss., daughter of William Havard, Wilkinson County, Miss., farmer, and Reva Ashely. Children: Virginia (b. 1927), Edward (b. 1928), Hazel (b. 1933). Active in Democratic party; sheriff, St. Helena Parish, 1936-1948. Member: Center Methodist Church. Died, New Orleans, April 25, 1972; interred Greensburg Cemetery. I.B.T. Source: Author’s research.

REED, Albert Granberry, academic. Born near Paducah, Ky., December 28, 1870; son of Pleasant G. and Martha J. Reed. Education: 1 year, Princeton University; Vanderbilt University, B. A., 1895; Yale University, M. A., 1899; scholar, Columbia University, 1897-1898; fellow, University of Chicago, 1904-1905; Austin Scholar, Harvard University, 1906-1907; Harvard University, Ph. D., 1907. Married, December 22, 1898, Margaret McDearmon of St. Charles, Mo. Children: Albert Granberry, Jr. (b. 1899), Frances McDearmon (b. 1901), Mary Barton (b. 1902), John Fielding (b. 1912), and Margaret McDearmon (b. 1914). Engaged in teaching, 1895-1932, at Louisiana State University, 1908-1932, and also at University of Texas, University of Missouri, Washington University in St. Louis, Duke University. Scholar and authority on Shakespeare, Chaucer, English poetry. Author of Rhetoric and Composition (1905) and English Literature: The Romantic Period (1929). Chairman, Graduate Council, LSU, 1930-1931. Reorganized and revised the publication of the LSU catalog. Frequent lecturer and speaker throughout Louisiana, especially at high school commencements, 1920-1932. A founder of Gamma Iota (LSU) chapter of Sigma Chi Fraternity. Member of First Methodist Church, Baton Rouge. Died, Baton Rouge, May 18, 1932; interred St. Charles, Mo. M.R.G. Source: Author’s research.

REED, Sarah Butler Towles, teacher, lobbyist. Born, Ouida Plantation, West Feliciana Parish, La., March 8, 1882; daughter of Daniel Towles and Sarah Butler Ker. Education: privately; Orleans Parish public schools; Newcomb College, B.A. 1904; Tulane University, M. A. 1906; Loyola University of the South, LL. D., 1925. Began teaching career 1905, Jackson, Miss.; taught in three Orleans Parish public schools, 1920-1951; introduced innovative classroom practices and was suspended twice for “insubordination” and “un-Americanism” before being absolved of all charges. As lobbyist for public educators attended every session of Louisiana legislature, 1925-1975. Under her guidance teachers achieved a tenure law, equal pay, and improved retirement benefits. Married Elkanah Reed (d. 1929). Charter member New Orleans Public School Teachers Association, 1924; executive secretary and legislative representative, NOPSTA, 1930-1975; recipient American Legion American Award, 1955; NOPSTA Service Award, 1971; New Orleans Retired Teachers Association Award of Merit, 1975. Died, May 8, 1978; interred Ouida Plantation. E.K.D. Source: Norah Towles Marsh, Sarah Towles Reed (1979).

REED, Théogène, pioneer merchant, civic leader. Born, Mamou Prairie, La., July 8, 1859; son of Franklin François Reed and Anastasia McGee. Married Emaise Guillory in Ville Platte, La., May 17, 1881; children: Anastasia (b. 1886), Olivier (b. 1888), Kenneth (b. 1890), Lydia (b. 1892), Agnes (b. 1896), Maria Mira (b. 1899), Percy (b. 1902), Rodney (b. 1904) and Sylvan (b. 1908). Career: Pioneer merchant and farmer. Owned T. Reed Farm, T. Reed Mercantile (currently the building housing the Jean Lafitte Prairie Cajun Cultural Center), and T. Reed Grocery. Director, First National Bank of Eunice; first school board member elected from Eunice; served on various building and finance committees for the construction of St. Edmund Catholic School and St. Anthony’s Catholic Church. Built one of Eunice’s finest Queen Anne style residences in 1902. Died, Eunice, February 21, 1925; interred in St. Paul Catholic Cemetery, Eunice, La. A.B.R. Sources: Eunice News; Donald J. Hebert, A History of St. Anthony’s Parish, Eunice, La.; B. Rodney Reed, Reed Family History (unpublished).

REES, David, planter, justice of the peace. Born, February 14, 1774, Morgantown, Penn­sylvania; son of John Rees and Margaret Jones. John served during the Revolutionary War as captain of the Second Battalion, Third Pennsylvania Regiment; David served during the War of 1812 as major in the Fifteenth Louisiana Militia; after war, resumed occupation as planter and justice of the peace. Married, February 9, 1905, Anastasia Guidry, daughter of Pierre Guidry, Grandpoint, St. Martin Parish, La., and Margaret Miller of Pensacola, Fla. Thirteen children of whom the following eight were living in 1835: Margaret (b. 1805), Julia (b. 1807), Charles (b. 1809), Eliza (b. 1816), Henry (b. 1818), John (b. 1825), George Washington (b. 1827), and Mary Anastasia (b. 1832). Active in politics, represented Attakapas County in the first legislature of Louisiana. A justice of the peace from 1805 to 1835. A member of the Episcopal church. Died, Breaux Bridge, 1835; interred St. Martinville Protestant graveyard. G.R. Sources: Ellen M. Beale, Genealogy of David Jones (1903); Tulane Library, David Rees Papers, Manuscript Section, Special Collection; Donald J. Hebert, Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); Powell A. Casey, Louisiana in the War of 1812 (1963) John B. Russell, Line Regimental Organization, 1776-1783 (n.d.).

REGAN, Amata, C. D. P., religious. Born at Egan, La., October 29, 1906; daughter of John Regan and Mariette Regan. Entered the Congregation of the Sisters of Divine Providence, 1925. Made her profession of vows, 1927. Taught in schools staffed by the Congregation in Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas until 1954. Regan had completed one year of studies for hospital administration when she was elected superior general in 1955. Re-elected in 1961. As superior general, Regan led the order in the early years of renewal before Vatican Council II. She was a member of the executive board of the Conference of Major Superiors of Women. Regan also served in the Liaison Committee of Major Superiors of Women and the Sister Formation Conference. She was vice-chairperson of the Southern Region of the Conference of Major Superiors of Women and chaired the organization’s Confraternity of Christian Doctrine (CCD) committee. Regan chaired the board of directors for Our Lady of the Lake University, 1955-67. In 1962, Regan was named to the American Catholic Who’s Who and in 1968 to Who’s Who of American Women. In 1964, she received the Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice papal award in recognition of the work undertaken by the Sisters of Divine Providence in education, social service, and health care. Upon leaving the office of superior general in 1967, Regan served consecutively as consultant for the Missionary Catechists of Divine Providence, instructor of French at Our Lady of the Lake University, director of the Sisters Renewal Center, and director of volunteers at Memorial Hospital, Floresville, Tex. She was coordinator of the Program for the Aging, Our Lady of Prompt Succor Parish, Alexandria, Louisiana, 1974-1980. She subsequently was appointed coordinator of McCullough Hall at Our Lady of the Lake Retirement Center. Died at San Antonio, November 9, 1980; interred at San Antonio. M.L. Sources: Author’s research.

REGAN, Godfrey Z., lawyer, jurist. Born, New Orleans, La., December 26, 1907; son of John Gordon Regan and Anna Carolyn Zehner. Married (1) Miriam Andrée Tosso, February 27, 1935; married (2) Marcella Moseley. Education: attended Ferrell’s Military Institute; Bachelor’s degree, Loyola University; law degree, Tulane University Law School, 1931. Served as an officer in the United States Navel Reserves during World War II. Served as attorney for the Orleans Parish Register of Conveyances, assistant city attorney, claims attorney for the New Orleans Sewerage and Water Board, and a term in the state house of representatives. Appointed to Louisiana’s fourth district court of appeals, May 8, 1948; elected to a full term, 1949; reelected, 1960; served until 1973. Member: International Legal Fraternity, New Orleans Athletic Club, the New Orleans Country Club, the Southern Yacht Club, Pendennis Club, American Legion, American Judicature Society, American Bar Association, Louisiana State Bar Association, New Orleans Bar Association, the Judicial Council, the Council of the Louisiana State Law Institute, and Conference of the Court of Appeals Judges. Died, New Orleans, November 22, 1990; interred, Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans, La. J.D.W. Sources: Paulette Holahan. ed., Biography of Louisiana Judges (1985); New Orleans Times-Picayune, November 24, 1990.

REGGIO, Francisco María de, soldier, member of Spanish cabildo, planter. Born, Comarca, Piedmont, Italy, 1728; son of François Marie, chevalier de Reggio. Educated in France. Served as a lieutenant in Louis XV’s Netherlands campaign of 1747. Promoted to captain of a detached company of the Marine in 1748. Assigned to Louisiana in 1750. Held a variety of commands in Louisiana and commanded numerous convoys between New Orleans and the Illinois country. Married, ca. 1751, Hélène Fleuriau, also a native of Piedmont, Italy, daughter of François Fleuriau and Pélagie de Morières. Children: Charles Antoine (Carlos Antonio, b. 1754), Brigida Elena (b. 1758), Louis Charles Emmanuel (b. 1760), Elena (b. 1762), Constanza (b. 1764), Adelaida (b. 1769), Petrona Sophia, Juana. Appointed, 1769, regidor perpetuo and alferez real (royal standard bearer), the highest ranking position on the New Orleans cabildo, a position he maintained until 1786. Joint author with Pedro Francisco Olivier de Vezin (q.v.) of a memorial to the king about the depressed economic conditions in the colony, November 22, 1771. Elected alcalde de primer voto in 1784. Died, New Orleans, October 7, 1787; interred St. Louis Cathedral. B.C. Sources: De Reggio Papers, Louisiana State University Archives; John E. Harkins, “The Neglected Phase of Louisiana’s Colonial History: The New Orleans Cabildo” (Ph. D. dissertation, Memphis State University, 1976); Acts of Juan Garic, Book 4, p. 158, Orleans Parish Notarial Archives; New Orleans Genesis, XVI; Alice D. Forsyth, Louisiana Marriages (1977); Jacqueline K. Voorhies, Some Late Eighteenth Century Louisianians (1973).

REID, Robert R., attorney, politician. Born, Madison County, Miss., March 12, 1855; son of Columbus Reid and Frances Herndon McKie. Married three times; eleven children. Graduate of the Virginia Military Institute; studied law at the University of Louisiana (Tulane University) Law School. Studied law under E. R. Craig, before being admitted to the Louisiana bar, April 12, 1877. Served as Judge of the 18th and 25th Judicial District, 1892-1904, at the height of the violence that overwhelmed the piney woods area of the eastern Florida Parishes. Though regarded by his enemies as a leader of one of the factions central to the violence, Reid was widely admired for his impartial dispensation of justice under exceptionally stressful circumstances. Delegate to the 1921 Louisiana state constitutional convention. Elected to the Louisiana supreme court, he took office on January 2, 1923, and died of heart failure at his home in Amite, La., on January 14, 1923. S.C.H. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, January 15, 1923; July 4, 1897; 25th Judicial District Court Minutes, Succession No. 852 A, Register of Doctors, Tangipahoa Parish Conveyance Records, December 2, 1882; Succession of Dr. Columbus Reid, No. 443, April 13, 1886, Tangipahoa Parish Clerk of Court Archives; Milton Strickland to Tom Ellis, February 15, 1896, in Ellis Family Papers, Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collection, Louisiana State University; Walter Hamlin, The History of the Supreme Court of Louisiana (1949); William Maden Deacon and Henry Plauché Dart, Reference Biography of Louisiana Bench and Bar, 1922 (1922).

REID, William McMillan, rice miller and organization executive director. Born, Starkville, Miss., 1891. Married Sarah Pearce; two children. Reid grew to maturity in Orange, Tex. Career: Orange Rice Mill, 1911-1932; became secretary/treasurer and general manager; elected to the executive committee of the Rice Millers Association (RMA) in 1928; served as executive director of RMA, 1932-1962, and as president, 1950-62. Organized the United States Rice Export Development Association and served two terms as president; Rice Export Corporation, and Rice Enrichment Corporation. As RMA executive, Reid helped secured preferential quotas which opened Cuban market to American rice; successfully lobbied against legislative attempts to incorporate a processing tax into the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) of 1933; and helped raise profit margins for rice producers and rice processors. Represented rice interests in relations with government; chaired committee which wrote a rice marketing agreement under the terms of the AAA; chaired the Board of Control established by the agreement; member of United States Department of Agriculture Rice Advisory Committee. Active in civic organizations in both Orange and New Orleans, the latter city being site of RMA headquarters. Member: Chamber of Commerce and Rotary Club. In Orange, Reid served on the board of the Orange Wharf and Dock Commission and appointed to the Texas Pilots’ Commission; director, International House, New Orleans. Died November 29, 1979, interred, Garden of Memories Cemetery, New Orleans, La. I.B.T. Sources: Rice Journal, v. 65, # 13 (December 1962); obituary, New Orleans Times-Picayune, December 2, 1979; William M. Reid Papers, Southwestern Archives and Manuscripts Collections, Dupré Library, University of Southwestern Louisiana.

REIMERS, Frederick W., lumber company executive, banker. Born, Rock Island, Ill., October 7, 1877; one of four children of John J. Reimers and Marietta Denkmann; brother of Charles Dietrich Reimers, founder of Fort Worth Star-Telegram. Graduated in first class of electrical engineers, University of Illinois, 1900, B. S. degree. Married Julia Fay Warren, September 20, 1905, in Rock Island, Ill. Children: Warren Denkmann; Marietta Reimers Schneider of Hammond, La.; and Frederick Ray, a submarine officer who was lost at sea in World War II. First employment, manager of People’s Power Company, Moline, Ill. In 1914 was to be sent to Atlanta to develop the electric transit system there when the Denkmann family asked him to go to Hammond, La., and manage their southern holdings which included seven sawmills and one railroad in Louisiana and Mississippi. As general manager of Denkmann family lumber operations, was responsible for making them a hallmark of excellence in the lumber industry. Was an advocate and pioneer in the reforestation movement and served as president of the Southern Pine Association, 1927-1928. For overseas trade, organized the American Pitch Pine Export Company which included member mills from Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, and Alabama. Helped form a second export company for lumber, the Caribbean Lumber Company, which traded with Puerto Rico. To attract farming families to cultivate the cut-over lands of his lumber interests, set up a demonstration farm at Genessee. Farmers were attracted from the Midwest to purchase land in the region. In additon to lumbering activities, was a co-founder of the Citizens’ National Bank of Hammond, served as president and chariman of the board. Participation in civic work and organizations was considerable. In collaboration with his wife, Fay, raised funds for the salary of Louisiana’s first paid music teacher in the public schools in Hammond; took part in the establishment of Zemurray Park in Hammond and donated the baseball field known as Reimers Field to this park; built the Reimers Memorial Auditorium in memory of son Frederick and also the First Christian Church complex, and cooperated in the establishment of the Miller Memorial Public Library. Was a member of President Hoover’s Citizens Committee, of the Louisiana Forestry Association, of the Southern Pine Association, of the Oak Knoll Country Club (which he co-founded), was a Thirty-second Degree Mason (Shriner, Knights Templar, and Cross of Constantine), and belonged to the Ambassador Club, the International House, and the Plimsoll Club in New Orleans. Was named Citizen of the Year in Hammond in 1950. Died, July 31, 1958. J.J.J. Sources: Denkmann-Reimers family papers in possession of Marietta Reimers; Who Was Who in America, 1951-1960, vol. 3 (1960); American Lumberman, (March 31, 1928); J. O. Stamps Scrapbook in J. O. Stamps Collection, Southeastern Louisiana University Archives and Special Collections; and Elizabeth Ridgel, “Natalbany, Louisiana: Mill Town, U.S.A.,” Southeast Louisiana Historical Association Papers, III (1976).

REINHARDT, Julian Carl “Dutch,” coach. Born, Centralia, Ill., June 24, 1907; son of Julius Reinhardt and Alberta Almond Reinhardt. Married Martha Perkins of St. Francisville, Louisiana; children: Rollie and Jimmie. Graduated in 1931 from University of Iowa, where he had earned All-American honors in basketball. Came to Southwestern Louisiana Institute (S.L.I) in September, 1931. Served as S.L.I.’s basketball coach, 1931-56; compiled a 346-253 record. Also served as freshman football coach for some years. From 1956 until 1975 was Reinhardt was the athletic trainer at S.L.I. /University of Southwestern Louisiana (U.S.L.). Served as associate athletic director, 1975-76. Elected to Helm’s Athletic Hall of Fame, 1956; U.S.L. Hall of Fame, 1981; Louisiana Athletic Trainers Association Hall of Fame, 1981; Louisiana Association of Basketball Coaches Hall of Fame, 1984; and Louisiana Sports Hall of Fame, 1986. Served as counselor at Red Arrow Camp, Boulder Junction, Wis., almost every summer after 1924. Died September 11, 1989. I.B.T. Sources: Vertical File, Louisiana Room, Dupré Library, University of Southwestern Louisiana; Julian C. “Dutch” Reinhardt Papers, Southwestern Archives and Manuscripts Collection, Dupré Library, University of Southwestern Louisiana; Lafayette Daily Advertiser, September 13, 1989; September 18, 1989.

REINIKE, Charles Henry, artist, teacher. Born, New Orleans, 1906. Education: Gradham School of Art, New Orleans; Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Married (1), 1932, Vera Hefter (1908-1969) of Hamburg, West Germany, also an artist. Children: Audrey Reinike DeBuys (b. 1935), Gretchen Reinike Rothschild (b. 1940), and Charles Henry Reinike III (b. 1947), all artists. Began the New Orleans School of Art, later renamed the Reinike Academy of Art. Beginning in 1933 the Reinikes conducted summer art classes in the country. World War II interrupted his career. During that time he worked at Higgins Industries in New Orleans, a company that built boats for the armed services. The Reinike Academy closed in 1944. After the war he opened the Reinike Gallery on the old school site, 630 Toulouse St. Concentrated on his art, accepting commissions and short-term teaching positions. Some of his major commissions include: the mosaics and murals in Our Lady of Guadeloupe Chapel, the murals, windows, and stations of the cross at the Mercy Hospital Chapel, and a bas-relief at Lake Lawn Mausoleum. He was president of the New Orleans Art League; president of the Louisiana Society of Etchers; vice-president of the Art Association of New Orleans; and a member of the Arts and Crafts Club. Married (2), 1975, Marianne Greene Cummins. Died, New Orleans, October 27, 1983; interred Greenwood Cemetery. K.W.H. Sources:  New Orleans Item, June 7, 1949; Historic New Orleans Collection, Charles H. Reinike Louisiana Watercolors from 1935-1952 (1981); obituary, New Orleans Times-Picayune/States-Item, October 28, 1983.

REITMEYER, George H., businessman, politician. Resident of New Orleans. Married (1) Emily A. Geng; married (2) Marion L. Aiklen. Children: George J., and four daughters. Member of state house of representatives, 1924-1932; state senator, 1932-1946; vice president, Victory Oil Company; Democratic delegate to national convention in Chicago, 1940; vice president and chairman of Delgado board of managers. Member: Fraternal Order of Eagles, Elks, New Orleans Athletic and Choctaw Clubs. Died, New Orleans, November 24, 1946; interred Metairie Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, November 25, 1946; Nicholas Russell Murray, comp., Orleans Parish, Louisiana, 1830-1900 (n.d.).

REIZENSTEIN, Ludwig von, author, scientist. Born, 1829; son of Baron Alexander von Reizenstein, the royal chamberlain of Ludwig I of Bavaria. Studied at Freising and Munich, Germany. Joined the corps of “Alemannen”—the student bodyguard of Lola Montez, mistress of Ludwig I. Disowned by his father. Arrived New Orleans, 1849; became a draftsman and civil engineer. Contributed liberally to the ’48 refugees, and pursued a venture in writing. First appearance in print was in Der Alligator in 1851 and in Der Pekin Demokrat in 1852. Novel, Die Geheimnisse von New Orleans (The Secrets of New Orleans) published in 1854; influenced by impending visit of Prince Paul of Wurttemberg to New Orleans. Strongly opposed public acceptance of Prince Paul. Began a serial of his “chronique scandaleuse,” which was published in Louisiana Staats-Zeitung, a more radical newspaper than the older Deutsche Zeitung. Articles later published in book format in five-volume sets. Realizing his crusade against the unfavorable conduct of physicians during the yellow-fever plagues and landlords, etc., had gone too far, purchased the entire edition to withdraw it from the public. Returned to science as a student of physical science, ornithology, and zoology. Member of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia; collected rare insects. Collection was largest in the state, but in 1862, following a series of public lectures, sold it by lottery. Writings of these later years appeared in English presses, some being published in the New Orleans Daily Picayune; Fauna and Flora of Louisiana ran in the Staats-Zeitung in serial format. Civil War service with First Regiment, Second Brigade, First Division of Louisiana Militia. After Civil War, continued to work as architect, engineer, and draughtsman in New Orleans. Samples of work appeared in the Plan Books of the New Orleans Notarial Archives. Died, New Orleans, 1888; interred Cypress Grove Cemetery II. R.L. Sources: Mary Louise Christovich, et al., New Orleans Architecture, Vol. I, The Lower Garden District (1971); John Frederick Nau, The German People of New Orleans, 1850-1900 (1955); Robert T. Clark, Jr., “The German Liberals in New Orleans (1840-1860),” Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XX (1937); Robert T. Clark, Jr., “The New Orleans German Colony in the Civil War,” Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XX (1937).

RELF, Richard, merchant, banker. Born, Philadelphia, March 12, 1776. Removed to New Orleans in 1792. Married three times, Gertrudes de Quiñones (d. 1807), Anne (d. 1811), and Amelia (d. 1826). Relf and his partner, Beverly Chew (q.v.), were involved in a number of commercial ventures until financial reverses caused by the War of 1812 brought about the bankruptcy of their firm. In 1801 the firm of Chew and Relf entered into a partnership with the prominent New Orleans merchant Daniel Clark, Jr. (q.v.), a partnership that was to remain in effect until the latter’s death in August, 1813. Chew and Relf served as executors of Clark’s estate thereby propelling Relf into a controversy that was to remain a part of his life until his death. Clark’s daughter, Myra Clark Gaines (q.v.), in attempting to prove her legitimacy and thus her right to her father’s estate, claimed that Relf had concealed an 1813 will which left the bulk of her father’s considerable fortune to her. Relf maintained that no such will ever existed and that Myra’s only concern was gaining access to her father’s wealth. The case continued for more than half a century with Relf directing efforts to thwart Myra. Although the Gaines case brought Relf a great deal of public attention, he was also a notable figure on the New Orleans scene in his own right. From 1818 until his death, Relf served as a cashier of the Louisiana State Bank and was also closely identified with the establishment of the Canal Bank. Relf also held the position of Steamship Debenture Clerk in the New Orleans customhouse. An Episcopalian, Relf served as vestryman and senior warden of Christ Church. Died, October 22, 1857; interred Girod Street Cemetery. M.W. Sources: Nolan Harmon, Jr., The Famous Case of Myra Clark Gaines (1946); John S. Kendall, “The Strange Case of Myra Clark Gaines,” Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XX (1937); New Orleans Daily Crescent, obituary, October 26, 1857.

REMAGE, Laura Sherman, pioneer. Born, Olney, Ill., January 20, 1865. Reared Waterloo, Iowa; removed to Jennings, La., 1883, with her parents (J. W. Hulbert), teacher in Calcasieu Parish schools near Elton, La.; became friends with colony members from France who settled north of Elton; she and her mother were among the first Iowa women to arrive in Jennings. Married, November 16, 1886, Dr. George W. Remage (1829-1921) pioneer physician and Civil War surgeon who opened first drug store in Jennings; they were first couple from above the Mason-Dixon line to become permanent residents. Their home, Magnolia, was located beside the drug store, on the corner of Main and West Division streets. Civic minded, Mrs. Remage was charter member of the Woman’s Literary Club and Civic League. Died, March 1950; interred Greenwood Cemetery, Jennings. M.H.N.† Sources: Jennings Carnegie Library Historical files; Jennings Daily Times, March 13, 1950; interview, Gertrude W. Townsend.

RENAULT, Philippe (de), colonial settler, ironworker, engineer. One of two men of similar name to serve as the director of mines for the Company of the Indies, ca. 1725-29 (see also, Philippe de La Renaudière [q.v.]). Said to be “an ironworker of Maubeuge,” Renault first appears in the colony in 1721, prospecting unsuccessfully along the Illinois River. Moved in 1722 to the Meramec River in present-day Missouri, where he built a “fort” of stakes to protect himself from Indian attack. The tiny village of Saint-Philippe grew around this fortified home. By February, 1725, thanks to newly won support from influential officials in the Company of the Indies, Renault secured the title of director (variously, director-general) of mines—a post he held until ca. 1729, when faith waned in Upper Louisiana’s potential to produce metallurgical riches. The 1726 census of the colony and various documents of Fort de Chartres also identify Renault, in this period, as director of the concession that Pierre Dugué de Boisbriant (q.v.), Louisiana’s commandant general, held with Marc-Antoine de La Loire des Ursins. A 1732 census of Southern Illinois tallies the St. Philippe population as the “concession of Renault, north of Fort de Chartres,” and credits it with twenty-four slaves, seventeen legitimate children, and nine houses, but it does not state the number of free adults. A 1733 petition to build a mill refers to Renault as “exercising the functions of engineer in Illinois.” Otherwise, his remaining activities in the colony appear to have been more private than official. In 1743, Renault returned to France, where he filed a statement of his activities in the Illinois country. There is no record of his return. The only family identifiable for Renault in the colony is a grown son and namesake who joined him in 1729 and temporarily operated a brewery and distillery on land Renault purchased for him at St. Philippe. E.S.M. Sources: Register 1, Parish of Ste. Anne, Fort du Chartres; Margaret Kimball Brown and Lawrie Cena Dean, The Village of Chartres in Colonial Illinois, 1720-65 (1977), numerous entries; 1726 and 1732 censuses of Louisiana, Colonies, G1, 464, Archives Nationales, Paris; “Records of the Superior Council of Louisiana,” Louisiana Historical Quarterly, 5 (1922): 257; Marcel Giraud, A History of French Louisiana, vol. 5, The Company of the Indies, 1723-1731, Brian Pearce, trans. (1991), chapter 13; Elizabeth Shown Mills, “Parallel Lives: Philippe de La Renaudière and Philippe (de) Renault, Directors of the Mines, Company of the Indies,” Natchitoches Genealogist (1998).

RENDON, Francisco, administrator. Born, Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, ca. 1760. After an advanced education he traveled to Cadiz and entered royal service in 1779. He travelled to Philadelphia as an assistant to the Spanish commissioner to the United States, Juan Morales. When Morales died in April, 1780, Rendon remained as acting commissioner until 1784. In 1786 he was transferred to Cuba before being recalled to Madrid in 1787. He was employed in the Ministry of Finance for Spain and the Indies from 1787 to 1793. Served as intendant of Louisiana, September, 1794, to April, 1796. Intendant of Zacatecas, Mexico, 1796-1810. Intendant of Oaxaca, Mexico, 1817-1821. Major contributions in Louisiana included: aiding the governor in preventing a general insurrection in the colony; preparing a new tariff for imports; increasing sales tax revenues; establishing contacts with an English factor in Michilimakinac, Canada, to encourage upriver pelt trade with New Orleans; lobbying for a reduction of import duties from 15% to 6%; and establishing a new settlement in the Ouachita district. Married with a large family. Died sometime after 1821. B.C. Sources: Relación de los Méritos de Francisco Rendon, Spain. Archivo General de Indias, Caracas 473; AGI, Audiencia de Santo Domingo, 2606; Vidal, “Corregidores e Intendentes de la Provincia de Zacatecas,” Memórias de la Academía Mexicana de la Historia, XXIII; Brian R. Hamnett, Politics and Trade in Southern Mexico (1971); Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Americana, Vol. 50.

RESWEBER, Eugene Leonard, politician, farmer. Born, St. Martinville, La., May 29, 1894; son of Eugene N. Resweber and Noelie Perrilleaux. Education: local schools. Served in France and Germany in World War I. Entered public office as tax collector, St. Martin Parish; served in that capacity, 1924-1932. Elected sheriff, St. Martin Parish, 1932; served in that capacity until retirement, 1964. Member, Louisiana Peace Officers Association, Woodmen of the World, Veterans of Foreign Wars. Roman Catholic. Married, June 1921, Louise Smith of New Orleans. Children, Eugene Leonard, Jr., Goldie Marie, Anna Louise, and Christie Barbara. Died, January 20, 1972; interred St. Michael’s Cemetery, St. Martinville. G.R.C. Sources: William E. Skaggs and J. B. Lux, eds., Louisiana Business and Professional Directory (n.d.); St. Martinville Teche News, January 27, 1972.

REY, Octave, politician. Born, New Orleans, 1837. Civil War service: lieutenant, First Louisiana Native Guards Regiment, Confederate militia; captain, First Louisiana Native Guards Regiment, U. S. Army. Captain, New Orleans Metropolitan Police, 1868-1877. State senator. Married; five children. A.W.B. Sources: Rodolphe L. Desdunes, Our People and Our History (1973); Andrew Booth, comp., Records of Louisiana Confederate Soldiers and Louisiana Confederate Commands, 3 vols. (1920), III.

REYER, George, law-enforcement officer. Born, New Orleans, September 25, 1895. Education: St. Henry’s Parochial School. Employed as patrolman, September 20, 1918; promoted to detective, April 1, 1921; appointed captain of detectives, July 9, 1925; made supervisor of police, December 19, 1928; appointed chief of police, May 7, 1930; superintendant of police, December 24, 1931. Resigned from police department as superintendant, 1946. Early in career, eliminated the notorious “Terminal Gang”. Married, Rosalie (Lillie) Lala. Member: Catholic church; Policemen and Firemen Holy Name Society; president, International Association of Chiefs of Police, 1938; president, Louisiana Peace Officers Association. Died, New Orleans, March 22, 1979; interred Metairie Cemetery. C.A.D. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, March 24, 1979; oral interview, Mrs. George Reyer, June 1, 1983.

RHEA, John, businessman, politician, jurist. Born in Pennsylvania; son of John Rhea and Mary Smith. Established mercantile business on Thompson’s Creek, late eighteenth century; named alcalde (magistrate), First Division, New Feliciana, 1802-1810. Married Emeila Rosa Rowell, daughter of James Rowell and Maria Aucoin, May 8, 1805. Elected representative of Feliciana to Convention of West Florida, June 23, 1810; elected president of Convention, September 1810. Appointed senator in West Florida legislature, November 1810. Named by W. C. C. Claiborne (q.v.) first parish judge of Feliciana, January 19, 1811. Died, 18(?). E.K.D. Sources: Diocese of Baton Rouge Records; Stanley Clisby Arthur, The Story of the West Florida Rebellion (1935); Dunbar Rowland, ed., Official Letterbooks of W. C. C. Claiborne (1917).

RHODES, Doris Lindsey, Holland, politician, newspaper editor and publisher. Born, Greensburg, St. Helena Parish, La., December 12, 1909; daughter of Hollis Womack Lindsey and Margaret Minerva Thompson; brother of professional baseball pitcher Jim Lindsey, who appeared in two World Series as a member for the St. Louis Cardinals. Married (1) Thomas M. Holland, February 16, 1934; one son and one daughter; married (2) J. H. Rhodes, 1968. Doris L. Rhodes, graduated from Greensburg High School, where she was a star basketball player. Attended Baton Rouge Business School; located near the Old State Capital, the school trained typists for the state government. Lindsey became one of twelve typists employed by the state house of representatives. Lindsey’s future husband Thomas Holland also grew up in St. Helena Parish and was elected to the state senate in 1932; when Senator Holland died amidst his reelection bid of 1936, the area’s Democratic Executive Committee decided to place his wife’s name on the ballot and since no other candidates were allowed to file, Doris Lindsey Holland became the first female state legislator in Louisiana history. (Although technically elected, Holland has generally been viewed as having been appointed due to the questionable tactics used on her behalf.) Holland served out her four-year term in the state senate and was subsequently elected to the state house of representatives, May 12, 1940; reelected, 1944; Holland ran for the state house again in 1948 and in 1955, but was defeated in both attempts. Although certainly significant to the history of Louisiana women in politics, Holland drafted little significant legislation and was not very active in her twelve years in the state legislature. She was publisher and editor of the St. Helena Echo, 1936-1958. Gov. Edwin W. Edwards gave Holland a public service award in 1992 as part of the Governor’s Conference on Women, and she was honored by the Louisiana Center for Women and Government at Nicholls State University. Died, Baton Rouge, May 30, 1997; interred, Greensburg Cemetery, Greensburg, La. J.D.W. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, June 2, 1997; Louise B. Johnson, Women of the Louisiana Legislature, 1936-1986 (1986).

RIANO Y BARCENA, Juan Antonio de, naval officer, administrator. Born, Lierganes, Spain, May 16, 1757; son of Juan Manuel de Riaño y Cuetos and Rosa de la Barcena y Velarde. Attended the Guarda Marina, a naval school in Cadiz. After graduation, promoted to ensign and took part in the ill-fated Spanish invasion of Argel led by former Louisiana governor Alejandro O’Reilly (q.v.). Despite disaster, Riaño was promoted to rank of sub-lieutenant in 1778 and assigned to duty in New Orleans. With the outbreak of the war of the American Revolution he acted as a pilot for New Orleans naval forces in the conquest of Mobile and later carried important dispatches between José de Espeleta (q.v.) and Bernardo de Gálvez (q.v.), his most notable action was to accompany Gálvez (on the ship Galveztown) in his ship Valenzuela into Pensacola Bay and thereby demonstrate to reluctant Cuban naval officers that it was possible to enter the bay without being destroyed by British guns. This action on March 17, 1781, contributed to the Spanish defeat of the British. With the end of hostilities Riaño was promoted to rank of lieutenant-commander and returned to New Orleans. Married, October 24, 1784, Victoire de St. Maxent (q.v.), daughter of Gilbert de St. Maxent (q.v.), New Orleans merchant, and sister-in-law of Bernardo de Gálvez, Luis de Unzaga (q.v.), and Manuel de Flon (q.v.). Children: Gilberto, Honorato (b. 1791), Rosa, and Gil. Following his marriage he returned to Spain to settle the estate of his deceased father. While there he requested a transfer to the army, pleading declining health. He was reassigned to the viceregal capital in Mexico City. Arrived there in late 1786 only to learn of death of brother-in-law the condé de Gálvez (Bernardo), viceroy of New Spain. Participated in funeral ceremonies with Manuel de Flon. Received news of his promotion to graduated colonel of the infantry and was named the first intendant of Valladolid (Province of Michoacan) in 1787. As intendant he successfully instituted the new ordinances. After five years in Valladolid he applied for and was named intendant of Guanajuato, New Spain’s richest mining province on January 28, 1792. Both contemporary and modern critics view his administration there as a model of enlightened government. His home and family acted as the center of French culture in the region and regular guests included some of Mexico’s most notable intellectuals. Among the important public works undertaken during his administration was the building of a new elegant public granary (alhóndiga). Here Riaño was forced to retreat with his eldest son in late September 1810, following the outbreak of the Hidalgo revolt. Died during the fighting on September 28, 1810. B.C. Sources: Eric Beerman, “History and Genealogy of Juan Antonio Riaño, 1757-1810,” New Orleans Genesis, XVIII (1979); J. J. Rubio Mañé, “Matrimonios de los Intendentes Flon y Riaño,” Boletín del Archivo General de la Nación (Mexico), XV, (1945); James Julian Coleman, Jr., Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent (1968); D. A. Brading, Miners and Merchants in Bourbon Mexico (1971); F. D. Borja Medina Rosas, José de Ezpeleta, Governador de Mobilia (1981); Christon I. Archer, The Army in Bourbon Mexico (1977); Hugh H. Hamill, The Hidalgo Revolt (1966).

RICE, Thomas Dartmouth “Daddy,” minstrel performer. Born, New York City, May 20, 1808. Though not a native of Louisiana, had strong, indirect connection with New Orleans where he visited on at least four distinct occasions in the 1830s and 1840s. Returned to the celebrated St. Charles Theatre in 1842, previously appearing there in 1836 when he performed as part of the skit, “Corn Meal,” based upon the activities of an old Negro street vendor/folk singer possibly influential as a prototype for Rice’s own blackface routines. Newspaper research has documented his presence in the city again in 1838 and also in 1835, not long after the time when he is alleged to have developed the famous “Jump Jim Crow” routine, raising some question as to whether he copied it from George Nichols, reported to have stylized the routine earlier as a blackface clown in the 1820s and 1830s with the Purdy Brown Circus which wintered in New Orleans. Married Charlotte B. Gladstone, an English national, June 18, 1837. Died, New York City, September 19, 1860; interred Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn. C.D.J. Sources: Dictionary of American Biography, vol. XV; Curtis D. Jerde, Research Notes, Ph. D. candidate in American History, Tulane University; Henry Kmen, Music in New Orleans: The Formative Years, 1791-1841 (1966); “Old Corn Meal: A Forgotten Urban Folksinger,” Journal of American Folklore, LXXV (1962); Edward LeRoy Rice, Monarchs of Minstreley (1911); Robert C. Toll, Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth Century America (1974); Carl F. Wittke, Tambo and Bones: A History of the American Minstrel Stage (1930).

RICHARD, Ellis, quarterhorse breeder and trainer. Born near Bosco, St. Landry Parish, La.; son of Maurice Richard. Community leader and proprietor of Tee Maurice Dance Hall and race track between Bristol and Bosco. Important oral history informant. Died, near Bosco, November, 1982. B.J.A. Source: Author’s research.

RICHARD, Eugenie Louise, educator, postmistress, pharmacist. Born, Bayou Goula, La., September 26, 1880; daughter of Joseph Richard and Florestine Lambremont. Education: Newcomb College, New Orleans; Spencer Business College, New Orleans. Taught children of Bayou Goula from the early 1900s to 1938. Removed to Baton Rouge to become head of English Department, Spencer’s Business College. Continued to teach at Spencer’s until 90 years old. Died, 1980, at age 99. E.N.E. Source: Author’s research.

RICHARDS, Adele (Mrs. Ed Adrion), civic leader. Born, New Orleans, 1886; daughter of Louis A. Richards and Emily D. Nelson. Education: New Orleans public schools; City Normal School of New Orleans; New Orleans College of Pharmacy, graduated 1904. Was one of the state’s first three women graduates in pharmacy. Married Edwin L. Adrion, March 1905. Children: E. Lester, Vernon R. Civic service: president of Mother’s Club, 1907-1911, 1914-1917; executive secretary of Home Service Division, A.R.C.; founder and president of Y.W.C.A. Patriotic League; founder and president of home for working girls; member, Council of Defense; liaison officer with Camp Beauregard; president, Alexandria B.P.W.C.; campaigned for the establishment of the State Industrial School for Girls and the State Colony and Training School; organized annual Christmas tree party for underprivileged children, annual Doll and Toy Fund parties, Matinee Musical Club, the Poets’ Circle, and the Alexandria Service League. For her civic leadership, she was named “woman of the year” in Alexandria. Died, Alexandria, April 16, 1962; interred Greenwood Memorial Park, Pineville, La. C.A.B. Sources: Ellis Arthur Davis, ed., The Historical Encyclopedia of Louisiana, II (1937); New Orleans Times-Picayune, April 17, 1962; New Orleans States-Item, April 17, 1962.

RICHARDSON, Francis DuBose, planter. Born, Woodville, Miss., 1812; son of Col. John G. Richardson of Sumpter District, S. C., and Margaret DuBose (d. 1826) of the same place. Education: at home; University of Virginia. Removed with father to a plantation on Bayou Teche in 1829. Married (1) Bethia F. Liddell (d. 1853) of Wilkinson County, Miss., daughter of Judge Moses Liddell. Children: Frank Liddell, Margaret, and Bethia, who married Donelson Caffery (q.v.). Married (2) Lizzie Dunbar Holmes. Children: Eveline, Daniel D., Kate, Eloise, Helen, Annie, and Mary Louisa. Served in the state legislature during the 1840s; introduced legislation to provide for the erection and maintenance of the Chalmette monument. A founder of the Asylum for the Blind, Baton Rouge. Before Civil War was a frequent contributor to the New Orleans Daily Picayune. Author of “The Teche Country Fifty Years Ago,” which appeared in Southern Bivouac (January, 1886). Acquired Bayside Plantation in cooperation with his father-in-law, Judge Liddell. Built Bayside Plantation house, 1850. Acquired sole ownership of Bayside before the Civil War. Plantation passed to his son, Frank L., and daughter, Bethia, in 1867. Removed to Missouri, 1874, but spent six months each year visiting family in Louisiana. Died, Franklin, La., June 15, 1901; interred family cemetery, Bayside Plantation, Jeanerette, La. G.R.C. Sources: New Orleans Daily Picayune, June 16, 1901; “Memoirs of Francis D. Richardson Written December 1, 1895”; St. Mary Parish Conveyance Records.

RICHARDSON, Henry Hobson, architect. Born, Priestly Plantation, St. James Parish, La., September 29, 1838, eldest of four children; son of Henry Dickson Richardson and Catherine Caroline Priestly. Father a Bermuda-born New Orleans cotton and iron merchant; mother a grand-daughter of English chemist Joseph Priestly. Education: public and private schools of New Orleans, where he displayed an aptitude for drawing and mathematics. Attended University of Louisiana (now Tulane University), 1855, before entering Harvard to study civil engineering. Graduated 1859 with a desire to study architecture. Father died in 1854, but stepfather, John D. Bein, agreed to finance studies at Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. Studied under Louis Jules André and worked for a French architectural firm. At start of Civil War, Boston friends, including fiancée Julia Gorham Hayden, daughter of a Boston physician, persuaded Richardson to remain in France and not fight for the Confederacy. After the war, despite the protests of his family, Richardson settled in New York City (autumn, 1865) and sought work as an architect. First commission, November 1866, was a Unitarian church in Springfield, Mass. Two more commissions—another church and a railroad office—followed within a year. Married in January 1867. Entered partnership with Charles D. Gambrill, 1867-1868, but both men worked independently of each other. Many early commissions came from New England, including Trinity Church, Boston, 1872, which earned Richardson a national reputation. Removed to Brookline, Mass., in 1874, and opened own office there in 1878. Richardson’s most important early works were ecclesiastical, but his mature designs were secular, including private residences, libraries, public buildings, commercial buildings, and railroad stations. Although most of his commissions came from New York and Massachusetts, other important works were built at Pittsburgh, Chicago, Washington, D. C., Detroit, St. Louis, Cincinnati, New Orleans, and Baton Rouge. Noted for treating his designs as artistic wholes, in which he lavished attention on decoration of interiors and artistic texture of exteriors. Frequently inspected his building projects and incessantly tinkered with details, even during construction. Greatest artistic achievement was almost single-handed revival of the Spanish-French Romanesque style. “Richardsonian” architecture, characterized by the “Richardson arch,” dominated architectural fashion in the eastern and midwestern United States until the neo-classical revival ushered in by Chicago’s World Fair (1893). Richardson’s use of materials and ideal of artistic unity in architectural design profoundly influenced young architects like Charles McKim, Stanford White, John Wellborn Root, and Louis Sullivan. Member: American Institute of Architects, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Archaeological Institute of America, and Royal Institute of British Architects. Died, Brookline, April 27, 1886, of Bright’s disease; interred Boston. Survived by wife and six children. D.S.* Sources: Mariana Griswold Van Rensselaer, Henry Hobson Richardson and His Works (1888); Henry-Russell Hitchcock, The Architecture of H. H. Richardson and His TImes (revised 1961); Henry Hobson Richardson as a Victorian Architect (1966); Dictionary of American Biography.

RICHARDSON, Jim W., jurist. Born, Sheridan, La., February 25, 1895; son of Marshall Richardson and Lona Rester. Education: attended Bogalusa, La., public schools; LL. B., Tulane University Law School, 1922. Military service: enlisted in the United States Army, April 5, 1917; received military training at New Orleans and Camp Beauregard (Alexandria, La.); subsequently assigned to the 154th Regiment, 39th Division with the rank of sergeant; arrived at Brest, France, August 18, 1918; served at Bourges and St. Nazarre, France; returned to the United States, August 1, 1919; honorably discharged at Camp Shelby, Miss., 1919; subsequently served as first lieutenant, 108th Cavalry Regiment, Officers Reserve Service; held the rank of major commanding the 105th Anti-Aircraft Battalion of the National Guard at the outbreak of World War II. Legal career: admitted to the Louisiana bar, June 7, 1923; subsequently established legal practice in the Washington Bank Building, Bogalusa, La.; practiced law in Bogalusa for more than forty-two years; city attorney for the City of Bogalusa for six years. Political career: member and secretary, Washington Parish Democratic Executive Committee, 1925; city judge, Bogalusa, 1926-1936; commissioner of finance for Bogalusa for four years; judge, 22nd Judicial District Court (St. Tammany and Washington parishes), 1960-1967. Member: Kappa Beta Phi fraternity; Omicron Tau Alpha fraternity; Phi Alpha Delta fraternity; commander, American Legion Post 24, Bogalusa; Washington Parish Bar Association; Louisiana Bar Association; Bogalusa High School Alumni Association; Tulane University Alumni Association; Center Lodge No. 244, Free and Accepted Masons; patron, Jessemine Chapter, No. 82, Order of the Eastern Star, early 1920s; Bogalusa Lodge No. 1338, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks; director, Bogalusa Young Mens Christian Association, 1925. Member: Second Baptist Church, Bogalusa. Died, Bogalusa, October 30, 1967; interred, Ponemah Cemetery, Bogalusa. C.A.B. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune;Henry E. Chambers, History of Louisiana (1925), 2:193.

RICHARDSON, John B., businessman, soldier. Born in Alabama, April 23, 1833; son of John M. Richardson of Virginia and Tennessee. Engaged in cotton and sugar business. Joined Washington Artillery as a private, 1859. In Civil War, saw action at First Manassas, Hall Hill, and Munson’s Hill. Promoted to rank of captain, 1862. In battles of Mechanicsville, Rappahannock Station, Second Manassas, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Williamsport, Fort Stephens, Drury’s Bluffs, Seven Days Campaign, Chicahominy and Petersburg. At Appomattox refused to surrender; disbanded his battery, ordered his men to bury their guns, and made his way to Greensboro, N. C., to accept the inevitable. Returned to New Orleans and cotton business. Reorganized Washington Artillery and commanded the battalion from February 23, 1880, to January 31, 1906. Became associated with the Opelousas and Western Railroad then with Morgan Railroad and Steamship Co., treasurer of Southern Pacific Co., and secretary-treasurer of Southern Bridge and Railroad Company. Married, 1867, Nanie Pugh of Petersburg, Va. Four children: Ada, Cora, John, and W. C. Died, New Orleans, January 31, 1906; interred tomb of the Army of Northern Virginia, Metairie Cemetery. TAG, LA Sources: Military records, Jackson Barracks Library, compiled by Mary B. Oalmann, Military Historian.

RICHARDSON, Tobias Gibson, physician. Born, Lexington, Ky., January 3, 1827; son of William Richardson, a banker, and Synia Higgins. Married (1) Sarah Short; three children. Married (2) Ida Ann Slocum, New Orleans, 1868. Attended local public schools. Moved to Louisville, Ky., with his family, 1837. Matriculated from the University of Louisville Medical School, 1845. Richardson then spent two years in specialized studies under S. D. Gross, a professor of pathological anatomy and surgery. Named resident student at Louisville Marine Hospital, but continued studies under Gross, 1847. Completed medical studies in 1848; subsequently appointed faculty demonstrator of anatomy at the University of Louisville Medical School. Served as demonstrator of anatomy from 1848 until 1856. Accepted a chair in Anatomy at Pennsylvania College, Philadelphia, fall of 1856; Published Elements of Human Anatomy (1853), which served as the standard anatomy reference work for Southern doctors for a generation; also published occasional articles in the Western Journal of Medicine during the late 1850s. With his mentor Dr. Gross, Richardson established the Louisville Review in 1855. Again with Dr. Gross, he established the North American Medico-Chirurgical Review, ca. 1857; served as junior editor of the journal until 1862. Professor of Anatomy, University of Louisiana (present-day Tulane University), 1858-1862; also served as surgeon at Charity Hospital, New Orleans. Was the first Louisiana physician to perform successfully an operation for vesico-vaginal fistula. Departed New Orleans before its occupation by Federal forces in April, 1862. Subsequently joined the Confederate Army of Tennessee. Served at the battles of Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge. Eventually assigned to General Braxton Bragg’s staff as assistant medical inspector. Accompanied General Bragg to Richmond, Va., summer of 1864. Worked in Confederate military hospitals after the battles of Rapidan, Spottsylvania, and Cold Harbor. Subsequently accompanied General Bragg to the Department of North Carolina as departmental medical director. Served at the battles of Averysboro and Bentonville. Accompanied Jefferson Davis in his flight from the Confederate capital during the final days of the conflict. Returned to New Orleans after the conclusion of the Civil War and resumed his antebellum teaching and medical duties. Occupied the chair of surgery at the University of Louisiana Medical School, 1873. Dean, University of Louisiana Medical School, 1865-1885, but retained chair in surgery until 1889, when he was forced by ill health to resign. During the postbellum period, Richardson was a frequent contributor to the New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal and the Medical News and Library and Library of Philadelphia. Wrote a biography of anatomist and naturalist John D. Goodman. President, American Medical Association, 1877. Corresponding member, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sciences (Philadelphia). Member, Louisiana and Orleans Parish medical societies. Died, New Orleans, May 26, 1892. C.A.B. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, May 27, 1892; July 26, 1942.

RIDDELL, John Leonard, physician, botanist, chemist, inventor, postmaster. Born, Leyden, Mass., February 20, 1807; son of John Riddell and Lephe Gates. Reared Preston, N. Y. Education: Rensslelaer School, Troy, N.Y., B.A., 1828, M.A., 1832; Ohio Reformed Medical College, M. D., 1836. Traveling lecturer on Chemistry, 1830-1832; adjunct professor of Chemistry and professor of Botany, Ohio Reformed Medical College, 1832-1834; professor of Chemistry, Medical College of Louisiana (now Tulane University) 1836-death; catalogued Louisiana plants, identified several new species; conducted extensive geological survey in Texas, 1838; melter and refiner of the U. S. Branch Mint, New Orleans, 1839-1848; researched sedimentation of the Mississippi River, 1846; served on Geological Committee of Louisiana, State Flood Prevention Committee, and Sanitary Commission of New Orleans which studied causes and prevention of yellow fever; participated in expedition up the Mississippi and down the Atchafalaya rivers for the levee committee of the Louisiana senate, 1850; devised binocular microscope, 1851; postmaster, New Orleans, 1860-1863, serving the Confederate government though a Union sympathizer; president of Union Association, 1864. Wrote widely on scientific subjects; member, New Orleans Academy of Sciences; charter member, American Association for the Advancement of Science. Married (1) Mary Elizabeth Knocke (d. 1839; also known as Mary Bone, Mary Schrager), an orphan from New Orleans, in Newport, Ky., June 20, 1836. Married (2) Angelica Eugenia Brown of New Orleans, 1846. Twelve children: John Schrager Riddell (April 1837-June 1837), Sanford Schrager Riddell (b. 1838), Edward Henry Riddell (b. 1841), John William Riddell (b. 1844), Lephe Eugenia Riddell Woodward (1848-1902), Mary Angelica Riddell Hogsett (1850-1870), Susan Adelaide Riddell House (b. 1851), Gaen Leonard Riddell (1853-1858), Robert Brown Riddell (b. 1853), Peter Gaes Riddell (1858-ca. 1912), Jefferson Davis Riddell (b. 1861), Hugh Gawn Riddell (b. 1865). Died, New Orleans, October 7, 1865; interred Protestant (Girod Street) Cemetery, New Orleans; later reinterred Metairie Cemetery. F.M.J. & J.P.M. Sources: Karlem Riess, John Leonard Riddell; Dictionary of American Biography; Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography; John Leonard Riddell Collection, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library, Tulane University; obituary, New York Times, October 22, 1865; Louisiana Collection, Louisiana State University Archives; Rudolph Matas Medical Library, Tulane University Medical Center; Dictionary of American Biography, XV; John P. Dyer, Tulane: Biography of a University (1966); John Duffy, Tulane University Medical Center (1984); John Duffy, ed., The Rudolph Matas History of Medicine in Louisiana, II (1962).

RIEHL, Frances Anderson, Louisiana Mother of the Year, 1957. Born, Washington, La., March 22, 1888; daughter of Appolonaire Bayliss Anderson and Mary Elizabeth Mudd. Education: Academy of the Sacred Heart, Grand Coteau, La. Married Robert Lee Riehl in Washington, 1905. Children: Joseph Anthony and Vincent Lee Reihl. Member: Daughters of American Revolution, United Daughters of Confederacy, Catholic Daughters of America. Recipient of several civic honors. Died, December 16, 1971; interred Cedar Hill Cemetery, Washington, La. M.A.F. Sources: Quintilla Morgan Anders, Early Families of Lafayette, Louisiana (1970); Riehl Family Papers; Lafayette Daily Advertiser, December 17, 18,, 1971.

RIEHL, Joseph Anthony, college and hospital administrator. Born, Washington, La., August 20, 1906; son of Robert Lee Riehl and Frances Anderson Riehl. Married Pauline Ellison, four children. Education: Mount Carmel Convent and Cathedral High School, Lafayette, La., 1923; B. A., Southwestern Louisiana Institute (S.L.I.), 1926; M. A., Georgetown University, 1933. While a student at S.L.I. served as vice-president of student body; president, Newman Club; editor, Vermilion [student newspaper]; president, Avatar Debating Club; vice-president, Commercial Club; intercollegiate debate team; member, dramatic club; member, “S” Club. Taught commerce at Lafayette High School, 1926-28; secretary to Senator Joseph E. Ransdell (q.v.), 1928-30; assistant to director of National Institute of Health, 1930-33; faculty member, S.L.I., 1933-60; faculty member, University of Southwestern Louisiana, 1960-65. Started at S.L.I. in the History Department, 1933-41; dean of men, 1941-47; registrar, 1943-46; dean of administration, 1943-51; dean, College of Liberal Arts, 1951-55; dean of the university, 1955-65; academic vice president, 1965-66. Worked closely with military units on campus, especially the naval V-5 and V-12 programs during World War II. Worked in various administrative capacities at Lafayette General Hospital and its predecessor, most notably: secretary of the Board of Trustees and assistant administrator in charge of Medicare and Public Relations, 1966-1989. Civic activities: member, Lafayette Chapter of American Red Cross; Lafayette Chamber of Commerce; United Givers Fund; Evangeline Council of Boy Scouts of America; Lafayette Planning and Zoning Commission; Advisory Council on Vocational and Technical Education. Member, board of directors, Lafayette Rotary Club. Curriculum development consultant for United States Air Force. Director of Riehl Building and Supply Company, Tri-Parish Broadcasting Company, and Ville Platte Broadcasting Company. Dubbed a Knight of the Order of St. Gregory, 1953. Died, March 6, 1989; interred, Cedar Hill Cemetery, Washington, La. I.B.T. Sources: Vertical File, Louisiana Room, Dupré Library, University of Southwestern Louisiana; Joseph A. Riehl Papers, Southwestern Archives and Manuscripts Collection, Dupré Library, University of Southwestern Louisiana; Who’s Who in America, 1962-63; Lafayette Daily Advertiser, March 8, 1989.

RIGAUD, Jacques, pioneer planter and first known settler of Grand Isle. Born ca. 1750 in Normandy, France. Rigaud removed to Grand Isle to take up a 1781 Spanish land grant. He and his son François successfully developed specialized farming techniques for this marginal land and may have been associated with Jean Lafitte. Died ca. 1812. F.S. Source: Evans, Stielow, and Swanson, Grand Isle on the Gulf (1979).

RIGHTOR, Henry, journalist, insurance executive, author. Born, New Orleans, January 18, 1870; son of Nicolas Henry Rightor (q.v.) and Louise Justine Scudday. Education: preparatory department, Tulane University; U. S. Naval Academy, 1885-1887. Married Ella B. Ernest. Three daughters, one son. Joined staff of New Orleans Times-Democrat, wrote column “By-the-Bye.” Left newspaper work, 1897, entered insurance business as agent of Employers’ Liability Assurance Corp., Ltd. Remained in insurance business until death. Founder and first president, New Orleans Press Club; president, Insurance Federation of Louisiana; general chairman, Gulf Coast Naval Training Association; member, Louisiana Lodge 102, F. & A.M.; Episcopalian; avid sportsman. Author of Harlequinade (1900); Standard History of New Orleans (1900); Moons and Marshes (1905), a book of poems. Also wrote plays, notably The Military Maid (1896) and The Striped Petticoat (1898). Died of heart attack, New Orleans, June 23, 1922; interred Metairie Cemetery. G.R.C. Sources: Who Was Who in America, 1897-1942; New Orleans Times-Picayune, June 24, 1922.

RIGHTOR, Nicholas Henry, jurist. Born, Donaldsonville, La., March 16, 1832; son of Abraham Rightor, who removed to Louisiana from New York in the early nineteenth century to serve as U. S. surveyor general for Louisiana, and Elizabeth Conway. Educated at West Lynn University, Conn.; studied law at University of Louisiana (now Tulane University). Admitted to Louisiana bar, 1853; practiced law in Terrebonne Parish; twice elected district attorney. At outbreak of Civil War, joined Confederate army with rank of captain in Dreux’s Battalion. Commanded battalion after Dreux’s (a classmate [q.v.]) death. Married, August 20, 1863, Louise Justine Scuday of Thibodaux, La. After war, resumed law practice in New Orleans. Commanded one of the companies of the White League during the events of September 14, 1874. Appointed by Governor Nicholls (q.v.) one of the judges of civil district court of Orleans Parish and reappointed by succeeding governors, serving until death. Survived by his widow and six children, three daughters and three sons, among whom were Henry (q.v.) and Edward. Died, New Orleans, August 11, 1900; interred Metairie Cemetery. G.R.C. Source: New Orleans Daily Picayune, August 12, 1900.

RILLIEUX, Norbert, engineer, inventor, scientist. Born, New Orleans, March 17, 1806, the natural son of Vincent Rillieux and Constance Vivant. Norbert’s freedom resulted either from his mother being a free woman of color or his being manumitted by his father. Educated in Paris which became his permanent home. He showed rare aptitude for engineering and at age 24 was an instructor in applied mechanics at L’Ecole Centrale in Paris. Developed the theory of the multiple effect evaporator with particular reference to sugar refining. His first vacuum evaporator patented in 1843, was followed by a greatly improved multiple effect evaporator, patented 1846. The acclaim was immediate and widespread, and the Rillieux apparatus was promptly recognized as revolutionizing the manufacture and refining of sugar. The picturesque but wasteful “Jamaica Train” in which the juice was evaporated in a series of open kettles by Negro slaves with long ladles gave way to one workman manipulating a few valves. Rillieux was the most sought after engineer in Louisiana. Sugar mill owners were proud of their new equipment and financial reports carried the notation “Rillieux System” after production statistics. Thirteen sugar houses were thus designated in De Bows reports of 1849. While in Louisiana Rillieux developed a plan for draining the lowlands around New Orleans. It is believed that the authorities rejected the plan because of the inventor’s color. As the Civil War approached, living conditions became more difficult for free persons with Negro blood. He returned to Paris. In 1881 he patented a system for heating juice with vapors in multiple effect which is now universal practice in cane and beet sugar factories. This innovation was credited with reducing fuel consumption in beet sugar houses by fifty percent. Died, October 8, 1894; interred Père La Chaise Cemetery. Because of the continuous efforts of Edward Kippeschaar, a Dutch sugar specialist, a bronze plaque honoring Rillieux is now housed in the Louisiana State Museum. J.W.F. Sources: Freret Papers; Encyclopedia Americana, XXIII; George P. Meade, “A Negro Scientist of Slavery Days,” Scientific Monthly, LXII (April 1946).

RIPLEY, Eleaser Wheelock, attorney, planter, politician. Born, Hanover, N. H., April 15, 1782; son of Sylvanus Ripley, professor of Divinity at Dartmouth College. Education: Dartmouth, graduated 1800; studied law and began practice in Waterville, Me. Served in Massachusetts house of representatives, 1807 and 1811, speaker in latter term. Commissioned lieutenant-colonel and rose to rank of brigadier general in War of 1812. Resigned from army, 1820, after supervising construction of defenses in Old Southwest. Settled in Jackson, La.; resumed practice of law. Married, July 29, 1830, Airelia Smith, daughter of Louis and Ann Smith of Locust Grove Plantation and widow of Dr. Benjamin Davis. Entered state politics, elected state senator. Served as a Democrat in Congress, 1835-1839. Died, West Feliciana Parish, March 2, 1839; interred “God’s Acre”, Locust Grove Plantation, near St. Francisville. G.R.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950); Alcée Fortier, Louisiana . . . , 3 vols. (1914).

RIPLEY, Eliza Moore Chinn McHatton, author. Born, Lexington, Ky., February 1, 1832; tenth of twelve children of Judge Richard Henry Chinn and Betsy Holmes. At the age of three, removed with family to New Orleans, where father continued his law practice until his death in 1847. Religion: attended the Reverend Theodore Clapp’s First Church, a Presbyterian affiliated group, of which her father was a prominent member. Married (1) James Alexander McHatton in Lexington, Ky., August 24, 1852. Lived the life of a Southern planter’s wife at Arlington Plantation on the Mississippi River a few miles below Baton Rouge for ten years. In 1862, after the appearance of Union gunboats, fled with her husband and a consignment of cotton across Texas and into Mexico. Made this journey in converted army ambulances. Of two sons and a daughter later mentioned in From Flag to Flag (her memoirs of this period published in 1889) one son died and was buried in Houston and the daughter was born in Mexico during this difficult odyssey. In February, 1865, sailed from Mexico to Cuba where her husband owned and operated a large sugar plantation “Desengano.” Although accepted into the social elite of Cuba, returned to the U. S. after the death of her husband. Married (2), July 9, 1873, Dwight Ripley of Norwich, Conn., and New York City, N.Y. Lived the remainder of her life in the North. Wrote two books which recounted her life experiences: From Flag to Flag (1889), and Social Life in Old New Orleans (1912). The former covered the Civil War years and described her hasty departure from Arlington and the arduous wanderings which ended in Cuba. The latter recalled her childhood in New Orleans. It contains priceless portraits of early Canal Street, the French Market, early Protestant church activities, the French Opera, and Southern “mammies” as she remembered them. The manners and social amenities of New Orleans gentlewomen are captured with powerful clarity in this book. Negotiations for publication of this work were only completed the day before her death. Died, Brooklyn, New York, July 13, 1912; interred Lexington, Ky. J.J.J. Sources: Lina Mainiero, ed., American Women Writers: A Critical Reference Guide from Colonial Times to the Present (1979); Eliza Ripley, From Flag to Flag (1889); Social Life in Old New Orleans (1912); New Orleans City Guide (1938); New York Times, July 14, 1912.

RITCHIE, David C., pioneer rice farmer, businessman. Born, Kilkenny, Fife, Scotland, February 18, 1868; son of David and Marjory Calley Ritchie. Emigrated to Mayville, N.D., February 18, 1888. Removed to Jennings, La., 1896. Married (1), 1891, Serena Boyum (1872-1948) in Mayville, daughter of Sevath and Caroline Johnsdatter Boyum. Children: Ivy C. (1892-1938) and Gladys Gertrude (Mrs. Charles Burchenal, 1894-1979). Married (2) Ida Andrus Carter (1880-1972). Pioneer in the development of Old Lacassine Farms, now Niblett Farms; owner and manager of Riverside Irrigation System, Jennings Norwood Irrigation Co., Jennings Norwood Canal Co., and Ritchie Insurance Co. Member of Congregational Church (later became Presbyterian Church), clerk of the session over forty years; member Jennings Masonic Lodge #249 over fifty years; Jennings Elks Club; Jennings Rotary Club, thirty-three years. Died, Jennings, November 18, 1953; interred Greenwood Cemetery. E.H.C. Sources: Hazel Boyum; Jennings Daily News, November 18-19, 1953, obituary, burial notice and editorial by Franklin Hildebrand; 1900 United States Census, Calcasieu Parish; Greenwood Cemetery Records; Franklin Hildebrand, As I Remember (1977).

RIVARD, Antoine de Lavigne, colonial merchant, Mobile colonist, and pioneer settler of the Tchoupitoulas. Rivard was a rugged man, dauntless and canny but a hard taskmaster noted for pugnacity when he thought his rights were violated. Born at Batiscan, in New France; the eleventh child of the militia captain Nicolas Rivard de Lavigne and Catherine St. Per. Rivard followed the Canadian Le Moynes to the new Gulf Coast colony. In the colony’s service (and on its payroll) by 1704, Rivard was one of the Canadians whom Gov. Jean Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville (q.v.) stood accused of openly favoring; if true, Rivard returned that favoritism with initiative and unstinting labor. He was one of the “private settlers” who chanced smuggling goods into Veracruz in 1704, for black-market sale, to boost the economy of the starving post of Mobile. He was one of five volunteers who, in the spring of 1708, agreed to take their Indian slaves to the Bayou St. Jean-Tchoupitoulas-Lake Pontchartrain area, to test the agricultural potential of that strategic site. In exchange for a grant of four arpents frontage and meager supplies from the colony’s warehouse, Rivard experimented for two years with the culture of wheat. When bad seed, heat, humidity, and wet soil spoiled both harvests, he volunteered to take the project upriver to the grand village of the Natchez—where he experimented with planting in every month of the year; but again the climate defeated him. Eventually returning to Bayou St. Jean, Rivard developed an extremely profitable planting operation by the time New Orleans was built nearby as the colonial capital. As neighbors encroached, he was chastised by the Superior Council for denying public access to the road and bridge that ran through his property. In a settlement where few could read or write, he imported a school master for his children—then seized the man’s clothes in retaliation when the teacher decided to cut short the service for which he had contracted. Rivard’s sizable herd of cattle, and their proclivity to roam in a society that fenced crops rather than animals, brought him into court on several occasions. When a litigious neighbor claimed that Rivard’s cattle had broken through the neighbor’s fences and destroyed thousands of sweet potato settings, as well as corn, peas, leeks, beans, pumpkins, melons, onions, and peaches, Rivard mounted a defense and inspectors agreed that the damage was slight (but should nonetheless be replaced in the next planting season). When one of his twenty-two slaves was charged with marronage in 1727 and the man explained his absconding by swearing “he was afraid to return after failing to find an ox that had gone astray,” Rivard saw no need to make a defense of his prerogatives at all. Despite these controversies, at Antoine’s death on February 11, 1729, he was described as a “elder marguillier [churchwarden] of this town.” Rivard married twice. In 1704, he wed Marie Briard, one of the girls sent to Louisiana that year aboard the Pelican, as brides for the colonists. The widow who survived him was Antoinette Fourrier, previously the widow of Henry Martin de Mirebois and Sieur de Villemont. By Marie, Rivard was the father of four children: Marie Françoise (b. at Mobile in the fall of 1705; wife of Joseph Lamy and Jean Baptiste Boucher de Monbrun, Sieur de Saint Laurent of Illinois); Gabrielle (b. at Mobile, 4 October 1707); Marie Monique Geneviève (b. at Dauphin Island, 8 December 1708; wife of François Boucher, sieur de Monbrun. and Captain Joseph Chauvin dit Charleville of Illinois); and François Antoine (b. at Natchez ca. 1710; m. his stepsister Jeanne Antoinette de Villemont). G.B.M. Sources: Cyprien Tanguay, Dictionnaire Généalogique des Familles Canadiennes, vol. 1 (1871), 519; Mobile Baptismal Book 1 (for 1707); Jay Higginbotham, Old Mobile: Fort Louis de la Louisiane, 1702-1711 (1977), numerous entries; Marcel Giraud, A History of French Louisiana, vol. 1, The Reign of Louis XIV, 1698-1715, Joseph C. Lambert, trans. (1974), 190-91 and vol. 5, The Company of the Indies, 1723-1731, Brian Pearce, trans. (1987), 293-75; Archdiocese of New Orleans Sacramental Records, vol. 1, 1718-1750 (1987), 148, 223; “Records of the Superior Council of Louisiana,” Louisiana Historical Quarterly, 3 (1920): 407-8, 416, 443, vol. 8 (1925), 278; 13 (1930): 507; Census of New Orleans, 1727, in Glenn R. Conrad, First Families of Louisiana, vol. 2 (1970), 47; New Orleans Sacramental Records, 1724-1734 (1729 burials); Paris, Archives des Colonies, G1, 412, Archives Nationales; Charleville-Rivard marriage contract, Perrin Collection, Illiniois State Archives, Springfield.

RIVAS, Francisco, soldier, administrator. Lieutenant in Grenadiers of the Regiment of Louisiana; commandant of the post of San Gabriel de Manchac, 1788-1792; interim-commandant at Pointe Coupée, 1792-1794. Directed the laborers on the Carondelet Canal, 1794-1796; appointed to supervise the construction of Fort Bourbon at Plaquemines, December 26, 1796; transferred to Fort Carlos III de Arkansas, February 19, 1797. Operated a tavern in New Orleans and at Fort Bourbon, Plaquemines; regarded as “troubleshooter” for Governor Carondelet (q.v.). D.N.K. Sources: Hébert-Kirkland Papers, Special Collections, Tulane University; Favrot Collection; M-47, no. 25, December 26, 1796, Special Collections, Tulane University; ibid., M-55, no. 32, February 19, 1787.

RIVERS, Bernetta Lucille Attaway, registered nurse, collector. Born, August 31, 1910, Burn Community, Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana; daughter of Elisha Attaway and Ida Ellen Winfield Attaway. Married James Battle Rivers, a 1919 graduate of United States Military Academy, and son of Major General William Cannon Rivers and Mary Dancy Battle Rivers, Baptist Bible Institute Chapel, New Orleans, August 11, 1937; no children. Education: Opelousas, La., High School; R.N., Southern Baptist Hospital School of Nursing, New Orleans, 1931. Career: nurse, Southern Baptist Hospital, New Orleans, 1931-1933; supervisor, Child Welfare and Com­munity Health Association of New Orleans, 1934-1937. An astute and informed collector of art, antiques and silver, she was the owner of a collection of 754 pieces of original art used by the Century Publishing Company to illustrate Battles and Leaders of the Civil War (four vols., 1887-188). The collection was purchased in 1973 by American Heritage Publishing Company, which deemed it “the most important discovery of its kind in this century.” The collection was published in book form under the title, The American Heritage Century Collection of Civil War Art (1974), edited by Stephen W. Sears, with a foreword by Bruce Catton. Died Opelousas, La., February 12, 1993; interred Port Hudson, La., National Cemetery. A.Y.B. Sources: Elisha Attaway Family Bible; Marriage license, J. Battle Rivers and Bernetta Attaway, Book A, Folio 37222, Orleans Parish Courthouse; Southern Baptist Hospital School of Nursing Yearbook, 1931; New Orleans City Directories, 1933, 1935; “Civil War Art Collection Hidden in N. O. on Display,” Baton Rouge Morning Advocate, January 23, 1974; “Civil War Art Leaves Attic,” New Orleans Times-Picayune, January 23, 1974; “Publisher Obtains Lost Civil War Art” New York Times, January 23, 1974; Lafayette Daily Advertiser, February 13, 1993.

RIVERS, Pearl, see NICHOLSON, Eliza Jane Poitevent Holbrook

ROBB, James, banker, railroad executive, politician, art collector. Born, Brownsville, Pa., April 2, 1814; son of James Robb and a Miss Meetkerk. Employed as a bank cashier in Virginia, removed to New Orleans, 1837, began his career in a brokerage office, successful in the post-1837 depression, helped found the firm of Robb and Hoge, private bankers in 1840, and later established the Bank of James Robb (branches in Liverpool, London, San Francisco, St. Louis, and New York). Served as president, 1842-1856, of the New Orleans Gas Light and Banking Company (predecessor of the present New Orleans Public Service Inc.); president, New Orleans, Jackson, and Great Northern Railroad. Involved in reform, Whig, and nativist politics in New Orleans and Louisiana; successful People’s party candidate for city alderman in 1845. Elected state senator in 1851. 1854, elected alderman on Independent Reform ticket, prominent Know-Nothing founder and politician. Forced by Panic of 1857 to sell stock in the Bank of James Robb and New Orleans, Jackson, and Great Northern Railroad to satisfy his creditors, accused of profiteering at the expense of the railroad; however, no wrong-doing ever proved. Sold his house and much of his art to John Burnside (q.v.), New Orleans businessman, and moved to Chicago in 1858. Involved with Midwestern railroads before returning to New Orleans in 1866 to establish the Louisiana National Bank. Unionist sympathies hampered him socially and economically, and Robb left for New York in 1869. Retired in 1871, Cincinnati, Ohio, and remained there until his death, July 30, 1881. Robb married three times. Four children by first marriage: three daughters and son, John Hampden. Second marriage to Elizabeth Church Craig. Third wife a Mrs. Stannard of Richmond, Virginia. M.C. Sources: Harry Howard Evans, “James Robb, Banker and Pioneer Railroad Builder of Ante-Bellum Louisiana,” Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXIII (1940); Merl E. Reed, New Orleans and the Railroads: The Struggle for Commercial Empire, 1830-1860 (1966); New Orleans Daily Crescent, March 12, July 2, September 1, December 14, 1858; August 2, 3, 7, 1881.

ROBERI, Hyacinthe, physician, businessman. Born, Ceva, Piedmont, Italy, 1804; son of Batiste Roberi and Pauline Guedi. In 1840, departed Italy for Le Havre, France; arrived in New York City, September 1, 1840. Arrived in Louisiana in 1841; became a naturalized citizen in 1852. Married, July 18, 1844, Celesie Vidrine, of St. Landry Parish, daughter of Florentin Vidrine and Celise Lafleur. Children: Marius (b. 1847), Pauline, Jean Baptiste F. (b. 1851). Active in the Athénée Louisianaise, a nineteenth-century Louisiana French literary society, delivered literary papers to the society in 1877, 1878, and 1881. Member of the St. Landry Parish Medical Association; practiced medicine and had a general mercantile business in the Catero section of old Grand Prairie, St. Landry Parish. Died, old Grand Prairie, St. Landry Parish, May 13, 1883; interred old Grand Prairie Cemetery. K.P.F. Sources: Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Louisiana (1892); St. Landry Parish Marriage Record, 1844, #143; St. Landry Parish Naturalization Record, #103; St. Landry Parish Conveyance Record, S-1, p. 255, 1860.

ROBERTS, John H., businessman, politician. Born in Ohio. Served in Union Army during Civil War. After war removed to New Orleans, then to Jennings, La. Married Minna Freeman Everts and adopted her two children, Charles and Maude Marie. Jennings postmaster, 1888-1894. First mayor of Jennings, 1888. Member: Grand Army of the Republic; Congregational Church. Instrumental in getting a Carnegie library for Jennings. Died, 1904; interred Greenwood Cemetery. M.W.D. Source: Author’s research.

ROBERTS, Robert, Jr., politician, jurist. Born, Union Parish, La., March 2, 1872; son of Robert Roberts, Sr., a former Confederate soldier and Louisiana public official, and Mary McCormick. Married Olive Goodwill; children: Robert III and Olive. Educated in North Louisiana public schools, including Ruston College, from which he graduated in 1893; graduated from Louisiana State University in 1897. Taught in public schools before studying law in the Ruston office of Barksdale & Barksdale. Admitted to the Louisiana bar, 1902. Subsequently joined the firm of Barksdale & Barksdale, opening a branch office in Farmerville, La. Later moved to Minden, La. Political career: served as mayor of Farmerville and later as mayor of Minden before being elected to the state house of representatives in 1908. State representative, 1908 to 1916; a member of the Rules Committee. While in the state legislature, also served on an employer’s liability commission established by Gov. Luther E. Hall (q.v.). Helped author the Burke-Roberts Workmen’s Compensation Bill. Member: State Tax Commission, 1911; Louisiana Constitutional Convention, 1913. During a stint as the governor’s private secretary, Luther Hall appointed Roberts to fill the unexpired term of Court of Appeals Judge Ben Edwards. Judicial career: judge, Second District Court of Appeals, 1916-1920; judge, Second Judicial District, 1920-1924; judge, First Judicial District, 1926-1936. Business career: part-owner of a Minden weekly newspaper; president, Louisiana Press Association. Established a legal practice in Shreveport with his son, ca. 1925. Member, Methodist Episcopal Church, Kappa Sigma fraternity, Masonic order. Died, Shreveport, La., May 2, 1940. C.A.B. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, May 3, 1940; Henry E. Chambers, History of Louisiana, 3 vols. (1925), 2:21-22.

ROBERTSON, Donald, academic. Born, Elizabeth, N. J., May 12, 1919; son of Luke Robertson and Elizabeth Silvers. Education: Union Junior College, Cranford, N.J.; University of New Mexico, B. A., 1942; Yale University, M. A., 1944; Ph. D., 1956; U. S. Army Asiatic Area Language Trainee, Yale University, 1942-1943; also attended Mexico City College and New York University Institute of Fine Arts. Taught at Queens College, Pomona College, University of Texas, and University of Kansas. Faculty member of Newcomb College Art History, 1947-1984. Won many prestigious fellowships: Social Science Research Council, 1958, 1964-1965; American Council of Learned Societies, 1960, 1961; Guggenheim, 1964-1965; Fulbright-Hays, 1964-1965; National Endowment for the Humanities, 1975; and Fellowship in Residence for College Teachers, 1976-1977, among others. Contributing editor of Spanish American Art, Handbook of Latin American Studies. Consultant: Hispanic Foundation, Library of Congress, National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, U. S. Department of the Interior; Advisory Committee for Pre-Columbian Studies, Dumbarton Oaks Research Library (Harvard University); vice president for Colonial Art, Association for Latin American Art. An internationally recognized scholar on pre-Columbian and colonial Mexican art. He was the author of Mexican Manuscript Painting of the Early Colonial Period (1959); Pre-Columbian Architecture (1963); and numerous scholarly articles in major publications in the United States, Mexico, Costa Rica, Venezuela, England, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, and Spain. A leading figure in the development of Tulane’s renowned Latin American Studies program. Married, November 24, 1956, Martha Barton of Washington, D. C., daughter of Walter E. Barton, attorney-at-law, and Martha Ringgold Browning. Children: Walter Lewis-Frederick (b. 1959), Martha Rebecca Elizabeth (b. 1960). Died, New Orleans, October 18, 1984. R.L.W. Sources: Personal papers of Donald Robertson in possession of his wife, Martha B. Robertson, and records in Latin American Library, Tulane University; Elizabeth Hill Boone, ed., Painted Architecture and Polychrome Monumental Sculpture in Mesoamerica: A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks, 10th to 11th October 1981 (1985).

ROBERTSON, Edward White, attorney, soldier, congressman. Born, Davidson County, Tenn., July 13, 1823. With parents, removed to Iberville Parish, La., 1825. Education: local schools; Centenary College; entered Augusta College, Ky., 1842; transferred to Nashville University, but left in 1844 before graduation. Studied law in Iberville; interrupted studies to join army during Mexican War, serving as sergeant. Married Mary J. Paple. At least one son, Samuel Matthews (q.v.). Represented Iberville in Louisiana house of representatives, 1847 and 1849; advocated good levee system. Entered University of Louisiana (now Tulane University), received law degree, 1850. Reelected to legislature in 1853 from Iberville. Elected, as a Democrat, state auditor in 1854 and 1858. During Civil War, raised Company for Twenty-seventh Louisiana Regiment; served at Vicksburg. After war, resumed practice of law in Baton Rouge. Elected as a Democrat to Congress and served 1877-1883 and 1887 until his death; served as chairman of Committee of Rivers and Harbors; originated idea of Mississippi River Commission. Died, Baton Rouge, August 2, 1887; interred Magnolia Cemetery. G.R.C. Sources: Baton Rouge Daily Capitolian-Advocate, August 3, 1887; Alcée Fortier, Louisiana . . . , 3 vols. (1914); Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950).

ROBERTSON, Samuel Matthews, attorney, congressman. Born, Plaquemine, Iberville Parish, La., January 1, 1852; son of Edward White Robertson (q.v.) and Mary J. Paple. Education: attended Magruder’s Collegiate Institute, Baton Rouge, La.; Louisiana State University, graduated 1874; studied law. Admitted to the bar in 1874 and practiced in Baton Rouge. Married G. B. Sanford of Rapides Parish, December 27, 1875. Elected a member of the state house of representatives in 1879. Member of the faculty of Louisiana State Univerity in 1880; filled the chair of Natural History in that institution and the position of commandant of cadets. Elected as a Democrat to Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of his father; served in Congress from December 5, 1887, to March 3, 1907. Unsuccessful candidate for renomination; resumed the practice of law in Baton Rouge; superintendent of the Louisiana School for the Deaf and Dumb, 1908-1911. Died, Baton Rouge, December 24, 1911; interrred Magnolia Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950); Nicholas R. Murray, Rapides Parish, La., 1865-1900.

ROBERTSON, Thomas Bolling, congressman, governor, jurist. Born, Prince George County, Va., 1773; son of William Robertson, a Petersburg merchant who later became a vestryman, warden, and deputy of Bristol parish, Va. (1779-1789), member of the Council of Virginia and its secretary for many years, and of Elizabeth Bolling Robertson, a direct descendant of Pocahontas; brother of John Robertson, attorney general and chancellor of Virginia and of Wyndham Robertson, governor of Virginia (1836). Graduated from William and Mary College in 1795 and practiced law in Virginia until his appointment by President Jefferson on August 12, 1807, as secretary of the Territory of Orleans. While retaining his office as secretary, he also served as federal land commissioner and briefly as attorney general from March 8 to September 3, 1808. Bitter clashes with Gov. W. C. C. Claiborne (q.v.) marked Robertson’s service in the Territory, but he remained in the good favor of Jefferson and President Madison and retained his post until Louisiana’s admission as a state in 1812, when he became its first member of the national House of Representatives, where he served until his resignation in 1818. During his congressional tenure he visited Europe, from which he dispatched a series of letters to the Richmond Enquirer which eventually appeared in book form as Journal of Events in Paris (1815). Elected governor of Louisiana in 1820. Stimulated programs of internal improvements, such as the opening of the Pearl and Red rivers to navigation and construction of the state’s portion of the national road from Madisonville to Nashville. Commercial facilities were expanded with creation of the Bank of Louisiana in 1824, and the Collège d’Orléans and the state Charity Hospital were favored with increased funding derived from licensing of gambling houses in New Orleans. His veto of a “Usury Bill” in 1823 on the ground that government control of business was unwarranted invasion of property rights brought a storm of oposition against him, heightened by a growing eccentricity in his personal behavior which climaxed in his careless depositing of state election returns uncounted in the bed of his hound bitch. Term in office also blighted by serious and frequently violent clashes of the “French” and “American” elements struggling for political control of the state, a conflict which in the 1823-1825 period verged on actual civil war. Resigned from the governorship in November, 1824, to become United States judge for the District of Louisiana. Married in the mid-1820s to Lelia Skipwith of Baton Rouge, daughter of Fulwar Skipwith (q.v.), who had once been American consul in Paris and governor of the short-lived Republic of West Florida. No children. Died, White Sulphur Springs, Va., October 5, 1828; interred there. J.G.T. Source: Author’s research.

ROBIN, C. C., scholar, naturalist; possibly Charles César Robin, identity not verified. Born, France. His writings indicate that he normally lived in Paris. Resided in Lorraine during the winter of 1793-1794. Not politically active, but probably supported Napoleon. Wrote a book of observations following a voyage to Louisiana and the Caribbean: Voyages dans l’intérieur de la Louisiane, de la Floride Occidentale, et dans les isles de la Martinique et de Saint-Domingue, pendant les années 1802, 1803, 1804, 1805 et 1806 (Paris, 1807). Later translations: C. S. Rafinesque (1817); Stuart O. Landry, Jr. (1966). Reported to have purchased property in St. Martinville area at sheriff’s sale, September 1804, but no evidence of this found in local courthouse. Member of first grand jury that sat in Attakapas. Widower before his journey to America. One known son who accompanied him on his voyage; son died of yellow fever. Other vital information, unknown. P.D.A. Source: Stuart O. Landry, trans., Voyage to Louisiana by C. C. Robin, 1803-1805 (1966).

ROBIN DE LOGNY, Robert Antoine, administrator, planter. Son of Laurent Robin de Logny. Married Jeanne Dreux, daughter of Maturin Dreux and Claudine Françoise Harant (Harang?), in New Orleans, Febru­ary 17, 1759. Children: Jeanne Marie, who married Bernard Bernoudy; Marie-Claudine-Eléonor, who married Jean-Noël Destréhan (q.v.); Jeanne Eulalie, who married Bartholémé LeBreton des Chapelles; and Pierre-Paul-Guy, who married Jeanne Marguerite Cabaret. Served as commandant of the Second German Coast (St-Jean-Baptiste des Allemands) from his appointment by Alejandro O’Reilly (q.v.) until his resignation on December 14, 1782. Reasons for resignation included age and infirmities and also his removal downriver to the First German Coast to a plantation less susceptible to flooding than his St. John plantation. On January 3, 1787, he contracted with the free black Charles to build the house now known as Destréhan Manor. Died on his plantation, December 4, 1792; interred St. Charles Borromeo Cemetery, Destrehan, La. F.L.* & G.R.C. Sources: Glenn R. Conrad, St. Charles. Abstracts of the Civil Records of St. Charles Parish, 1770-1803, ; Seville, Spain. Archives of the Indies, Papeles procedentes de Cuba, Legajo 195, folio 176; Henry E. Yoes, A History of St. Charles Parish (1973); Last will and testament, St. Charles Courthouse No. 1122, October 12, 1792; New Orleans Genesis, V, No. 18 (March, 1966); New Orleans Times-Picayune, August 15, 1982.

ROBINSON, Elrie, printer, historian. Born, Alvarado, Texas, May 17, 1883; arrived New Orleans 1906. Married (1) May E. Leake, editor and publisher of the St. Francisville True Democrat which she and W. W. Leake founded in 1893, in 1908 and joined her in publishing newspaper. World War I service with American Red Cross in Russia, made honorary officer in White Russian Army and Chevalier in Order of Stanislaus, 1918-1919. Became sole editor and publisher at wife’s death, 1925. Married (2) Margaret Wood (q.v.) in Chicago, 1927; unsuccessful candidate Louisiana legislature, 1928. Changed name of newspaper to St. Francisville Democrat, December 1, 1928, saying “True” was redundant. Delegate to Democratic National conventions, 1928-1944. Was recognized expert on old fonts, a consultant on reproduction of old type faces, and published examples of collection, 1939. Collection now in New York Public Library. Author of several pamphlets dealing with early West Feliciana history. Member American Institute of Graphic Arts and the Society of Typographic Arts; remained editor and publisher of newspaper until his death on the sixty-third anniversary of its founding, February 3, 1955; interred Grace Episcopal Cemetery, St. Francisville. E.K.D. Sources: St. Francisville Democrat, February 11, 1955; Papers of Elrie Robinson.

ROBINSON, Margaret Wood, newspaper publisher, community leader. Born, San Francisco, Calif., August 20, 1890. Education: Pasadena public schools; Friends School, New York state; Glen Ridge High School, New Jersey; Smith College, Northampton, Mass., Phi Beta Kappa, 1912; University of Chicago, B. S. Education, 1915. During World War I (1917-1918) served with Smith College Relief Unit of American Red Cross in European combat zones. Upon return taught kindergarten in Minnesota and Chicago, 1919-1922; staff, demonstration nursery school of School of Education, University of Chicago, 1925-1927. Married Elrie Robinson (q.v.) in Chicago, 1927, and joined him in editing and publishing the St. Francisville (La.) Democrat, becoming co-publisher with son James M. Robinson, 1955. Organized and chaired West Feliciana Health Council, 1946, which saw establishment of first health unit in parish. Volunteered during World War II teacher shortage to teach Spanish and the Shakespeare plays in local high school. Producer of historical pageants and authority on local history and wildlife. Member Grace Episcopal Church. Died, St. Francisville, August 4, 1964; interred Grace Church Cemetery. E.K.D. Sources: St. Francisville Democrat, August 6, 1964; papers of Margaret W. Robinson.

ROBINSON, Martha Gilmore, historic preservationist, civic leader. Born in New Orleans, August 18, 1888. B. A., Sophie Newcomb College, 1909. Married Robert Gibson Robinson in 1911; mother of five children. Resided briefly in Robinwood, Miss., before returning to New Orleans. Served as director of the Child Welfare Association in 1915 and as secretary of the New Orleans Council of National Defense during World War I. Helped found the Le Petit Théâtre du Vieux Carré in 1917 and appeared in several plays there. Served as chairman of a committee to reorganize the New Orleans Public Library, as a member of the first board of directors of the New Orleans Civil Service League, as a member of the Louisiana Board of Institutions, as the only woman on the board of the Bureau of Governmental Research, as chairman of the civic committee of the Orleans Club, as a board member of the Lyceum Association of New Orleans, and one of the founders of the New Orleans Spring Fiesta. Worked on the Women’s Division of the Honest Election League during the 1930s and headed the Women’s Citizens’ Union. Served as president of the New Orleans League of Women Voters from 1942 to 1946 and again from 1950 to 1952. Was also president of Louisiana League of Women Voters. Led the fight to have paper ballots replaced with voting machines. In making an unsuccessful bid for city councilman-at-large in 1954, she became the first woman to run for any position on the New Orleans city council. Founding member of the Louisiana Landmarks Society, 1950; served two terms as that organization’s president from 1958 to 1962. Led the fight to preserve several historic homes. Was instrumental in the successful effort to block the construction of a chemical plant on the site of the 1815 Battle of New Orleans at Chalmette, eventually persuading the developers to donate the land for a national park. Led successful efforts to block construction of a riverfront expressway and the encroachment of high-rise buildings on the French Quarter. Honors included an honorary degree from Sophie Newcomb College, induction into the Order of the British Empire, an appointment to the Vieux Carré Commission, the Louise DuPont Crowninshield Award from the National Trust on Historic Preservation in 1963, and the 1961 Times-Picayune Loving Cup for distinguished community service. Died in New Orleans, February 5, 1981. J.D.W. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, February 6, 1981, February 10, 1981; William R. Cullison III, The Louisiana Landmarks Society: The First Thirty Years (1980); Pamela Tyler, Silk Stockings & Ballot Boxes: Women & Politics in New Orleans, 1920-1963 (1996).

ROBINSON, Nathan “Big Jim,” jazz trombonist. Born, Deer Range Plantation, south of New Orleans, December 25, 1890. Began playing the trombone during World War I. Returned to New Orleans and took a job as longshoreman, but continued playing. In 1922 he joined Isaiah Morgan’s Band (later Sam Morgan’s Band). He played with the Morgan Band throughout the 1920s and participated in its famous series of recordings for Columbia in 1927. Played with Bunk Johnson’s (q.v.) band and recorded on most of Johnson’s records in the 1940s. Member of the George Lewis Band during the 1950s and traveled with them on European tours. Joined in 1961 Preservation Hall Jazz Band. He was in a concert at Lincoln Center in New York and at Boston’s Symphony Hall just a month before he died. Died, New Orleans, May 4, 1976. H.C. Sources: New Orleans States-Item, obituary, May 5, 1976; Second Line (Winter, 1983); Noel Rockmore, Preservation Hall Portraits (1968).

ROCHEBLAVE, Philippe-François de Rastel de, soldier, politician. Born, Savournon, Diocese of Gap, France, March 3, 1727; son of Jean-Joseph de Rastel de Rocheblave and Diane Elizabeth Dillon. French officer in French and Indian War (present at Braddock’s defeat); arrived in Illinois country, ca. 1760. Married at Kaskaskia, April 11, 1763, Marie Michel Dufresne, daughter of Jacques Michel Dufresne, officer in Kaskaskia militia, and Marie-Françoise Henry. Nine children born at Kaskaskia and Ste. Geneviève: Marie-Adélaïde (b. 1764); Jean-Philippe-François (b. 1765); Marie-Louise (b. 1766); Noël (b. 1767); Pierre (b. 1770); Rosalie (b. 1772); Pierre (b. 1774); Marie Thérèse (b. 1777); Rosalie (b. 1778). Commandant in Ste. Geneviève, 1766-1770; commandant in English Kaskaskia, 1776-1778; captured by George Rogers Clark, 1778; escaped from Williamsburg and rejoined British forces. Removed to Quebec and became active in provincial politics. Died, April 26, 1802; interred Quebec. C.J.E. Sources: Edward G. Mason, “British Illinois—Philippe de Rocheblave,” in Edward G. Mason ed., Early Chicago and Illinois (1890); Katherine Seineke, The George Rogers Clark Adventure (1981); Carl J. Ekberg, Colonial Ste. Genevieve (1985).

ROCHEMORE, Vincent Gaspard Pierre de, colonial administrator. Born, Nîmes, France, 1713; son of the marquis de Rochemore. Studied for the priesthood but never entered an order; served, 1731-1757, in the Ministry of Marine; graduated from the University of Avignon, 1738. Was promoted to commissary general in 1758 and sent to Louisiana as ordonnateur; engaged in a power struggle with Governor Kelérec (q.v.) and was reported for insubordination in 1759; recalled to France in 1762; inquiry into the persistent rivalry between civil and military power became known as “The Louisiana Affair”. Died before proceedings were closed in 1769; Madame de Rochemore was given a pension for herself and the children. J.B.C. Source: Marc de Villiers du Terrage, The Last Years of French Louisiana, trans. by Hosea Phillips, ed. by Carl A. Brasseaux and Glenn R. Conrad (1982).

ROCHON, Victor, businessman, politician. Born, possibly Bayou Chêne, La., March 23, 1843; son of Steril Rochon and Eliza Castille. Studied law at Straight University (now Dillard), New Orleans. Married, September 14, 1874, Katie McKay in New Orleans. Children: Beatrice (b. 1875), Anita (b. 1877), Althea (b. 1879), Etnah (b. 1881), Daisy (b. 1889). Member of the St. Martin Parish School Board, 1875; sugar inspector for St. Martin Parish; mercantile clerk; postmaster of St. Martinville; clerk of custom houses; Louisiana state representative, 1872 to April 20, 1875, and 1888-1890; succeeded in promoting a bill to permit blacks to incorporate Roman Catholic churches; spoke out against segregation on railroads. Member, St. Martin of Tours Catholic Church. Died, November 15, 1892. M.V.J. Sources: Charles Vincent, Black Legislators in Louisiana (1976); Donald Hébert, comp., Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); U. S. Census, 7th 1850, microfilm copy, St. Martin Parish.

RODRIGUE, Eugene “Gene,” Cajun musician. Born in La Rose, Louisiana, October 21, 1926; son of Abel Rodrigue and Louise Plaisance. A self-taught guitarist, fiddle player, vocalist, and songwriter, Rodrigue began to perform professionally with the Bayou Troubadours in the mid-1940s. Began his recording career in 1953 with “Dans Le Coeur De La Ville” for Folk-Star Records. Subsequently signed with the Meladee record label. Enjoyed greatest commercial success with record entitled “Jolie Fille.” Meanwhile, Rodrigue launched a broadcasting career through live musical shows on New Orleans radio stations WWEZ, WBOK, and WJMR and Thibodaux station KTIB. Rodrigue also appeared at major musical performances by Hank Williams, Jim Reeves, and Carl Smith. Temporarily forced out of the music business by the advent of rock-n-roll, but Rodrigue attempted a comeback after buying a lounge at Lockport, La., ca. 1960. In 1960, his song “Little Cajun Girl,” a rock-n-roll number, enjoyed considerable local success, as did the Cajun tune “Le Jour Est La.” Despite these local hits, Rodrigue again left the music business temporarily. He worked as a roughneck in the oil industry for three years before becoming a driller. Following his promotion to driller, Rodrigue recorded a few songs on the Houma label. Rodrigue eventually left the oil industry for a job as a furniture salesman. Subsequently became a very successful insurance salesman. Released his last album, entitled “The Bayou Cajun Music of Gene Rodrigue,” on the Swallow label in 1986. Died while performing at the International Grand Isle Tarpon Rodeo, Grand Isle, La., July 29, 1988; interred in Holy Rosary Cemetery, La Rose, Louisiana. J.H.B. Sources: John Broven, South to Louisiana: The Music of the Cajun Bayous (1983); liner notes to “The Bayou Cajun Music of Gene Rodrigue,” Swallow LP 6062; Joseph H. Bergeron, “A Companion to Cajun Music” (forthcoming).

ROFFIGNAC, Joseph, mayor of New Orleans. Born, Angoulême, France, 1766; arrived New Orleans early 1800s as member of French military force preparing for restoration of Louisiana to France. Married Solidella Montegut, daughter of Dr. Joseph Montegut (q.v.) of New Orleans, royal surgeon of Louisiana during Spanish domination; discarded title as Count Louis Philippe Joseph de Roffignac to become simple republican Joseph Roffignac and remained in new American Territory of Orleans after 1803. Member of Louisiana legislature, then city alderman, 1817. Elected mayor May 1, 1820, over J. B. Gilly 537 to 388; tempestuous administration highlighted by bitter Gallic-Anglo-American ethnic conflicts, with Roffignac assailed as champion of corrupt, “aristocratic” and “backward” French community, climaxing in near civil war 1823-1825; term marked by destruction of Louisiana State House by fire, 1828, founding of the New Orleans PhysicoMedical Society and a Free Library, 1820, building of the American Theatre in Camp Street, 1823, and the Bank of Louisiana, 1824. Reelected without opposition, 1822, 1824, and 1826; resigned May, 1828, and returned to France. Died there, 1846, from accidental self-inflicted pistol shot during epileptic seizure. J.G.T. Sources: Henry Castellanos, New Orleans As It Was (1895; reprint ed., 1979); John S. Kendall, History of New Orleans, 3 vols. (1922); New Orleans Argus, December 22, 1826; January 30, 1827; New Orleans Louisiana Advertiser, January 9, 1828.

ROGERS, Elizabeth Schlosser Cousins, political activist, author. Born, Aurora, N. Y., April 9, 1891; daughter of Henry Schlosser, a Presbyterian minister, and Mary Louisa Banks. Education: Local schools, St. Peter, Minn., and Englewood, N. J.; Smith College, Northampton, Mass., graduated 1913. Married (1), November 25, 1920, William Schuyler Cousins, an aviator from New Orleans who later studied painting. Divorced, July 18, 1927. One child, Mary Ann (b. 1923). Married (2), July 16, 1940, Walter Rogers, union organizer. Served on the editorial staff of Vogue Magazine, 1913-1918; enlisted through the Y.M.C.A. to serve as canteen worker for U. S. Army in France; resided in France, 1922-1929; editor of Girl Scout publications, ca. 1930s; affiliated with New York WPA Writers’ Project, contributor to New York City Guide; Who’s Who in the Zoo; taught labor journalism and editor of newspaper at Commonwealth College, Ark., 1939-1940. During her residence in New Orleans, 1941-1985, produced and distributed hundreds of leaflets referred to as “Street Journalism” on diverse subjects including union organizing, civil rights, opposition to Vietnam War, aid to victims of Hurricane Betsy; organized meetings to protest and petition against ongoing social and political conditions. In 1983, instrumental in placement of a permanent monument in New Orleans dedicated to the first black students who integrated New Orleans public schools in 1960. Author of Songs for the Sidewalk; These Were Our Homes. Co-author, with Walter Rogers, Big Wheels Rolled in Texas; John Donar: Common Man; and Revolution: Left Out of School Books. Member of the Communist Party of the United States for many years. Died, New Orleans, February 18, 1985; body donated to science. B.R.O. Sources: Federal Writers’ Project, New York City, New York City Guide (1939); —–, Who’s Who in the Zoo (1939); Elizabeth Rogers Collection, Archives and Manuscripts/Special Collections Department, Earl K. Long Library, University of New Orleans; Elizabeth Rogers, Songs for the Sidewalk (1981); —–, These Were Our Homes (1955); Walter Rogers and Elizabeth Rogers, Big Wheels Rolled in Texas (1972); —–, John Donar: Common Man (1945); —–, Revolution: Left Out of School Books (1970); obituary, New Orleans Times-Picayune, February 21, 1985.

ROGERS, Stephen Walter, clergyman, writer. Born in North Carolina ca. 1825. He reputedly published a religious booklet of about fifty pages when still a slave. Rogers’s Compositions (New Orleans?, 1850) contained extracts from his own sermons, Bible narratives, and hymns for Sunday-school instruction of slaves and free colored individuals. Rogers’ theology and social commentary were said to be strictly orthodox. No copies found. At the time of publication, Rogers was superintendent of Sunday-school of 300 black students. Besides preaching regularly in New Orleans’ black churches during the 1840s and early 1850s, he worked as a cotton sampler, collector, and outdoor runner for banks and steamboats. He was granted his freedom in 1852 and survived into the post-Civil War period. T.F.R. Source: Nathan Willey, “Education of the Colored Population of Louisiana,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, XXXIII (1866).

ROGERS, Wynne Gray, jurist. Born, New Orleans, December 26, 1874; son of Wynne Rogers, a jurist and state legislator, and Mary Winkleman. Attended public and private schools of New Orleans, including Boys’ High School; graduated from the Tulane University Law School in 1895. After being admitted to the Louisiana bar in 1896, he was affiliated briefly with the New Orleans law firm of Rogers and Dodge; subsequently entered into private practice before forming a legal partnership with Bernard Titche. Member, Four Minute Men of Louisiana and the Legal Advisory Board during World War I. Judicial career: judge, Civil District Court, Orleans Parish, 1920; associate justice of the Louisiana supreme court, 1922-1946. Teaching career: held a chair in Louisiana law, Tulane University Law School, mid-1920s. Member, Delta Sigma Phi social fraternity; Phi Alpha Delta legal fraternity; Ancient Order of Druids; Chess, Checkers, and Whist Club; New Orleans Press Club; Y. M. G. Club; Church Club of Louisiana; and the City Park Improvement Association of New Orleans. Grand master, Masonic Grand Lodge of Louisiana; potentate, Jerusalem Temple of the Mystic Shrine. Died of a “heart ailment,” Baptist Hospital of New Orleans, September 15, 1946; interred, Metairie Cemetery, September 17, 1946. C.A.B. Sources: Henry E. Chambers, History of Louisiana, 3 vols. (1925), 3:332-333; obituary, vertical file, Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collection, Hill Memorial Library, Louisiana State University-Baton Rouge.

ROLFE, Charles Gilman, businessman, politician. Born, Oak Ridge, Morehouse Parish, La., October 31, 1901; son of Joe Sam Rolfe and Gertrude Cooper. Education: Oak Ridge High School; Louisiana Polytechnic Institute; Louisiana State University; Cumberland University Law School, LL.B. degree, 1925. Married, October 5, 1925, Sterling Greer of Alexandria, daughter of William Erastus Greer and Missourah Mitchell. Children: Charles Thomas (b. 1934), Mary Sterling (b. 1939). Active in Democratic party; served two terms as representative in Louisiana legislature; Morehouse Parish Democratic Executive Committee, thirty-nine years; Morehouse Parish School Board, twenty-four years, fourteen years as president. Cotton planter and ginner for forty-two years. Member: Methodist church, steward, trustee, teacher; National Rifle Association (life); Oak Ridge Lions Club, president; Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity. Died, November 14, 1978; interred Oak Ridge Episcopal Cemetery. M.N.N. Sources: Bastrop Daily Enterprise, obituary, November 14, 1978; Rolfe family papers.

ROMAN, Alfred, attorney, writer. Born, St. James Parish, La., May 24, 1824; son of Gov. A. B. Roman (q.v.) and Aimée Parent. Education: Jefferson College; read law in office of Etienne Mazureau (q.v.); admitted to Louisiana bar, 1845, practiced in St. James Parish. Married (1), 1849, Felicité Aime, daughter of Valcour Aime (q.v.). After death of first wife in France, married (2), in Charleston, S. C., Sallie Rhett, daughter of Robert Barnwell Rhett, the so-called “Father of Secession.” Founder of a St. James French weekly newspaper, L’Autochtone, in support of the Know-Nothing party. With outbreak of Civil War, raised military company; elected lieutenant colonel, Eighteenth Louisiana Infantry, October 5, 1861; inspector general on staff of Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard, 1862-1865. Planter and lawyer in St. James Parish after war. A district judge. Assisted in writing Military Operations of General Beauregard (2 vols., 1884). Died, New Orleans, September 20, 1892. A.W.B. Sources: Arthur W. Bergeron, Jr., ed., Reminiscences of Uncle Silas: A History of the Eighteenth Louisiana Infantry Regiment (1981); Edward Larocque Tinker, Les Ecrits de langue français en Louisiane aux XIXe siècle (1932).

ROMAN, André Bienvenu, governor. Born, Opelousas District of Spanish Louisiana, March 5, 1795; son of Jacques Etienne Roman and Marie Louise Patin Roman. Soon after birth removed with family to sugar plantation in present-day St. James Parish. Married, 1816, Aimée Françoise Parent. Eight children, two of whom, Judge Alfred Roman (q.v.) and Charles Roman, were especially prominent in later Louisiana social circles. Education: graduated from St. Mary’s College, Baltimore, 1815. Later settled on his own sugar plantation in St. James Parish. Political career: elected to the Louisiana house of representatives, 1818; served 1818-1826; speaker of the house, 1822-1826; judge, St. James Parish, 1826-1828; speaker of the state house of representatives, 1828-1830; elected governor, 1830; administration noted for establishment of innovative penitentiary system at Baton Rouge, transfer of state capital from Donaldsonville to New Orleans, increased state support for elementary and secondary education, the establishment of Jefferson College and Franklin College, levees, roads and bridges were improved, the number of banks more than doubled, and the Louisiana Agricultural Society was incorporated; became a partisan of Henry Clay and the Whig party; lost bid for election to U.S. Senate to Alexandre Mouton (q.v.); reelected governor, 1838; administration noted for abolition of imprisonment for debt; delegate to state constitutional conventions of 1845 and 1852; delegate to state’s secession convention, 1861; opposed secession. Sent by Confederate government with John Forsyth and Martin J. Crawford to seek peaceful compromise with United States, but mission failed when Seward refused them an audience. Financially ruined by Civil War; appointed recorder of deeds and mortages in New Orleans, 1866, but died on January 26, 1866, before taking office; interred family plantation, St. James Parish. J.G.T. Source: Author’s research.

ROMAN, Jacques Telesphore, planter, builder of Oak Alley Plantation house. Born, Opelousas, La., May 22, 1800; son of Jacques Etienne and Marie Louise Patin Roman; brother of André B. Roman (q.v.), governor of Louisiana. Married, June 14, 1834, Marie Thérèse Célina Joséphine Pilié of New Orleans, daughter of Thérèse Deynaut and Gilbert Joseph Pilié (q.v.), émigrés from Saint-Domingue. Children and their ages in 1850: Louise, 15; Octavie, 13; Henry, 11; Marie, 7. Career: acquired land near Vacherie, St. James Parish, La.; hired George Swainey, architect, to build Bon Séjour plantation house, 1830-1839; now called Oak Alley because of twenty-eight live oak trees, now over 250 years old, that lead from the Mississippi River levee to the house; a corresponding number of columns of Doric design surround the house and there originally were that number of slave cabins. Antoine, a slave gardener, first successfully grafted pecan trees at Bon Séjour in the winter of 1846-1847; his work resulted in the variety, Centennial, and the first commercial pecan orchard; in the 1850 census Célina Roman is listed as a widow; Bon Séjour remained in the Roman family until after the Civil War. In 1925, the Andrew Stewarts of New Orleans purchased Oak Alley and hired Richard Koch (q.v.) to restore it. J.B.C. Sources: J. Wesley Cooper, Louisiana: A Treasure of Plantation Homes (1961); Jacqueline P. Vals-Denuzière, The Homes of Planters (1984); Stanley Clisby Arthur, Old Families of Louisiana (1931; reprint ed., 1971); St. James Parish, Louisiana, 1850 & 1860 census reports; Elton J. Oubre, comp., Marriages and Marriage Contracts from Old Newspapers (1983); Mrs. F. O. James and Hewitt L. Forsyth, comps., New Orleans Genesis, I (1962).

ROMANSKI, Harry R., artist, lithographer, engraver, amateur musician. Born, Zytomir (Russian occupied), Poland, 1861. Education: seven years, semi-military school, Jena, Germany; government school, Lwów (Austrian occupied), Poland. Cadet, lieutenant, Austrian Lancer Regiment At death of father, manager of family estate, Szumbany, near Halicz. Attended Galician Agricultural College, Dublany, and also took charge of family estate in Lwów. Following business reverses, became bank-clerk, Lwów, for a year. About 1888 emigrated to United States. Entered photography business. Married Bertha Owens of Buffalo, N.Y. Removed to New Orleans about 1893. Worked briefly as photo-engraver and was hired by the Daily States as staff artist, also became a writer. Later formed the Romanski Photo Engraving Co. An extraordinary amateur musician he was a member of New Orleans Artists’ Association Died, December 25, 1944; interred Garden of Memories. L.S. Sources: May Mount, Some Notables of New Orleans ll New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, December 26, 1944; Stefan Nestorowicz, Travel Notes (translation from Notatki z Podrózy by Marion Moore Coleman).

RONDEAU, William, missionary. Born in England, ca. 1800. In 1826, Rondeau helped to establish the “First African Church of New Orleans,” which had an all-black congregation led by a free Negro. Rondeau’s association with black communicants eroded support of his white congregation, and he left the city in 1828. T.F.R. Source: Timothy F. Reilly, “Religious Leaders and Social Criticism in New Orleans, 1800-1861” (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Missouri at Columbia, 1972).

RORDAM, Ragnvald B., engineer, soldier. Born, New Orleans, 1912; son of Ragnvald Paul Rordam and Laura Fry. Education: Louisiana State University. Enlisted in National Guard, 1930; commissioned second lieutenant in Washington Artillery, 1937. January, 1941, given command of Battery A, 141st Field Artillery, and as a major in 1943 went overseas with Second Batallion of Washington Artillery. Saw combat in North Africa, Italy, Southern France, and Germany. After war, engaged as a cadastral engineer in land and marine surveys. After reactivation of Washington Artillery, became executive officer of 935th Field Artillery and in 1948 became commanding officer of 141st Field Artillery. In 1959, commanded 141st Field Artillery of Washington Artillery. Served in this capacity until death. At the time of death was serving as chief of the training and education division, Louisiana Civil Defense. A Thirty-second Degree Mason; member, Military Order of the World Wars; member, St. Charles Avenue Presbyterian Church. Married Audrey Bastian. Children, son and two daughters. Died, New Orleans, July 30, 1967; interred Greenwood Cemetery. TAG, LA Sources: Military Records, Jackson Barracks Library, compiled by Mary B. Oalmann, military historian; New Orleans Times-Picayune, July 31, 1967.

ROSATI, Joseph, clergyman, prelate. Born Sora, Kingdom of Naples, January 12, 1789; son of Giovanni and Vienna (Soresi) Rosati. Education: Seminary of Naples and Vincentian House of Studies, Rome, where ordained a priest of the Congregation of the Missions (Vincentians), February 10, 1811. Early ministry as a missioner in the Papal States, 1811-1815. Persuaded to join the Louisiana Mission. Arrived in United States, 1816, and was, for two years, on faculty of St. Thomas Seminary, Bardstown, Ky. Appointed superior of the Seminary of St. Mary of the Barrens, Missouri, 1818, and superior of the American Vincentians, 1820 (a position he held for the next ten years). Elected by the Holy See to the titular bishopric of Tanagra on August 13, 1822, and designated vicar apostolic of Mississippi, Alabama, and the Floridas, an honor he declined May 6, 1823. Two months later, on Bishop DuBourg’s (q.v.) insistence, named co-adjutor bishop of Louisiana and the Floridas with right of succession. The bull of appointment stipulated that after three years this vast diocese would be divided with Rosati becoming bishop of St. Louis unless New Orleans should by then be vacant, in which case he would have the option of occupying it instead. Consecrated bishop by DuBourg at Donaldsonville, La., March 25, 1824 (the first episcopal consecration in Louisiana). Entrusted with the administration of the northern portion of the diocese (St. Louis and area) which DuBourg had left in 1823 in order to take up residence in New Orleans. Dissented with DuBourg’s plan to build a seminary at Bayou Lafourche because of the drain it would entail on the faculty of St. Mary of the Barrens. Upon DuBourg’s resignation of the diocese of Louisiana and the Floridas and return to France in 1826, Rosati appointed administrator of the now two dioceses and urged by the Roman authorities to accept the see of New Orleans. Consecrated Rev. Michael Portier vicar apostolic of Alabama and the Floridas at St. Louis, November 5, 1826. In New Orleans early in 1827; made a general visitation of the diocese. Established an episcopal council to govern the New Orleans diocese in his absence and appointed Fr. Antonio de Sedella (q.v.) as presiding officer. Diffused attempt by the church wardens (marguilliers) of St. Louis Cathedral to have the state legislature invest them with the right to appoint clergy to the Cathedral by advising the legislators that this would be a violation of the U. S. Constitution. Expended much effort to reduce the heavy debts incurred under DuBourg’s administration. Having won Roman approval for his choice of St. Louis as his own diocese he urged the Holy See to appoint Leo Raymond de Neckère (q.v.) to New Orleans. De Neckère appointed on August 4, 1829, but not consecrated until June 24, 1830. Rosati’s administration of the Diocese of New Orleans ceased with De Neckère’s consecration. Appointed apostolic delegate to Haiti in 1842. Died in Rome, September 25, 1843; interred St. Louis, Mo. J.E.B. Sources: Roger Baudier, The Catholic Church in Louisiana (1939); J. B. Code, Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1964); L. Callan, Philippine Duchesne (1957); F. J. Easterly, The Life of Rt. Rev. Joseph Rosati (1942); J. Rothensteiner, History of the Archdiocese of St. Louis, I (1928); C. L. Souvay, “Rosati’s Election to the Co-adjutorship of New Orleans,” Catholic Historical Review, II (1917-1918); C. L. Souvay, “Rosati’s Elevation to the See of St. Louis,” Catholic Historical Review, II (1917-1918).

ROSE, Etienne Alfonse de la Rose Lascaux ” Al,” jazz author/historian, researcher, recording director, composer, TV and radio emcee. Born, New Orleans, La., February 3, 1916, son of Erena Benet and Josef Lascaux, a sugar broker and carnival owner who promoted cotton candy and jazz bands. Married (1) Mary E. Mitchell, 1948; married (2) Diana Beals (researcher/lecturer, co-ordinator/ educator in gifted program), 1970. Children: Erwin A. Carmer, Frank K. Carmer, and Rex A. Rose. Early education at St. Louis Cathedral School and St. Aloysius, New Orleans. Left home at age fourteen to make his own living; avoided Catholic confirmation, changed name and cut family ties. Received scholarship to Temple University. Caricatures (now in Hogan Jazz Archives) drawn at Temple were popular and lucrative. An avid collector of jazz and swing records, sheet music; formed lasting friendships with many jazzist greats. Produced first jazz concert starring clarinetist Sidney Bechet (q.v.), at Philadelphia, 1936. Studied with artist Diego Rivera (1937), received Master of Fine Arts degree, University of Mexico (1939). Bodyguard to Leon Trotsky in Mexico (1938-39); political activist in U.S., Mexico, parts of Europe in late 1930s. As a skilled welder helped organize CIO and labor unions in Pennsylvania and Michigan. In 1940s emceed syndicated radio show, “Journeys Into Jazz;” worked for Keynote Records and Louisiana Tourist Commission. Master sergeant, United States Army, 1944-45. Ran a commercial fishing boat in Florida, 1949-50. Settled in New Orleans late 1960s, serving as deputy election commissioner. Music and historical consultant to major TV networks in United States, England and France, the Smithsonian Institute and National Geographic. From 1936-80 produced 100 phonograph albums and 700 78rpm records. Led jazz parade in Paris, 1976. Organized “Played With Immense Success,” sheet music show at the Louisiana State Museum (1980-81), which later went on tour. Two movies, Storyville, New Orleans (early 1970s, with Rose cast as Sidney Story) and Pretty Baby (1978) were based on Rose’s book Storyville, New Orleans. With Diana Rose produced a 13-week radio series, “Creole Cameos” (carried by WWNO, 1988), during which recordings of 52 previously unknown compositions from nineteenth-century New Orleans were unearthed and recorded. Rose was docent at Hogan Jazz Archives, which houses his personal papers/memorabilia, jazz collection, and 16,000 pieces of Louisiana sheet music published in the nineteenth-century. Publications: New Orleans Jazz: A Family Album (1967, 1978, 1984, co-author Edmond Souch­on); Storyville Portraits (1970); Storyville, New Orleans (1974); Eubie Blake (1979); Born in New Orleans (1983); I Remember Jazz (1987), in which he said: “Only jazz is jazz;” Madame Lulu White of Basin Street (1990); numerous articles for newspapers and journals. Awards: Louisiana Library Association Book Award, 1967, for New Orleans Jazz: A Family Album; American Association of State and Local History Award, 1988, for “Creole Cameos.” Works in progress at time of his death: “Played With Immense Success,” “The History of Jazz,” and a biography of Clarence Williams. Died, New Orleans, December 15, 1993; memorial service at Preservation Hall, New Orleans. A. K. S. Sources: Contemporary Authors, vol. 97 (1981); Times-Picayune, April 1, 1979, December 17, 1993; Dave Ragan, Who’s Who in Hollywood (1992); International Authors and Writers Who’s Who (1982); Al Rose, I Remember Jazz (1987); interview with Mrs. Al Rose, August 28, 1996.

ROSELIUS, Christian, attorney. Born near Bremen, Germany, August 10, 1803; son of Johann Conrad and Anna Marie (Walker) Roselius. Poor parents, age 16 went to Bremen and by sale of future services secured passage on Dutch brig Jupiter to New Orleans. Served as printer’s apprentice, started a shortlived magazine, The Halcyon. Studied English, Latin and French. Studied law in the office of Auguste Davezac (q.v.) with Alexander Dimitry (q.v.) and developed keen interest in French civil law and its history and acquired knowledge of its practice peculiar to Louisiana. Married the head of a school for girls and taught while establishing his legal practice. Admitted to the bar in 1828 and practiced law for the remainder of his life. 1840 elected to state legislature, 1841 appointed attorney-general for two-year term. Served as delegate to the constitutional convention, 1845. Aided in drawing up and executing the will of John McDonough (q.v.). A Whig in politics, as a delegate to the secession convention in 1861 he opposed secession. Refused to serve as chief justice of the supreme court in 1863 because the military might interfere. Member of the Colonization Society in 1847, member of the board governing the University of Louisiana (now Tulane University), he was professor of Civil Law in that institution, 1847-1855; served as dean of the Law Department, 1865-1872. Known for clear, concise lectures and briefs. Died, September 5, 1873; interred St. Louis Cemetery I. Of his three children one daughter survived him. W.H.A. Sources: Dictionary of American Biography, XVI; Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXIII (1940).

ROSENWALD, Edith, see STERN, Edith.

ROSENWALD, Julius, philanthropist, businessman. Born, Springfield, Ill., August 12, 1862; son of Samuel Rosenwald and Augusta Hammerslough. Married Adelaide Rau Goodkind, January 8, 1930. Educated in Springfield public schools. Worked for Hammerslough Brothers, a wholesale clothier, 1879-1885. President, Rosenwald & Weil, Chicago clothiers, 1885-1906. Vice president and treasurer, Sears, Roebuck & Company, 1895-1910; president, 1910-1925; chairman of the board, 1925-1932. Vice president, Chicago Sinai Congregation; organizer, Federation of Jewish Charities, Chicago, 1923. An active contributor to civic and educational enterprises worldwide. A friend of Booker T. Washington, he became a member of the board of trustees for Tuskegee Institute in 1912. Initially made a number of small ($5,000 or less) donations to “Offshoots of Tuskegee,” but in 1917, Rosenwald used his profits from the Sears, Roebuck merchandising business to incorporate the Julius Rosenwald Fund, an important goal of which was improved black schools. Between 1913 and 1932, Rosenwald contributed about 15 percent of the $28 million needed to construct more than 5,000 school buildings in fifteen Southern states. Louisiana’s first Rosenwald school was built in 1916. By 1922, Rosenwald funds had provided almost 20 percent of the cost of building eleven teachers’ homes and 190 rural schoolhouses with 489 classrooms housing just over 22,000 students. By 1929, the 372 Rosenwald schools in Louisiana comprised over one-fourth of all African American schools and one-third of the enrollment. Later, as the scope of its mission broadened, the fund contributed moneys to health education, institutions of higher learning, and industrial high schools in Louisiana. Died, Chicago, January 6, 1932. M.G.W. Sources: Dictionary of American Biography (1935), 16:170-71; James D. Anderson, The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935 (1988); Adam Fairclough, Race and Democracy: The Civil Rights Struggle in Louisiana, 1915-1972 (1995); David C. Marshall, “A History of the Higher Education of Negroes in the State of Louisiana” (Ph. D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1956); Betty Porter, “The History of Negro Education in Louisiana” (M. A. thesis, Louisiana State University, 1938).

ROSS, Henry Clay, educator, clergyman. Born, Terrebonne Parish, La., September, 1871; son of Charlie and Becky Ross. Education: local schools; Howe Institute, New Iberia; Baton Rouge College; Hampton Institute (Va.); and Leland College. Married (1) Eliza Castello, 1900. Children: Charles Wesley and Jeannette. Married (2) Louise Burrell, 1936. Active in educational and religious circles, first principal and teacher of public school for blacks in Crowley. Served as principal until 1942. Member and pastor of Morning Star Baptist Church; secretary of the district Sunday School Convention; executive secretary of the Louisiana Baptist Convention; president, Seventh District Baptist Association; member, board of trustees of Leland College. Ross Street (formerly North Avenue) and H. C. Ross High School named for subject. Ross Community Center also named for subject. Died, April 28, 1945; interred Morning Star Baptist Church Cemetery, Crowley. C.V. Sources: Interview with Mrs. Jeanette Ross May, Spring, 1985, Crowley, Louisiana; Crowley Daily Signal, April 30, May 2, 1945; research paper by Marcella Melancon, Spring, 1977, in author’s possession.

ROST, Emile, attorney, jurist, planter. Born in France, June 17, 1839; son of Pierre Adolphe Rost (q.v.) and Louise Odile Destréhan. Educated in local schools; Georgetown University, Washington, D. C., B. A., 1853; Harvard University, law degree,1859; postgraduate work, Tulane University During Civil War, served as father’s secretary during his mission to France and Spain. Upon returning to New Orleans after war, joined James B. Eustis (q.v.) in a law partnership. After Eustis appointed ambassador to France, Rost, upon death of elder brother, became manager, 1869, of Destrehan Plantation in St. Charles Parish. Sold the plantation in 1910. Became deeply involved in the production and distribution of Louisiana sugar. Served as third president of the Louisiana Sugar Planters’ Association. In 1888 elected judge of the district court for St. Charles, St. John, and Jefferson parishes; served until resignation in 1903. Served as vice-president of Athénée Louisianaise and was a member of L’Union Française, in addition to many other professional and social organizations. Never married. Died, New Orleans, January 2, 1913; interred St. Louis Cemetery II. G.R.C. Sources: New Orleans Daily Picayune, January 3, 1913; Henry Rightor, Standard History of New Orleans (1900).

ROST, Pierre Adolphe, attorney, jurist, planter. Born Department of Lot-et-Garonne, France, 1797. Educated at Lycée Napoléon and Ecole Polytechnic in Paris. A staunch Bonapartist, served in the defense of Paris, 1814. Applied for commission in army after Napoleon’s return from Elba; had not received it by time of Waterloo. Emigrated to the United States, 1816, settling in Natchez, Miss., where he taught and studied law under Joseph E. Davis (brother of Jefferson Davis). Admitted to Louisiana bar, began practice in Natchitoches. Elected to state senate, 1826. Nominated to Congress, 1830, defeated. Removed to New Orleans, 1830, continued law practice. Married, 1830, Louise Odile Destréhan, widow of Pierre Edmond Foucher, daughter of John N. Destréhan (q.v.) and Céleste Robin de Logny. Children: four sons, one of whom was Emile (q.v.), and two daughters. Appointed to Louisiana Supreme Court, 1839, served four months and resigned to pursue agricultural interests, becoming a leader in Louisiana’s sugar industry. Delivered the eulogy at funeral of Valcour Aime (q.v.). After adoption of constitution of 1845 and reorganization of supreme court, named associate justice, March 19, 1846, and served through the court’s session of 1853. Resigned, returned to law practice and agricultural pursuits. Remodeled Destrehan Manor giving it Greek Revival appearance. Upon formation of Confederate government, President Davis named Rost as Confederate commissioner to France. Was unsuccessful in winning French support for Confederate cause. Transferred to Spain, March 1862, but met with little success. Retired to Fumel, France, May, 1862, where he remained for duration of war. Returned to New Orleans and St. Charles Parish after war. Died, New Orleans, September 6, 1868. G.R.C. Sources: Henry Rightor, ed., Standard History of New Orleans, Louisiana (1900); Appleton’s Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vol. V; William W. White and Jospeh O. Baylen, “Pierre A. Rost’s Mission to Europe, 1861-1863,” Louisiana History, II (1961); David C. Roller and Robert W. Twyman, eds., The Encyclopedia of Southern History (1979); The National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vol. XI.

ROUDANEZ, Louis Charles, physician, newspaper owner, civic leader. Born, St. James Parish, La., June 12, 1823; son of Louis Roudanez, a French merchant, and Aimée Potens, f.w.c. A Creole of Color, reared in New Orleans and educated in France. Roudanez, who could read, write and speak three languages fluently, graduated with honors from the Faculty of Medicine, University of Paris, 1853. He received a second medical degree from Dartmouth College in 1857. The following year he married Celie Saulay—with whom he would have eight children—and began to practice medicine in New Orleans. Enjoyed a lucrative practice among both blacks and whites. Following the occupation of New Orleans by Federal forces, Roudanez founded and was principal owner (with his brother, Jean-Baptiste) of L’Union, a triweekly published from September 1862 until July 1864 which sought to gain civil rights for free persons of color. Within weeks of the failure of L’Union Roudanez established La Tribune de la Nouvelle Orléans and, with the help of his editor, a white radical from Belgium named Jean-Charles Houzeau (q.v.), he urged pre-war free persons of color to close ranks with freedmen to seek the granting and protection of civil rights for blacks. The failure of this plan and, by 1868, of La Tribune greatly discouraged Roudanez. When his efforts in the Louisiana Unification Movement of 1873, for which he helped draft the Manifesto, came to naught, he withdrew from the political arena. His philanthropic ventures included paying for the foundation of Providence Asylum, an orphanage; his civic service included membership on the Examining Committee of Straight (Dillard) University. Died, New Orleans, March 11, 1890. D.W.M. Sources: Finnian P. Leavens, “L’Union and the New Orleans Tribune and Louisiana Reconstruction”; L’Abeille, March 13, 1890; David Rankin, “The Impact of the Civil War on the Free Colored Community of New Orleans”; John Blassingame, Black New Orleans (1973); Roger Fischer, The Segregation Struggle in Louisiana (1974).

ROUGEOU, Clyde Lee, academic. Born near Lecompte, La., September 22, 1915. Attended LeCompte High School, graduated 1932; enrolled Southwestern Louisiana Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana), B. S. degree, 1935; Texas A & M, M. S., 1937. Appointed instructor in Agriculture at Southwestern Louisiana Institute (SLI) in 1937; received Ph. D. from University of Minnesota, 1949. Rose in rank at SLI from instructor to assistant, associate, and then professor and head, Department of Animal Husbandry. Named vice-president of the New Iberia Education Center in 1965; named acting president of USL, January 1, 1966; assumed the presidency on July 1, 1966. Guided university through a critical period of rapidly rising enrollment and curtailed budgets, adding several new graduate degree programs to the curricula leading to Masters, Specialist in Education, and Ph. D. Under his guidance USL embarked on a building project involving more that $34 million in new construction. He requested and was granted a one-year leave of absence, effective July 1, 1973, at the termination of which he officially retired on June 30, 1974. Married, August 20, 1940, Ruth E. Houston of Park Rapids, Minn. Children: Patricia Eileen (Mrs. J. W. Plauché III, b. 1942); Marie Louise (Mrs. George Bennett, b. 1943); Benjamin Charles (b. 1944); Clyde Lee, Jr. (b. 1946); Ruth Anne (Mrs. Richard Hargett, b. 1952); Randolph Warner (b. 1954); Carole Jeanne (b. 1956); Elizabeth Antoinette (Mrs. James Barnett Harp, b. 1958); and Nancy Jo (Mrs. James Hunt Simon, 1960). Subject served on the board of directors of the Lafayette Chamber of Commerce from 1966-1969; Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital; Bayou Girl Scouts Council (third vice-president); Louisiana Gulf Coast Oil Exposition (honorary); board of stewards, First Methodist Church, Lafayette; Home Savings and Loan Association; and Council of Trustees, Gulf South Research Institute. Director, 1958-1961, of the American Jersey Cattle Club and president, 1961-1964. Named Progressive Farmer Magazine “Man of the Year in Louisiana Agriculture” (1965); Outstanding USL Alumnus, College of Agriculture, 1966; and presented the Air Force ROTC “Outstanding Service Award.” Held membership in the Louisiana Society for Horticultural Research (honorary), Council for the Development of French in Louisiana; Lafayette Rotary, Hope Lodge F &AM, Evangeline Shrine Club, Phi Kappa Phi Honor Society, Kappa Delta Pi, Alpha Zeta (honorary), Blue Key, Omicron Delta Epsilon (honorary), Theta XI and Demeter. He is listed in Who’s Who in America (37th ed.); Who’s Who in the South and Southwest; American Men of Science; Leaders in Education; Outstanding Educators of America; The Blue Book (Leaders of the English Speaking World), and Personalities of the South. Died, Lafayette, December 31, 1980; interred Masonic Cemetery. M.M. Source: Author’s research.

ROUQUETTE, Adrien Emmanuel, clergyman, poet, missionary. Born, New Orleans February 26, 1813; son of Dominique Rouquette and Louise Cousin. After father’s death in 1819 raised by his mother and her mother’s family, the Carrières, who owned extensive lands in St. Tammany Parish and on Bayou St. John. In these areas he first encountered the Choctaw to whom he became strongly attached. The Indians gave him the name Chahta-Ima (“Like a Choctaw”). In France for studies 1829-1833 and again (for legal studies) 1834-1837. On return to Louisiana, sat for his bar exam which, to his great joy, he failed in 1839. Came under influence of Abbé Napoléon Joseph Perche (q.v.) and seriously considered vocation to priesthood. Les Savanes, a major work of poetry was published in Paris and New Orleans, 1841. Ordained a priest by Bishop Blanc (q.v.), July 2, 1845. Appointed secretary to Bishop Blanc. Returned to France, 1847, for about a year. From 1848 to 1859 sought various ways and means of being released from duties in New Orleans. In 1859 allowed to establish himself at Bayou Lacombe where he could devote his ministry to the Choctaw. Literary publications continued, the most noteworthy being La Thébaïde (1852), L’Antoniade (1860), and La Nouvelle Atala (1879). Fiercely proud of America and of being a native American. Supported both the American (Know-Nothing) Party and the Union cause. Close friend of Admiral Farragut (q.v.). After an illness of two years, died, New Orleans, July 15, 1887, interred St. Louis Cemetery II. J.E.B. Source: D. R. Lebreton, Chahta-Ima: The Life of Adrien Emmanuel Rouquette (1947).

ROUQUETTE, François Dominique, poet. Older brother of better known Adrien Emmanuel Rouquette (q.v.); son of Dominique Rouquette, a native of France, and Louise Cousin (b. 1810), a Creole. Educated at New Orleans’ Collège d’Orléans and in France at the Royal College of Nantes in Brittany. Failing in the practice of law in Philadelphia, he returned to Bayou Lacombe where he renewed his ties with the nearby Choctaw Indians who helped to inspire many of his poetic writings. During his many visits to France, Rouquette managed to publish several poems and won praise from the likes of Béranger, Barthélémy, and Hugo. His works included Les Meschacébéennes (1839) and Fleurs d’Amérique: Poésies nouvelles (1857). The Arkansas (1850) was his only English verse. In addition, he wrote poems and articles for New Orleans’ L’Abeille and Le Propagateur Catholique. Married, 1846, Laura Verret, who died prematurely of tuberculosis. Two sons, both of whom were placed in the care of Dominique’s nephew, Cyprien Dufour, because of their father’s repeated failures in commercial business and school teaching. For the remainder of his life, Dominique lived among relatives in genial vagabondage; in old age he tottered about the city’s streets attired in patched clothing—a wrinkled blanket serving as his artist’s cape. Though something of a nuisance to both residents and passersby, the eccentric poet was nonetheless affectionately regarded as a kind of aging trouba­dour­ —a relic of a bygone era. Died, May 10, 1890. T.F.R. Sources: “François Dominique Rouquette,” Appleton’s Cyclopedia, V (1900); “François Dominique Rouquette,” Dictionary of American Biography, XVI (1935); E. L. Tinker, Les Escrits de Langue Française en Louisiane au XIX Siècle (1932).

ROUSSEAU, Lovell Harrison, soldier; politician, congressman. Born, Lincoln County, Ky., August 4, 1818. Locally educated, construction worker as youth, law student in Lexington. Admitted to bar, Bloomfield, Ind., 1840; Indiana legislator, 1844-1846; volunteer captain, Mexican War, 1846-1848; Indiana senate, 1847-1849. Removed to Louisville, Ky., 1849. Kentucky senate, 1860-1861. Volunteer officer, U. S. Army, 1861-1865 (brigadier general, October 1, 1862; major general, October 12, 1862). Brigade, division commander, 1862-1863; military commander, districts of Nashville and Tennessee, 1863-1865. Kentucky congressman, 1865-1867; reappointed brigadier general in U. S. Army, 1867; received Alaska from Russian authorities same year. Married; two sons and two daughters. A Kentucky Democrat, friend of President Andrew Johnson and opponent of Republican Reconstruction policies, General Rousseau was predictably lenient with opposition Democrats during his brief tour of command in Louisiana. During the presidential campaign of 1868 Rousseau “relaxed his supervision nearly to the point of negligence,” enabling Louisiana Democrats to repress black Republican voters with sufficient violence to carry the state for Horatio Seymour, the Democratic candidate. After General Rousseau unexpectedly died in New Orleans two months later, the city’s sympathetic population gave him “one of the largest funerals ever held in the community.” Died, New Orleans, January 7, 1869; interred Arlington National Cemetery. M.T.C. Sources: E. J. Warner, Generals in Blue (1964); J. G. Dawson, III, Army Generals and Reconstruction: Louisiana, 1862-1877 (1982); New Orleans Daily Picayune, January 10, 1869.

ROUSSEAU, Pierre Georges, naval officer. Born, La Tremblade, Saintonge, France, June 3, 1751; son of Pierre Rousseau and Marie Estelle Daniaud. Father, a merchant ship captain from La Rochelle, frequently sailed to seaboard American colonies, especially Charleston, S.C., where he had relatives. After the death of his wife, father moved to America. Pierre Georges became a resident of New Orleans in 1764. At beginning of Revolution, enlisted in the Continental Navy; appointed lieutenant; 1779 ordered to report to New Orleans to serve under Gálvez (q.v.). As second in command of the Morris (Capt. William Pickles), played a major role in the capture of the English sloop, the West Florida. Accompanied Gálvez in the capture of Manchac and Baton Rouge, 1779, as well as Mobile, 1780, and Pensacola, 1781. Married Margarethe Catherine Milhet, daughter of Joseph Milhet (q.v.) and Margarethe Catherine Wiltz, August 28, 1783, in New Orleans. Children: Marie-Anastasie-Hortense, Pierre-André-Antoine, Laurence, Felipa, Joséphine, Adèle, Jean-Baptiste, Rodolphe, Etienne, Octave-Sebastien, Gustave-Sebastien, Aimée-Ameline. Commanded the Galveston until 1785 when he was given permission to go to France on family business. Appointed commandant at Natchitoches, April 6, 1785; relinquished command March 1, 1787. Resumed his command, 1788. 1792, participated in the first capture of adventurer William Augustus Bowles whom he conveyed to Havana. Appointed commandant of the galleys, a post he retained until 1803. From January 5 to March 25, 1793, sailed La Flèche from Natchez to Arkansas Post and New Madrid to map the river. 1795 established Fort San Fernando at Ecores à Margot, negociating an agreement with the Chickasaw for 3,000 arpents of land. Commissioned commandant at New Madrid by Gayoso, remained there until 1799. 1802, captured again William Augustus Bowles. 1803, retired from the Spanish service. Died, New Orleans, August 8, 1810. M.A. Source: Raymond J. Martinez, Pierre George Rousseau, Commanding General of the Galleys of the Mississippi (1964).

ROUSSEL, Christophe Joseph, businessman, politician, restauranteur. Born, Grand Point, St. James Parish, La., 1867; son of Maximilien Roussel and Louise Bourgeois. Married (1) Elmire St. Pierre and (2) Edith Villière. Children: Martha, Genevieve, Laurence, Warren, and Ferrel. Educated in local schools and privately. Established the Louisiana Perique Tobacco Co. of Lutcher, La. Known as “king,” because he introduced perique tobacco to the tobacco industry. Parish assessor and owner of Roussel’s Restaurant, LaPlace, La. Died, Paulina, November 10, 1939; interred St. Joseph Cemetery. M.D. Source: Author’s research.

ROUSSEL, Elmore Louis, educator. Born, Paulina, La., July 9, 1903; son of Optime Roussel and Olympe Poché. Education: local schools, Louisiana State University. Active in local politics. Teacher and principal: Paulina Elementary School, 1924-1930; superintendent of schools, St. James Parish, 1937-1968. Introduced first hot lunch program in schools, 1944; began summer school program for World War II veterans of St. James Parish, 1946. Built two new schools in the parish, 1956. Constructed new school board office, 1956. Promoted voter support of one-cent sales tax to be used for teachers, 1965. Charter member of the Lutcher-Gramercy Lions Club; Third and Fourth degree Knight of Columbus. Died, January 5, 1972, Paulina; interred St. Joseph’s Cemetery. M.D. Source: Author’s research.

ROUSSELON, Etienne-Jean-François, clergyman, educator, administrator. Born, Lyons, France, September 10, 1800; son of François Rousselon and Antoinette Deloune. Ordained to priesthood, Lyons, April 14, 1827. Director of minor seminary at Lyons, ca. 1833. Migrated to Louisiana as missionary, 1837; U. S. citizenship, April 30, 1845. Chaplain to Ursuline Convent and School, 1837-1838, and St. Claude Street Chapel, 1838-1840, 1840-1841; pastor of St. Landry Parish in Opelousas, February-April, 1840; founding pastor of St. Augustine Parish in New Orleans, 1841-1842. August 8, 1842, appointment as pastor of St. Louis Cathedral touched off bitter jurisdictional confrontation between Bishop Antoine Blanc (q.v.) and churchwardens; resigned from St. Louis Cathedral, September 15, 1842. Pastor, St. Augustine Parish, 1842-1843, 1844-1845; rector, St. Mary Church (archbishopric), 1845-1866; vicar general of Archdiocese of New Orleans, 1839-1866; administrator on several occasions including period, 1860-1861, after Archbishop Blanc’s death. Priest superior of Sisters of Mount Carmel, 1838-1866; instrumental in foundation, 1842, and development of Holy Family Sisters. Assisted Archbishops Blanc and Jean Marie Odin (q.v.) with administration of expanding diocese and recruitment of priests and religious from Europe. Extensive correspondence collection with colleagues in Europe and North America, a major source of antebellum and Civil War Catholic history. Died, New York City, November 16, 1866; interred St. Louis Cemetery. C.E.N. Sources: Étienne Rousselon Papers and Sacramental Record Collection in Archives of the Archdiocese of New Orleans; Charles Nolan, Bayou Carmel: The Sisters of Mount Carmel of Louisina, 1833-1903 (1977).

ROUSSÈVE, Charles Barthélemy, educator, historian. Born, New Orleans, La., 1902; eldest of eight children born to Barthélemy and Valentine Roussève. Married Mildred Robichaux, 1930; five children: Charles, Jr., Theresa Glass, Roland, Ronald, Yolanda Eugere. Graduated as valedictorian from Xavier Preparatory School in 1920; attended Marquette University; B. A. degree from Straight College, 1926; M. A. degree from Xavier University, 1935; post graduate work at the University of Chicago, 1938-1948. Wrote The Negro in Louisiana: Aspects of his History and Literature (1937) and The Negro in New Orleans (1969). Served as principal of Rosenwald Elementary School (1942), Johnson Lockett Elementary School (1943), Samuel J. Green Junior High School (1953), Carter G. Woodson Junior High School (1954), Booker T. Washington High School (1958-1966). Taught French, English, and History at Straight, Xavier, and Southern universities. Was an accomplished musician and poet with several published works. Active in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the New Orleans Urban League, the Knights of Peter Claver, Alpha Phi Alpha social fraternity, the Friends of the Amistad Research Center, the B-Sharp Music Club, Orleans Principals Association, High School Principals Association, Louisiana Education Association. Died in New Orleans, December 28, 1993. J.D.W. Sources: The Charles B. Roussève Papers, Amistad Research Center, New Orleans, La.

ROUSSEVE, Ferdinand Lucien, architect, educator. Born, New Orleans, July 18, 1904; son of Barthélémy Abel Roussève and Valentine Mansion. Education: Preparatory Department of Xavier University in 1918 after attending St. Louis School; Xavier University Preparatory School, 1922; Coyne Trade and Engineering School of Chicago in Mechanical Drawing, 1924; Massachusetts Institute of Technology with a B.S., 1930; University of Chicago, M.A. in History of Art, 1940; Harvard University, Ph. D. in Architecture, 1948. The first person to complete a Harvard Ph. D. program in four years. Married Elise Mirault Clarke, September 1, 1930. Children: Yvonne Elise (Mrs. Clayton Hanson). Angela Rose (Mrs. Joseph Parris), Marie Valentine (Mrs. James Fabio). Membership and awards: Civic Unity Committee, Cambridge, Mass., 1949-1956; Catholic Interracial Council of Boston, 1958; Massachusetts Committee on Public Health, 1950-1953; Advertising Council Cambridge Civic Association 1955-1957; Cambridge Planning Board, 1951-1956; Cambridge Community Services, 1953-1955; member of the Executive Council, Catholic Committee Cultural & Intellectual Affairs, 1949-1952; board of directors, New Orleans Family Service Society; New Orleans Council Social Agencies, 1944-1958; Catholic Family Counsel. Bureau, Boston, 1959; National Catholic Conference Interracial Justice, 1961; Family Service Bureau of Newton. Awards: Opportunity Magazine Recognition Award, 1947; New York Interracial Council’s James J. Hosey Award for Interracial Justice, 1948; Gold Medal Award, National Urban League of Greater Boston, 1962. Architecture projects were St. Peter Claver’s Catholic Elementary School,Tyler, Tex.; St. Jude’s Catholic Hospital, Montgomery, Ala.; Beecher Memorial Congregational Church parish house, New Orleans; Central Congregational Church and parish house, New Orleans, 1947; Holy Ghost Catholic Church convent; St. Raymond’s Catholic convent; Our Lady of Perpetual Help, St. Martinville, La.; McDonald Dental Clinic, New Orleans; Rhodes Funeral Home, New Orleans. Registered architect in Alabama, Louisiana, Massachusetts; private practice, 1933-1948, in New Orleans. Social and professional organizations: AAUP, Alpha Phi Alpha; Sigma Pi Phi. Positions held: teacher at Gregg Shorthand and Typing, evening division, public school of District of Columbia, 1931-1933; business manager, Southern University, 1933-1934; instructor, associate professor, chairman of the Department of Fine Arts, Xavier University, New Orleans, 1934-1948; professor of Fine Arts, Boston College, 1948-1965. Delegate to the Governor’s Conference on Housing, Boston, 1962; delegate to the New England Regional Urban Renewal Institute in Boston, 1962. Catholic. Democrat. Listed in Who’s Who in America. Died, July 18, 1965; interred Newton Center, Mass. F.B. Sources: Who Was Who in America, IV, 1961-1968; manuscript materials, Amistad Research Center.

ROUSSEVE, Numa Joseph, educator, artist. Born, New Orleans, December 20, 1908, son of Barthélémy A. Roussève and Marie Valentine Mansion of New Orleans. Religion: Catholic. Education: Catholic schools of New Orleans; Xavier Univeristy of Louisiana, B.S., M. Ed.; studied at the Ridge Technical School of art in Chicago; Allied Art Center in Boston; Ohio State University and the University of Indiana. Served on the Art faculty at Xavier for more than forty years where he attracted countless students of art, many who were exposed to the artistic offerings of the city of New Orleans. Educated two generations of art teachers in New Orleans and Louisiana. Xavier served as a mecca for black students of art, prominent among them were John Scott and William Pajeaux. Married, 1938, Evelyn Brown, daughter of Veazey and Selika Brown. Children: three sons and three daughters. Numa was the product of an old distinguished Creole of Color family, including, brother, Ferdinand (q.v.), the first black licensed architect in Louisiana; brother, Charles, noted historian, educator,and concert pianist. President of the New Orleans Urban League, Knight of St. Gregory, Knight of St. Peter Claver, and Alpha Phi Kappa. Died, New Orleans, February 23, 1979; interred St. Louis Cemetery II. R.C. Source: Personal research.

ROUXEL, Gustave Augustin, clergyman, prelate. Born, Redon, France, February 2, 1840; son of Jacques Rouxel and Scholastique Brecha. Educated at Eudist College in Redon and Grand Seminary at Rennes. Arrived in New Orleans on Sainte Geneviève, the “floating seminary” that brought many priests and clerical students to New Orleans in 1863; completed studies at Bouligny Seminary in New Orleans. Ordained to priesthood in New Orleans, November 4, 1863. Assistant pastor, St. Landry in Opelousas, 1863-1864; pastor of St. John the Evangelist Parish in Lafayette, 1864-1872; administrator of St. Louis Cathedral, 1872-1885; pastor of Annunciation Parish in New Orleans, 1885-1908. Vicar general, 1878-1888, administrator, 1887-1888, 1897-1898, 1905-1906, and chancellor, 1879-1880, of Archdiocese of New Orleans. Consecrated titular bishop of Curium at St. Louis Cathedral, April 9, 1899; auxiliary bishop of New Orleans, 1899-1908. Died, New Orleans, March 17, 1908; interred St. Louis Cathedral. C.E.N. Sources: Baudier Historical Collection in Archives of the Archdiocese of New Orleans; Roger Baudier, Annunciation Parish: A Century of Parish Activities, 1844-1944 (1944); Roger Baudier, The Catholic Church in Louisiana (1939); Catholic Action of the South, July 29, 1943.

ROWLAND, Dunbar, historian, lawyer, archivist. Born, Oakland, Miss., August 25, 1864; son of William Brewer and Mary (Bryan) Rowland. Education: Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College, University of Mississippi. Married, December 20, 1906, Eron Moore, daughter of Maj. Benjamin B. and Ruth Stovall (Rowland) Moore. No children. First director of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History. Published the Mississippi Territorial Archives, 1798-1803; Mississippi Provincial Archives; Official Letter Books of W. C. C. Claiborne; and Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist, His Letters, Papers, Speeches. Member: Democratic party, Episcopal church, American Historical Association, Mississippi Valley Historical Association, Mississippi Historical Society. Died, Jackson, Miss., November 1, 1937. M.S.L. Sources: Richard Aubrey McLemore, ed., A History of Mississippi (1973); National Cyclopaedia of American Biography; Who Was Who in America, 1897-1942 (1942); “Memorial,” Journal of Southern History, IV (1938).

ROWLEY, Charles N., planter, soldier. Born, North Granville, Washington County, N. Y.; son of Mehitable Needham and Samuel Rowley. Christened Calvin but changed his name to Charles when he began practicing law in Troy, N. Y. Removed to Louisiana to enter sugar business. Purchased extensive acreage near Vidalia, where he also began military career by joining the Sparrow Volunteers. Became paymaster of the Fourth (Montezuma) Regiment of the Louisiana Militia. Became a colonel on June 4, 1844, and an aide to Governor Mouton (q.v.). On February 15, 1846, he was appointed adjutant and inspector general by Gov. Isaac Johnson (q.v.). He was reappointed on March 13, 1850, by Gov. Joseph Marshall Walker (q.v.) and was confirmed on March 24, 1846, by the Louisiana senate. Rowley married (1) Jane Kemp, widow of Francis S. Girault, and upon her death married (2) Eugenia M. Soria of Natchez, Miss. Died, Rio de Janerio, Brazil, July 10, 1869. E.J.C. Source: Author’s research.

ROY, Daniel “Sonny,” Jr. Born, Lafayette, La., August 8, 1936; he was the youngest of three children born to Daniel Roy, Sr., and Emma Conque Roy. Married Barbara Ann Harrington on June 10, 1961 in Breaux Bridge, La.; three children: Kevin Daniel Roy (b. 1962), John Robert Roy (b. 1965), and Sherri Ann Roy Thibodeaux (b. 1970). Reared in Carencro, La. Attended St. Ann Elementary School, Carencro; graduated from Carencro High School in 1954; earned a B. S. degree in Physical Education from Southwestern Louisiana Institute (now the University of Southwestern Louisiana), 1958. While attending S.L.I., he was a four-year varsity letterman as a baseball pitcher; lettered twice as a member of the basketball team. Entered coaching profession in 1958 as a football assistant-head basketball coach at Breaux Bridge High School. Head football coach from 1959-1960, winning 20 of 23 games and two district titles. In 1961, joined the University of Southwestern Louisiana’s athletic staff as head baseball coach and assistant basketball coach. Rejoined prep coaching ranks at Glen Oaks High School in Baton Rouge for the 1963 football season. Returned to USL in February 1964 as assistant football and head baseball coach. Served as an assistant football coach eleven years at U.S.L. Moved in 1975 to the University of Texas at El Paso for two seasons. Accepted the position of director of auxiliary services at U.S.L., 1977. In 1978 became director of athletics. As athletic director for four years, helped guide the Ragin Cajuns to Division 1-A status. Named vice president of sales at MarCon Manufacturing Company, Erath, La., 1982. Affiliated with the U.S.L. Alumni Association, U.S.L. S-Club and letterman’s organization. Died, October 28, 1995, in New Orleans, La., while attending a U.S.L.-Tulane football game. Burial in Greenlawn Memorial Gardens, Lafayette. D.A.R. Sources: Obituary, Lafayette Daily Advertiser, October 30, 1995.

ROY, Victor Leander, educator. Born, Mansura, La., June 18, 1871; son of Leandré François and Adélaïde Cailleteau Roy. Education: local schools; received scholarship to Louisiana State University, graduated 1890; attended University of Chicago; Tulane University, M.A. 1925. Taught in Mansura, Marksville, Southern University, and Southwestern Louisiana Industrial Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana); superintendent of schools of Avoyelles and Lafayette parishes, where he organized the national Corn Clubs for boys. President of the Louisiana State Normal School (now Northwestern State University), Natchitoches, 1911-1929. In 1931 he held administrative positions at LSU, and from 1935 until retirement in 1936 he worked for a federal program. His hobbies included astronomy and gardening. He was active in the Baptist church, was a member of the Schoolmasters’ Club, Kappa Sigma Fraternity, Free Masons F and AM. Married, August 6, 1896, Josie Tabieth Sanford. Children: Lucile (b. 1897), Reuben Sanford (b. 1899), Earl Hubert (b. 1900), John Overton (b. 1904), Victor Leander, Jr. (b. 1910). Died, Denham Springs, La., September 7, 1968. C. W. Source: Douglas C. Westbrook, “Victor Leander Roy: Louisiana Educator,” Louisiana Studies, (Spring, 1972).

ROZIER, Joseph Adolphus, attorney, politician. Born, Ste. Genevieve, Mo.; son of Ferdinand Rozier, a native of Nantes, France, and Constance Roy, a descendant of French pioneers in Missouri. Studied law under Judge Nathaniel Pope in Kaskaskia, Ill.; completed law studies in Paris, France. Removed to New Orleans in 1839 and was admitted to the bar in 1840. In the next twenty years, established a flourishing law practice. Political affiliations varied over the years—was a Whig before the Civil War, a conservative Unionist during Reconstruction, and a Democrat in the late nineteenth century. Served as one of the New Orleans representatives to the Louisiana secession convention in Baton Rouge in 1861 and was one of seventeen representatives to vote against the secession ordinance. After the capture of New Orleans and its occupation by Federal troops, became one of the chief spokesmen for the conservative Unionists in the city. Was instrumental in getting the death sentence commuted to imprisonment for three men found guilty of spying and was appointed by Union Army General George F. Shepley (q.v.) in 1863 to the board of administrators of Charity Hospital in New Orleans. Served as mayor of New Orleans for two days (March 19-20, 1866) when Gen. Edward R. S. Canby (q.v.) barred John T. Monroe (q.v.) from assuming the mayoral office following his election to that post. In 1867, became legal advisor to Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock (q.v.) when that officer took command in Louisiana. In later years served as president of the New Orleans Bar Association. Married, 1847, Clothilde Vallée of Ste. Geneviève, Mo. Six children, three of whom survived him: Judge Thomas R. Rozier, Kate Rozier, and Clothilde Rozier. Died December 14, 1896; interred New Orleans. J.J.J. Sources: “Administrations of the Mayors of New Orleans, 1803-1936” (typescript compiled and edited by Works Progress Administration, New Orleans, 1940, manuscript in main branch, New Orleans Public Library); Edwin J. Jewell, ed. and comp., Jewell’s Crescent City Illustrated (1874); Peyton McCrary, Abraham Lincoln and Reconstruction: The Louisiana Experiment (1978); New Orleans Daily States, December 15, 1896.

RUBIN, Alton, Sr., (stage name “Rockin Dopsie”), internationally recognized Zydeco musician. Born, Carencro, La., February 10, 1932; son of Walter Rubin and Eunice Batiste Rubin. Married (1) Mary Dean Washington, one daughter; married (2) Elvina LeBlanc, four sons and four daughters. Left school in the first grade for work in the cotton fields to help support his family; became proficient on the French double-note accordion by age fourteen. Worked in the construction trade as bricklayer and electrician by day and played in local clubs at night. A local success by 1955; his first record was produced for the Bon Temps label in 1969. After his performance at the 1976 New Orleans Jazz Festival, he was signed by Sonet Records of Sweden and quickly enjoyed international recognition. Rubin played a original style of music rooted in rythmn and blues and Acadian French folk musical traditions. “Rockin Dopsie,” with his band, the “Zydeco Twisters,” supplied his own interpretation of a musical blend unique to South Louisiana. Considered the “King” of Zydeco after the death of Clifton Chenier who first popularized the musical style. Died, August 12, 1993; interred Calvary Mausoleum, Breaux Bridge, La. B.S.C. Sources: Phillip Gould, Cajun Music and Zydeco, (1992); Ville Platte Gazette, August 29, 1993; Baton Rouge Advocate, August 15, 1993; telephone interview, Elvina LeBlanc Rubin, September 17, 1997; telephone interview, Esther Marie Rubin Alex, September 18, 1997.

RUBIN, Alvin Benjamin, lawyer, jurist. Born, Alexandria, La., March 13, 1920; son of Simon Rubin and Frances Prussack. Married Janice Ginsberg, February 19, 1946; two sons, Michael H. and David S. Education: B. S. in Business Administration, Louisiana State University, 1941; LL.B., Louisiana State University Law School, 1942. Rubin was editor of the Louisiana Law Review and graduated first in his law school class; his good friend future Sen. Russell Long was his associate editor and the third ranking graduate in the same class. Admitted to the Louisiana bar, 1942. Served in Europe during World War II. Partner in a private law practice in Baton Rouge, 1946-1966; United State judge for the Eastern District of Louisiana, 1966-1977; United States judge for the fifth circuit court of appeals, 1977-1989; senior judge on the same court, 1989-1991. Wrote more than 700 opinions and was particularly known for his championing of civil rights. Adjunct professor of law, Louisiana State University Law School, 1946-1991; visiting lecturer, Southern University Law School, 1985-1989; and Duke University Law School, 1985-1989. Lecturer: American Law Institute, Tulane University Law School, Georgia Tax Institute, Louisiana State University Mineral Law Institute. Arbitrator, Federal Mediation and Conciliation service, 1964-1966; member of the board of the Federal Judicial Center, 1986-1989. Authored or coauthored several scholarly legal works and was on the board of editors of the American Bar Association’s Journal. Served on numerous committees and received several awards and honors, including: Baton Rouge Golden Deeds Award, 1964; Brotherhood award NCCJ, 1968; Distinguished Alumnus award, Louisiana State University, 1982; received the first Distinguished Alumnus Award, Louisiana State University Law School, 1988; Benjamin Smith American Civil Liberties Union Award, 1989. Rubin was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989, and was the first alumni member of Louisiana State University’s Phi Beta Kappa chapter. Honorary jurist doctorate degrees from Louisiana State University Law School, 1990, and Loyola University Law Schools, 1990. Gave generously to many charitable and service institutions and was a member of several civic and social organizations. Died, Baton Rouge, June 11, 1991. J.D.W. Sources: Who’s Who in the South and Southwest, twenty-second edition (1991-92); New Orleans Times Picayune, June 12, 1991.

RUMMEL, Joseph Francis, clergyman, prelate. Born, Steinmauern, Baden, Germany, October 14, 1876, son of Gustave Rummel and Teresa Bollweber. Immigrated with family to New York City, 1882; naturalized U. S. citizen, February 2, 1888. Education: St. Boniface Elementary School, New York City; St. Mary’s High School and College, North East, Pennsylvania; St. Anselm’s College, Manchester, N. H., B.A., 1896; St. Joseph Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y.; North American College, Rome, Italy, S.T.D., 1903. Ordained to priesthood, Rome, May 24, 1902. Pastoral work and administration in Archdiocese of New York, 1903-1928; executive secretary, German Relief Committee, 1923-1924; consecrated bishop of Omaha, Neb., in New York City, May 29, 1928; transferred to Archdiocese of New Orleans, March 9, 1935. Established forty-eight new parishes; with support from Youth Progress Program, 1945, guided expansion program for Catholic education that included approximately seventy new school buildings; expanded parish and charitable facilities and programs. Served on numerous national Catholic boards and committees: episcopal chairman of Catholic Committee on Refugees, 1936-1947; board of trustees, National Catholic Community Services-USO, 1940-1944; board of trustees, Catholic University of America. Vigorous promoter of lay organizations: established in archdiocese Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, 1935; Archdiocesan Council of Catholic Women, 1936; Catholic Youth Organization, 1936; Catholic Physicians’ Guild, 1936; Archdiocesan Council of Catholic Men, 1950; Christian Family Movement, 1953; Young Christian Workers, 1954, and numerous other organizations. Promoted frequent public expressions of faith including Eighth National Eucharistic Congress, 1938, and Family Rosary Crusade, 1952. Held Seventh Archdiocesan Synod, June 28, 1949, to revise archdiocesan policies and procedures. Vigorous supporter of rights of labor; worked patiently for over quarter century to achieve integration of Catholic parishes, schools, organizations, and institutions; pastoral letter, “Blessed Are the Peacemakers,” ordered desegregation of all Catholic parish activities and organizations, March 15, 1953; ordered all Catholic school classes desegregated, March 27, 1962. During his tenure, Diocese of Baton Rouge established, July 20, 1961. Pastoral visits and letters were characteristic throughout active years. Recipient of numerous national and international awards including Ad Altare Dei medal for work with Catholic Scouting. Turned over administration of archdiocese to Archbishop John P. Cody (q.v.), June 1, 1962. Died, New Orleans, November 8, 1964; interred St. Louis Cathedral. C.E.N. Sources: Joseph Francis Rummel Papers and Baudier Historical Collection, Archives of the Archdiocese of New Orleans; taped interviews with Msgr. Charles J. Plauché and Bishop Joseph G. Vath of Birmingham, August 30 & October 11, 1980; Catholic Action of the South, May 16, 1935; July 29, 1943; May 14, 1953; May 20, 1962; Clarion Herald, November 12, 1964.

RUSS, Robert Edwin, founder of Ruston, La., civic leader. Born, Holmes Valley, Washington County, Fla., August 27, 1830; son of Robert and Sarah Gillam Hodges Russ. Attended school, Maury County, Tenn. Migrated with mother and stepfather Sion D. Smith to Henry County, Ala., Hinds County, Miss., and in 1852 to Jackson Parish, La. Married Mary Elizabeth Randle, 1855. Thirteen children. Purchased land redistricted to Lincoln Parish, 1873. In 1883 provided land to Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific Railroad for site of town of Ruston named for Russ. Active in Democratic party; Lincoln Parish sheriff, 1877-1880. Trustee of Ruston College that was forerunner of Louisiana Tech University; one of two lay organizers of First Baptist Church, Ruston. Died, January 9, 1902; interred Greenwood Cemetery, Ruston. B.H.G. Sources: William Wayne Wilson, “Robert E. Russ: A Study of His Influence on North-Central Louisiana as Reflected in His Writings” (M. A. thesis, Louisiana Tech University, 1969); Russ (Robert Edwin) Collection, Prescott Memorial Library, Ruston, La.

RUSSELL, William “Bill,” violinist, composer, jazz scholar, historian, author. Born, Canton, Missouri, August 26, 1905. Educated in Missouri public schools. Career: began collecting records, sheet music, and material related to New Orleans jazz in the 1920s; music teacher and writer, on Stamen Island, New York, among other places beginning in the 1920s; author of The Jazzmen (1939), a scholarly study of jazz musicians in New Orleans, recorded dozens of New Orleans anal Louisiana Jazz musicians on the American Music label in the 1940s and 1950s; helped found the New Orleans Jazz Club in 1948; credited with resdiscovering jazz trumpet legend William “Bunk” Johnson (q.v.) in the late 1940s; co-founder and archivist for the William Ranson Hogan Jazz Archives at Tulane University in 1958, containing hundreds of oral history interviews Williams conducted with jazz musicians beginning in the 1940s; a founding member of the New Orleans Ragtime Orchestra, 1967; contributor to the New Grove Dictionary of Jazz (1988); author of a Ferdinand “Jelly Roll” Morton retrospective scheduled for publication in the late 1990s. Died, New Orleans, August 9, 1992. G.B. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, August 10, 1992; New York Times, August 10, 1992; Tulanian, Summer 1981; Historic New Orleans Collectlon Quarterly, (1996); Al Rose and Edmund Souchon, New Orleans Jazz: A Family Album (1967); Frank Driggs and Harris Lewlne, Black Beauty, White Heat: A Pictorial History of Classic Jazz (1982); Mike Hazzeldine, Bill Russell’s American Music (1995).

RYAN, Abram Joseph, poet, journalist, educator, lecturer, clergyman. Born, Hagerstown, Md., February 5, 1838; son of Mathew Ryan and Mary Coughlan. Education: Christian Brothers’ Cathedral School in St. Louis; St. Mary’s Seminary, Perryville, Mo.; Our Lady of Angels Seminary in Niagara Falls, N. Y. Joined Vincentian Order; ordained to priesthood in St. Louis, 1860. Parish missionary, educator, and pastor, 1860-1864. Ardent Confederate; transferred to Diocese of Nashville, 1864, where he served as unofficial chaplain to Confederate troops and pastor; transferred to Diocese of Savannah, 1868, where he edited Banner of South, transferred to Diocese of Mobile, 1870, where he engaged in pastoral work and edited The Morning Star, 1871-1875, while residing at Mobile. Retired to Biloxi, Miss., October, 1881. Published works include Father Ryan’s Poems (Mobile, 1879); Poems, Patriotic, Religious, Miscellaneous (1880); A Crown for Our Queen(1882). “The Conquered Banner,” written at Knoxville after Battle of Appomattox, was published in New York Freeman’s Journal (June 24, 1865) and contributed to reknown as Poet of Confederacy. In addition to editing newspaper of Archdiocese of New Orleans, lectured and preached often in New Orleans; honored in stained glass window at New Orleans’ Confederate Memorial Hall, October 21, 1950. Died, Louisville, Ky., April 22, 1886. C.E.N. Sources: “Father Ryan, Editor,” address by Roger Baudier, Confederate Memorial Hall, New Orleans, October 21, 1950; text in Baudier Historical Collection, 10:5, in Archives of the Archdiocese of New Orleans; I. Dillard, “Father Ryan, Poet-Priest of the Confederacy,” Missouri Historical Review, XXXVI (October, 1941); E. A. Egan, “Abram Joseph Ryan,” New Catholic Encyclopedia.

RYAN, Cornelius Joseph III “Connie,” major league baseball player, coach, and manager. Born, New Orleans, February 27, 1920. Married Lorraine Chalona Strekfus; children: Sharon, Robyn, Cornelius J. IV, and Albert Conway. Education: graduated from Jesuit High School of New Orleans; attended Louisiana State University. Lettered in football, baseball, and basketball at Jesuit High School; considered one of New Orleans’ all-time greatest athletes. Received the first full scholarship for baseball awarded by Louisiana State University. Left L.S.U. during his sophomore year to play for the Atlanta Crackers, a minor league baseball team. In 1942, the Crackers sold Ryan’s rights to the New York Giants; joined Louisianian Mel Ott (q.v.) on the Giants’ roster; played eleven games in the major leagues his rookie season. Traded by the Giants to the Boston Braves in exchange for Ernie Lombardi, April 27, 1943. Played second base for the Boston Braves, 1942-1944. Baseball career interrupted by World War II; served in the United States Navy, Pacific theater, 1944-1945. Following the end of the war, Ryan played infield (primarily second base) for the Boston Braves, 1946-1950; traded by the Braves to the Cincinnati Reds in exchange for Walker Cooper, May 10, 1950; second baseman, Cincinnati Reds, 1950-1951; traded by Cincinnati to the Philadelphia Phillies as part of a multi-player swap, December 10, 1951; second baseman, Philadelphia Phillies, 1952-1953; waived by the Phillies and picked up by the Chicago White Sox, August 25, 1953; second baseman, Chicago White Sox, 1953; traded by the White Sox to the Reds as part of a four-player exchange, December 10, 1953; second baseman, Cincinnati Reds, 1954. Ryan had a lifetime .248 batting average; named to the 1944 National League All-Star team; appeared briefly in the 1948 World Series. Served as a coach on the 1957 Milwaukee Braves team that appeared in the World Series; subsequently worked as a scout, coach, and manager in the Texas Rangers and Atlanta Braves organizations; interim manager (9-18 record), Atlanta Braves, 1975; interim manager (2-4 record), Texas Rangers, 1977; served as a scout for the Houston Astros and Kansas City-Oakland Athletics. Credited with discovering major-league pitching sensation Vida Blue of the Oakland Athletics. Member: New Orleans Diamond Club, Ancient Order of Hibernians, Major League Players Association. Inducted into the Louisiana and the New Orleans sports halls of fame. Active in the St. Mary Magdalen and St. Clement of Rome Catholic church parishes, New Orleans. Died, East Jefferson General Hospital, New Orleans, January 3, 1996; interred, Metairie Cemetery. C.A.B. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, January 4, 1996; The Baseball Encyclopedia, 9th ed. (1993).

RYAN, John Jacob, planter, stockraiser, businessman, politician. Born, Perry’s Bridge, present-day Vermilion Parish, La., February 14, 1816. Removed to Lake Charles, 1817. Married (1), 1835, to Rebecca Gaines Bilbo, of Lake Charles, daughter of Thomas Bilbo, Lake Charles surveyor, and Ann Lawrence. Children: Asa (b. 1836), Anne (b. 1837), Isaac (b. 1839), Margaret (b. 1841), Joseph (b. 1842), Martha (b. 1844), George (b. 1846), Jacob (b. 1848), Laura (b. 1850), Ira (b. 1852), Frank (b. 1854), Minerva (b. 1855), Puella (b. 1857), William (b. 1859). Married (2) Emma Platz of Germany. Children: Daisy (b. 1877), Inez (b. 1880). Known as “father”of Lake Charles. Sheriff of Calcasieu Parish for six years during Civil War era; represented Calcasieu in the state legislature, 1866-1867; tax collector of Calcasieu, 1874-1878. Active in the Democratic party. Member: Catholic church. Ryan Street in Lake Charles named for subject. Died, Lake Charles, December 17, 1899; interred Bilbo Cemetery. D.J.M. Sources: William Henry Perrin, ed., Southwest Louisiana Biographical and Historical (1891; reprint ed., 1971), II, 185-85; Lake Charles Daily American, obituary, December 18, 1899; Ryan family papers.

RYAN, Mother M. Agatha, missionary, educator. Born, Mary C. Ryan, October 5, 1876; Philadelphia, Pa.; daughter of John Ryan of County Waterford, Ireland, and Mary Sullivan of Philadelphia. Educated in parish schools and the Catholic University of America. Joined, 1897, the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament for Indians and Colored People which Katharine Drexel founded in 1891. Taught at Indian missions in New Mexico, Arizona, and Nebraska, 1901-1912. Principal, St. Cyprian’s School for the Colored in Columbus, Ohio, 1912-1918. Served on the Council General of her congregation from 1912-1952, and as the Directress of Studies from 1921-1952, supervising the preparation and teaching of Sisters in some 50 schools for Indians and blacks in some twenty states, including sixteen parochial schools in New Orleans and Southwest Louisiana. Also had overall responsibility for lay teachers in some twenty rural schools in Southwest Louisiana and the Delta region. President, Xavier University in New Orleans, 1931-1955, directed its expansion from a small liberal arts college of 247 students to a fully accredited university of over 1,000. Died, Torresdale, Pa., October 26, 1968. S.P.L. Sources: Archives, Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament, Bensalem, Pa.